Barton Andrew D.

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Barton
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Andrew D.
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  • Book
    Report on the “Trait-based approaches to ocean life” scoping workshop, October 5-8, 2015
    (Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program, 2016-05) Barton, Andrew D. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Andersen, Ken H. ; Fiksen, Øyvind Ø. F. ; Follows, Michael J. ; Mouw, Colleen B. ; Record, Nicholas R. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A.
    From the introduction: Marine ecosystems are rich and biodiverse, often populated by thousands of competing and interacting species with a vast range of behaviors, forms, and life histories. This great ecological complexity presents a formidable challenge to understanding how marine ecosystems are structured and controlled, but also how they respond to natural and anthropogenic changes. The trait-based approach to ocean life is emerging as a novel framework for understanding the complexity, structure, and dynamics of marine ecosystems, but also their broader significance. Rather than considering species individually, organisms are characterized by essential traits that capture key aspects of diversity. Trait distributions in the ocean emerge through evolution and natural selection, and are mediated by the environment, biological interactions, anthropogenic drivers, and organism behavior. Because trait variations within and across communities lead to variation in the rates of crucial ecosystem functions such as carbon export, this mechanistic approach sheds light on how variability in the environment, including climate change, impacts marine ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and associated feedbacks to climate and society.
  • Article
    Satellite detection of dinoflagellate blooms off California by UV reflectance ratios
    (University of California Press, 2021-06-09) Kahru, Mati ; Anderson, Clarissa ; Barton, Andrew D. ; Carter, Melissa L. ; Catlett, Dylan ; Send, Uwe ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Weiss, Elliot L. ; Mitchell, B. Gregory
    As harmful algae blooms are increasing in frequency and magnitude, one goal of a new generation of higher spectral resolution satellite missions is to improve the potential of satellite optical data to monitor these events. A satellite-based algorithm proposed over two decades ago was used for the first time to monitor the extent and temporal evolution of a massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra off Southern California during April and May 2020. The algorithm uses ultraviolet (UV) data that have only recently become available from the single ocean color sensor on the Japanese GCOM-C satellite. Dinoflagellates contain high concentrations of mycosporine-like amino acids and release colored dissolved organic matter, both of which absorb strongly in the UV part of the spectrum. Ratios <1 of remote sensing reflectance of the UV band at 380 nm to that of the blue band at 443 nm were used as an indicator of the dinoflagellate bloom. The satellite data indicated that an observed, long, and narrow nearshore band of elevated chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations, extending from northern Baja to Santa Monica Bay, was dominated by L. polyedra. In other high Chl-a regions, the ratios were >1, consistent with historical observations showing a sharp transition from dinoflagellate- to diatom-dominated waters in these areas. UV bands are thus potentially useful in the remote sensing of phytoplankton blooms but are currently available only from a single ocean color sensor. As several new satellites such as the NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, and marine Ecosystem mission will include UV bands, new algorithms using these bands are needed to enable better monitoring of blooms, especially potentially harmful algal blooms, across large spatiotemporal scales.
  • Article
    Relative exposure to microplastics and prey for a pelagic forage fish
    (IOP Publishing, 2022-06-07) Chavarry, Julia M. ; Lavender Law, Kara L. ; Barton, Andrew D. ; Bowlin, Noelle M. ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Choy, C. Anela
    In the global ocean, more than 380 species are known to ingest microplastics (plastic particles less than 5 mm in size), including mid-trophic forage fishes central to pelagic food webs. Trophic pathways that bioaccumulate microplastics in marine food webs remain unclear. We assess the potential for the trophic transfer of microplastics through forage fishes, which are prey for diverse predators including commercial and protected species. Here, we quantify Northern Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) exposure to microplastics relative to their natural zooplankton prey, across their vertical habitat. Microplastic and zooplankton samples were collected from the California Current Ecosystem in 2006 and 2007. We estimated the abundance of microplastics beyond the sampled size range but within anchovy feeding size ranges using global microplastic size distributions. Depth-integrated microplastics (0–30 m depth) were estimated using a depth decay model, accounting for the effects of wind-driven vertical mixing on buoyant microplastics. In this coastal upwelling biome, the median relative exposure for an anchovy that consumed prey 0.287–5 mm in size was 1 microplastic particle for every 3399 zooplankton individuals. Microplastic exposure varied, peaking within offshore habitats, during the winter, and during the day. Maximum exposure to microplastic particles relative to zooplankton prey was higher for juvenile (1:23) than adult (1:33) anchovy due to growth-associated differences in anchovy feeding. Overall, microplastic particles constituted fewer than 5% of prey-sized items available to anchovy. Microplastic exposure is likely to increase for forage fishes in the global ocean alongside declines in primary productivity, and with increased water column stratification and microplastic pollution.