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ArticleRecent advances in Arctic ocean studies employing models from the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project(Oceanography Society, 2011-09) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Kinney, Jaclyn Clement ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; Golubeva, Elena ; Holland, David ; Holloway, Greg ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Johnson, Mark ; Popova, Ekaterina E. ; Steele, Michael ; Watanabe, EijiObservational data show that the Arctic Ocean has significantly and rapidly changed over the last few decades, which is unprecedented in the observational record. Air and water temperatures have increased, sea ice volume and extent have decreased, permafrost has thawed, storminess has increased, sea level has risen, coastal erosion has progressed, and biological processes have become more complex and diverse. In addition, there are socio-economic impacts of Arctic environmental change on Arctic residents and the world, associated with tourism, oil and gas exploration, navigation, military operations, trade, and industry. This paper discusses important results of the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project, which is advancing the role of numerical modeling in Arctic Ocean and sea ice research by stimulating national and international synergies for high-latitude research.
ArticleMechanisms of Pacific Summer Water variability in the Arctic's Central Canada Basin(John Wiley & Sons, 2014-11-10) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Golubeva, Elena ; Jackson, Jennifer M. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; McCall, Margaret ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Toole, John M. ; Williams, William J. ; Kikuchi, Takashi ; Nishino, ShigetoPacific Water flows northward through Bering Strait and penetrates the Arctic Ocean halocline throughout the Canadian Basin sector of the Arctic. In summer, Pacific Summer Water (PSW) is modified by surface buoyancy fluxes and mixing as it crosses the shallow Chukchi Sea before entering the deep ocean. Measurements from Ice-Tethered Profilers, moorings, and hydrographic surveys between 2003 and 2013 reveal spatial and temporal variability in the PSW component of the halocline in the Central Canada Basin with increasing trends in integrated heat and freshwater content, a consequence of PSW layer thickening as well as layer freshening and warming. It is shown here how properties in the Chukchi Sea in summer control the temperature-salinity properties of PSW in the interior by subduction at isopycnals that outcrop in the Chukchi Sea. Results of an ocean model, forced by idealized winds, provide support to the mechanism of surface ocean Ekman transport convergence maintaining PSW ventilation of the halocline.
ArticleArctic pathways of Pacific Water : Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments(John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-08) Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Karcher, Michael ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; de Cuevas, Beverly ; Golubeva, Elena ; Kauker, Frank ; Nguyen, An T. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Wadley, Martin ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Coward, Andrew C. ; Nurser, A. J. GeorgePacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.
ArticleAnalysis of the Beaufort Gyre freshwater content in 2003-2018(American Geophysical Union, 2019-12-11) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Williams, William J. ; Zimmermann, Sarah ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Armitage, Thomas ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Golubeva, Elena ; Manucharyan, Georgy E. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Kikuchi, Takashi ; Nishino, Shigeto ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Cho, Kyoung-Ho ; Tateyama, Kazutaka ; Zhao, JingHydrographic data collected from research cruises, bottom‐anchored moorings, drifting Ice‐Tethered Profilers, and satellite altimetry in the Beaufort Gyre region of the Arctic Ocean document an increase of more than 6,400 km3 of liquid freshwater content from 2003 to 2018: a 40% growth relative to the climatology of the 1970s. This fresh water accumulation is shown to result from persistent anticyclonic atmospheric wind forcing (1997–2018) accompanied by sea ice melt, a wind‐forced redirection of Mackenzie River discharge from predominantly eastward to westward flow, and a contribution of low salinity waters of Pacific Ocean origin via Bering Strait. Despite significant uncertainties in the different observations, this study has demonstrated the synergistic value of having multiple diverse datasets to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of Beaufort Gyre freshwater content variability. For example, Beaufort Gyre Observational System (BGOS) surveys clearly show the interannual increase in freshwater content, but without satellite or Ice‐Tethered Profiler measurements, it is not possible to resolve the seasonal cycle of freshwater content, which in fact is larger than the year‐to‐year variability, or the more subtle interannual variations.