Karp-Boss Lee

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  • Working Paper
    Standards and practices for reporting plankton and other particle observations from images
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-07-26) Neeley, Aimee ; Beaulieu, Stace E. ; Proctor, Chris ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Futrelle, Joe ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Devred, Emmanuel ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Picheral, Marc ; Poulton, Nicole ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Shepherd, Adam
    This technical manual guides the user through the process of creating a data table for the submission of taxonomic and morphological information for plankton and other particles from images to a repository. Guidance is provided to produce documentation that should accompany the submission of plankton and other particle data to a repository, describes data collection and processing techniques, and outlines the creation of a data file. Field names include scientificName that represents the lowest level taxonomic classification (e.g., genus if not certain of species, family if not certain of genus) and scientificNameID, the unique identifier from a reference database such as the World Register of Marine Species or AlgaeBase. The data table described here includes the field names associatedMedia, scientificName/ scientificNameID for both automated and manual identification, biovolume, area_cross_section, length_representation and width_representation. Additional steps that instruct the user on how to format their data for a submission to the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) are also included. Examples of documentation and data files are provided for the user to follow. The documentation requirements and data table format are approved by both NASA’s SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) and the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO).
  • Preprint
    Turbulence-plankton interactions : a new cartoon
    ( 2009-02-11) Jumars, Peter A. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Karp-Boss, Lee
    Climate change will alter turbulence intensity, motivating greater attention to mechanisms of turbulence effects on organisms. Many analytic and analog models used to simulate and assess effects of turbulence on plankton rely on a one-dimensional simplification of the dissipative scales of turbulence, i.e., simple, steady, uniaxial shears, as produced in Couette vessels. There shear rates are constant and spatially uniform, and hence so is vorticity. Studies in such Couette flows have greatly informed, spotlighting stable orientations of nonspherical particles and predictable, periodic, rotational motions of steadily sheared particles in Jeffery orbits that steepen concentration gradients around nutrient-absorbing phytoplankton and other chemically (re)active particles. Over the last decade, however, turbulence research within fluid dynamics has focused on the structure of dissipative vortices in space and time and on spatially and temporally varying 2 vorticity fields in particular. Because steadily and spatially uniformly sheared flows are exceptional, so therefore are stable orientations for particles in turbulent flows. Vorticity gradients, finite net diffusion of vorticity and small radii of curvature of streamlines are ubiquitous features of turbulent vortices at dissipation scales that are explicitly excluded from simple, steady Couette flows. All of these flow components contribute instabilities that cause rotational motions of particles and so are important to simulate in future laboratory devices designed to assess effects of turbulence on nutrient uptake, particle coagulation and predatorprey encounter in the plankton. The Burgers vortex retains these signature features of turbulence and provides a simplified “cartoon” of vortex structure and dynamics that nevertheless obeys the Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, this idealization closely resembles many dissipative vortices observed in both the laboratory and the field as well as in direct numerical simulations of turbulence. It is simple enough to allow both simulation in numerical models and fabrication of analog devices that selectively reproduce its features. Exercise of such numerical and analog models promises additional insights into mechanisms of turbulence effects on passive trajectories and local accumulations of both living and nonliving particles, into solute exchange with living and nonliving particles and into more subtle influences on sensory processes and swimming trajectories of plankton, including demersal organisms and settling larvae in turbulent bottom boundary layers. The literature on biological consequences of vortical turbulence has focused primarily on the smallest, Kolmogorov-scale vortices of length scale η. Theoretical dissipation spectra and direct numerical simulation, however, indicate that typical dissipative vortices with radii of 7η to 8η, peak azimuthal speeds of order 1 cm s-1 and lifetimes of order 10 s as a minimum (and much longer for moderate pelagic turbulence intensities) deserve new attention in studies of biological effects of turbulence.
  • Article
    Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25) Lombard, Fabien ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Waite, Anya M. ; Vogt, Meike ; Uitz, Julia ; Stemmann, Lars ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Schulz, Jan ; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste ; Picheral, Marc ; Pearlman, Jay ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Niehoff, Barbara ; Möller, Klas O. ; Miloslavich, Patricia ; Lara-Lpez, Ana ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Lopes, Rubens M. ; Kiko, Rainer ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Jaffe, Jules S. ; Iversen, Morten H. ; Irisson, Jean-Olivier ; Fennel, Katja ; Hauss, Helena ; Guidi, Lionel ; Gorsky, Gabriel ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Gaube, Peter ; Gallager, Scott M. ; Dubelaar, George ; Cowen, Robert K. ; Carlotti, François ; Briseño-Avena, Christian ; Berline, Leo ; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J. ; Bax, Nicholas ; Batten, Sonia ; Ayata, Sakina Dorothée ; Artigas, Luis Felipe ; Appeltans, Ward
    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.
  • Article
    Plankton imagery data inform satellite-based estimates of diatom carbon
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-06-18) Chase, Alison P. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Culhane, Emmett ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Karp-Boss, Lee
    Estimating the biomass of phytoplankton communities via remote sensing is a key requirement for understanding global ocean ecosystems. Of particular interest is the carbon associated with diatoms given their unequivocal ecological and biogeochemical roles. Satellite-based algorithms often rely on accessory pigment proxies to define diatom biomass, despite a lack of validation against independent diatom biomass measurements. We used imaging-in-flow cytometry to quantify diatom carbon in the western North Atlantic, and compared results to those obtained from accessory pigment-based approximations. Based on this analysis, we offer a new empirical formula to estimate diatom carbon concentrations from chlorophyll a. Additionally, we developed a neural network model in which we integrated chlorophyll a and environmental information to estimate diatom carbon distributions in the western North Atlantic. The potential for improving satellite-based diatom carbon estimates by integrating environmental information into a model, compared to models that are based solely on chlorophyll a, is discussed.
  • Working Paper
    EXPORTS Measurements and Protocols for the NE Pacific Campaign
    (NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-02) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Close, Hilary G. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Graff, Jason R. ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Halsey, Kim ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Liu, Shuting ; Mannino, Antonio ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Passow, Uta ; Perry, Mary J. ; Popp, Brian N. ; Proctor, Chris ; Rafter, Patrick ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rubin, Edwina ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Siegel, David A. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Zhang, Xiaodong
    EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) is a large-scale NASA-led and NSF co-funded field campaign that will provide critical information for quantifying the export and fate of upper ocean net primary production (NPP) using satellite information and state of the art technology.
  • Dataset
    Pigment concentrations derived from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis from samples collected during the Tara Pacific expedition from 2016-2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2023-04-26) Bourdin, Guillaume ; Karp-Boss, Lee
    The Tara Pacific expedition (2016-2018) sampled coral ecosystems around 32 islands in the Pacific Ocean. Here we provide pigment concentration data originating from 545 stations that were sampled during the expedition in the Pacific and during transit across the Atlantic. Pigment concentrations were derived from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This data set provides high-quality measurements of major pigments including chlorophylls a, b, and c, peridinin, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, fucoxanthin, neoxanthin, prasinoxanthin, violaxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, antheraxanthin, alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, divinyl chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b, divinyl chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a, carotene, and bacteriochlorophyll a, which can be used to estimate phytoplankton community composition. More details on the Tara Pacific expedition and its sampling program can be found in Lombard et al., 2022 (doi: 10.1101/2022.05.25.493210). For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/889930
  • Article
    An operational overview of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) Northeast Pacific field deployment
    (University of California Press, 2021-07-07) Siegel, David A. ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Graff, Jason R. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Hamme, Roberta C. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Nicholson, David P. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Robert, Marie ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Amaral, Vinicius ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Bisson, Kelsey ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Boyd, Philip ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Burns, Shannon ; Caprara, Salvatore ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Close, Hilary G. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fields, Erik ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Halsey, Kim ; Huot, Yannick ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Passow, Uta ; Popp, Brian N. ; Potvin, Geneviève ; Resplandy, Laure ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Seraphin, Kanesa ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Tang, Weiyi ; Van Mooy, Benjamin ; Xiong, Yuanheng ; Zhang, Xiaodong
    The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) field campaign is to develop a predictive understanding of the export, fate, and carbon cycle impacts of global ocean net primary production. To accomplish this goal, observations of export flux pathways, plankton community composition, food web processes, and optical, physical, and biogeochemical (BGC) properties are needed over a range of ecosystem states. Here we introduce the first EXPORTS field deployment to Ocean Station Papa in the Northeast Pacific Ocean during summer of 2018, providing context for other papers in this special collection. The experiment was conducted with two ships: a Process Ship, focused on ecological rates, BGC fluxes, temporal changes in food web, and BGC and optical properties, that followed an instrumented Lagrangian float; and a Survey Ship that sampled BGC and optical properties in spatial patterns around the Process Ship. An array of autonomous underwater assets provided measurements over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and partnering programs and remote sensing observations provided additional observational context. The oceanographic setting was typical of late-summer conditions at Ocean Station Papa: a shallow mixed layer, strong vertical and weak horizontal gradients in hydrographic properties, sluggish sub-inertial currents, elevated macronutrient concentrations and low phytoplankton abundances. Although nutrient concentrations were consistent with previous observations, mixed layer chlorophyll was lower than typically observed, resulting in a deeper euphotic zone. Analyses of surface layer temperature and salinity found three distinct surface water types, allowing for diagnosis of whether observed changes were spatial or temporal. The 2018 EXPORTS field deployment is among the most comprehensive biological pump studies ever conducted. A second deployment to the North Atlantic Ocean occurred in spring 2021, which will be followed by focused work on data synthesis and modeling using the entire EXPORTS data set.