Leadbetter Adam

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  • Article
    Pilot projects for publishing and citing ocean data
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-10-23) Urban, Edward ; Leadbetter, Adam ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Raymond, Lisa ; Pikula, Linda
    In the ocean sciences, a project was started in 2008 to bring together scientists, data managers, and library experts to explore means to (1) increase the submission of data to data centers, (2) make data more accessible for reuse, (3) link data more closely to traditional journal publications, and (4) create a system that gives more credit to data generators. This project is a joint effort among the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research, the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library.
  • Presentation
    Aligned semantics to advance data interoperability across the ocean value chain - from raw data to societal goals [poster]
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-09-16) Shepherd, Adam ; Caltagirone, Scott ; Kokkinaki, Alexandra ; Leadbetter, Adam ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Simpson, Pauline ; Thomas, Robert ; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi
    The FAIR principles (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, Re-usability) have pervaded discussions on data across disciplines and sectors.While data Findability and Accessibility has greatly improved, considerable difficulties in scalable interoperation remain. Without significant progress, the rapidly growing stores of ocean data risk being siloed for many years to come. A key aspect of Interoperability is "semantic": using knowledge representation (KR) to translate human understanding into machine-readable form. Quality KR allows machines to "understand" what any information artifact is about and relate it to similar artifacts, enabling discovery and enhancing reuse. KR products are usually expressed as vocabularies, glossaries, thesauri, or ontologies (collectively, terminologies), each with its own costs and benefits. Ironically, most marine terminologies are, themselves, not truly interoperable. This is an unfortunate but inevitable outcome of localised and transient funding, and the lack of sustained global infrastructures.Nonetheless, voluntary consortia are addressing this issue with urgency to realise the promise of KR in ocean observation. Here, we present 1) the alignment of well-adopted marine terminologies, 2) a collective strategy for sustained interoperability, and 3) a use case featuring the IOC-UNESCO Ocean Best Practice System. Initialised by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office, we are interlinking terminologies from the Natural Environment Research Council's Vocabulary Server, the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry, and the Earth Science Information Partners. To serve the UNESCO Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, this effort includes ontologies which represent both the Essential Ocean Variables and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Finally, we provide perspectives on what measures are needed to meet the interoperability challenge at scale over the next decade.
  • Book
    Ocean data publication cookbook
    (UNESCO, 2013) Leadbetter, Adam ; Raymond, Lisa ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Pikula, Linda ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Urban, Edward
    Executive summary: This “Cookbook” has been written for data managers and librarians who are interested in assigning a permanent identifier to a dataset for the purposes of publishing that dataset online and for the citation of that dataset within the scientific literature. A formal publishing process adds value to the dataset for the data originators as well as for future users of the data. Value may be added by providing an indication of the scientific quality and importance of the dataset (as measured through a process of peer review), and by ensuring that the dataset is complete, frozen and has enough supporting metadata and other information to allow it to be used by others. Publishing a dataset also implies a commitment to persistence of the data and allows data producers to obtain academic credit for their work in creating the datasets. One form of persistent identifier is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI is a character string (a "digital identifier") used to provide a unique identity of an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. A DOI may be obtained for a variety of objects, including documents, data files and images. The assignment of DOIs to peer-reviewed journal articles has become commonplace. This cookbook provides a step-by-step guide to the data publication process and showcases some best practices for data publication.
  • Article
    Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-06-04) Pearlman, Jay ; Bushnell, Mark ; Coppola, Laurent ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi ; Pearlman, Francoise ; Simpson, Pauline ; Barbier, Michele ; Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Munoz-Mas, Cristian ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Hermes, Juliet ; Heslop, Emma ; Jenkyns, Reyna ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Bensi, Manuel ; Bittig, Henry C. ; Blandin, Jerome ; Bosch, Julie ; Bourles, Bernard ; Bozzano, Roberto ; Buck, Justin J. H. ; Burger, Eugene ; Cano, Daniel ; Cardin, Vanessa ; Llorens, Miguel Charcos ; Cianca, Andrés ; Chen, Hua ; Cusack, Caroline ; Delory, Eric ; Garello, Rene ; Giovanetti, Gabriele ; Harscoat, Valerie ; Hartman, Susan ; Heitsenrether, Robert ; Jirka, Simon ; Lara-Lopez, Ana ; Lantér, Nadine ; Leadbetter, Adam ; Manzella, Giuseppe ; Maso, Joan ; McCurdy, Andrea ; Moussat, Eric ; Ntoumas, Manolis ; Pensieri, Sara ; Petihakis, George ; Pinardi, Nadia ; Pouliquen, Sylvie ; Przeslawski, Rachel ; Roden, Nicholas P. ; Silke, Joe ; Tamburri, Mario N. ; Tang, Hairong ; Tanhua, Toste ; Telszewski, Maciej ; Testor, Pierre ; Thomas, Julie ; Waldmann, Christoph ; Whoriskey, Frederick G.
    The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we face, methods across all aspects of ocean observing should be broadly adopted by the ocean community and, where appropriate, should evolve into “Ocean Best Practices.” While many groups have created best practices, they are scattered across the Web or buried in local repositories and many have yet to be digitized. To reduce this fragmentation, we introduce a new open access, permanent, digital repository of best practices documentation (oceanbestpractices.org) that is part of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS). The new OBPS provides an opportunity space for the centralized and coordinated improvement of ocean observing methods. The OBPS repository employs user-friendly software to significantly improve discovery and access to methods. The software includes advanced semantic technologies for search capabilities to enhance repository operations. In addition to the repository, the OBPS also includes a peer reviewed journal research topic, a forum for community discussion and a training activity for use of best practices. Together, these components serve to realize a core objective of the OBPS, which is to enable the ocean community to create superior methods for every activity in ocean observing from research to operations to applications that are agreed upon and broadly adopted across communities. Using selected ocean observing examples, we show how the OBPS supports this objective. This paper lays out a future vision of ocean best practices and how OBPS will contribute to improving ocean observing in the decade to come.
  • Preprint
    Experiences of a “semantics smackdown”
    ( 2016-02) Leadbetter, Adam ; Shepherd, Adam ; Arko, Robert A. ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Chen, Yanning ; Dockery, Nkemdirim ; Ferreira, Renata ; Fu, Linyun ; Thomas, Robert ; West, Patrick ; Zednik, Stephan
    Within the field of ocean science there is a long history of using controlled vocabularies and other Semantic Web techniques to provide a common and easily exchanged description of datasets. As an activity within the European Union, United States, Australian-funded project “Ocean Data Interoperability Platform”, a workshop took place in June 2014 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to further the use of these Semantic Web techniques with the aim of producing a set of Linked Data publication patterns which describe many parts of a marine science dataset. During the workshop, a Semantic Web development methodology was followed which promoted the use of a team with mixed skills (computer, data and marine science experts) to rapidly prototype a Linked Data publication pattern which could be iterated in the future. In this paper we outline the methodology employed in the workshop, and examine both the technical and sociological outcomes of a workshop of this kind.