Kimura Noriaki

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  • Article
    Unusual drift behaviour of multi-year sea ice in the Beaufort Sea during summer 2018
    (Norwegian Polar Institute, 2020-10-14) Kimura, Noriaki ; Tateyama, Kazutaka ; Sato, Kazutoshi ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Yamaguchi, Hajime
    In summer 2018, thick sea ice blocked the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf (AG), Canada, obstructing shipping through the North-west Passage. This study analysed multi-year ice motion to investigate the source of this thick ice and the reasons for its unusual movement. For this purpose, a daily multi-year ice distribution product was generated by ice tracking using gridded daily sea-ice velocities (2003–2018) derived from the AMSR-E and AMSR-2 data. From autumn 2017 to summer 2018, the area of multi-year ice extended westward to the Beaufort Sea and then migrated towards the AG mouth. The primary cause of the unusual ice cover was anomalous AG-ward wind in September 2018. It is known that multi-year ice has become increasingly moveable over the past decades, as indicated by the increasing wind factor (i.e., ratio of ice-drift speed and wind speed), but the unusual ice motion in the summer of 2018 cannot be explainable by the wind factor alone. Accurately, predicting monthly wind and monitoring old thick ice will reduce the risk posed by thick Arctic sea ice to shipping.
  • Article
    Physical and biological properties of early winter Antarctic sea ice in the Ross Sea.
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-06-24) Tison, Jean-Louis ; Maksym, Ted ; Fraser, Alexander D. ; Corkill, Matthew ; Kimura, Noriaki ; Nosaka, Yuichi ; Nomura, Daiki ; Vancoppenolle, Martin ; Ackley, Stephen ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Wauthy, Sarah ; Van der Linden, Fanny ; Carnat, Gauthier ; Sapart, Célia ; de Jong, Jeroen ; Fripiat, Francois ; Delille, Bruno
    This work presents the results of physical and biological investigations at 27 biogeochemical stations of early winter sea ice in the Ross Sea during the 2017 PIPERS cruise. Only two similar cruises occurred in the past, in 1995 and 1998. The year 2017 was a specific year, in that ice growth in the Central Ross Sea was considerably delayed, compared to previous years. These conditions resulted in lower ice thicknesses and Chl-a burdens, as compared to those observed during the previous cruises. It also resulted in a different structure of the sympagic algal community, unusually dominated by Phaeocystis rather than diatoms. Compared to autumn-winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea (AWECS cruise), the 2017 Ross Sea pack ice displayed similar thickness distribution, but much lower snow cover and therefore nearly no flooding conditions. It is shown that contrasted dynamics of autumnal-winter sea-ice growth between the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea impacted the development of the sympagic community. Mean/median ice Chl-a concentrations were 3–5 times lower at PIPERS, and the community status there appeared to be more mature (decaying?), based on Phaeopigments/Chl-a ratios. These contrasts are discussed in the light of temporal and spatial differences between the two cruises.