Giering Sarah L. C.

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Sarah L. C.

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  • Article
    Machine learning techniques to characterize functional traits of plankton from image data
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2022-06-30) Orenstein, Eric C. ; Ayata, Sakina Dorothée ; Maps, Frédéric ; Becker, Érica C. ; Benedetti, Fabio ; Biard, Tristan ; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault ; Ellen, Jeffrey S. ; Ferrario, Filippo ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Guy-Haim, Tamar ; Hoebeke, Laura ; Iversen, Morten H. ; Kiørboe, Thomas ; Lalonde, Jean-François ; Lana, Arancha ; Laviale, Martin ; Lombard, Fabien ; Lorimer, Tom ; Martini, Séverine ; Meyer, Albin ; Möller, Klas O. ; Niehoff, Barbara ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Pradalier, Cédric ; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste ; Schröder, Simon-Martin ; Sonnet, Virginie ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stemmann, Lars ; Stock, Michiel ; Terbiyik-Kurt, Tuba ; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea ; Vilgrain, Laure ; Wacquet, Guillaume ; Waite, Anya M. ; Irisson, Jean-Olivier
    Plankton imaging systems supported by automated classification and analysis have improved ecologists' ability to observe aquatic ecosystems. Today, we are on the cusp of reliably tracking plankton populations with a suite of lab-based and in situ tools, collecting imaging data at unprecedentedly fine spatial and temporal scales. But these data have potential well beyond examining the abundances of different taxa; the individual images themselves contain a wealth of information on functional traits. Here, we outline traits that could be measured from image data, suggest machine learning and computer vision approaches to extract functional trait information from the images, and discuss promising avenues for novel studies. The approaches we discuss are data agnostic and are broadly applicable to imagery of other aquatic or terrestrial organisms.
  • Article
    The possession of coccoliths fails to deter microzooplankton grazers
    (Frontiers Media, 2020-12-02) Mayers, Kyle M. J. ; Poulton, Alex J. ; Bidle, Kay D. ; Thamatrakoln, Kimberlee ; Schieler, Brittany ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Wells, Seona R. ; Tarran, Glen A. ; Mayor, Daniel J. ; Johnson, Matthew D. ; Riebesell, Ulf ; Larsen, Aud ; Vardi, Assaf ; Harvey, Elizabeth L.
    Phytoplankton play a central role in the regulation of global carbon and nutrient cycles, forming the basis of the marine food webs. A group of biogeochemically important phytoplankton, the coccolithophores, produce calcium carbonate scales that have been hypothesized to deter or reduce grazing by microzooplankton. Here, a meta-analysis of mesocosm-based experiments demonstrates that calcification of the cosmopolitan coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, fails to deter microzooplankton grazing. The median grazing to growth ratio for E. huxleyi (0.56 ± 0.40) was not significantly different among non-calcified nano- or picoeukaryotes (0.71 ± 0.31 and 0.55 ± 0.34, respectively). Additionally, the environmental concentration of E. huxleyi did not drive preferential grazing of non-calcified groups. These results strongly suggest that the possession of coccoliths does not provide E. huxleyi effective protection from microzooplankton grazing. Such indiscriminate consumption has implications for the dissolution and fate of CaCO3 in the ocean, and the evolution of coccoliths.
  • Article
    Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25) Lombard, Fabien ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Waite, Anya M. ; Vogt, Meike ; Uitz, Julia ; Stemmann, Lars ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Schulz, Jan ; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste ; Picheral, Marc ; Pearlman, Jay ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Niehoff, Barbara ; Möller, Klas O. ; Miloslavich, Patricia ; Lara-Lpez, Ana ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Lopes, Rubens M. ; Kiko, Rainer ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Jaffe, Jules S. ; Iversen, Morten H. ; Irisson, Jean-Olivier ; Fennel, Katja ; Hauss, Helena ; Guidi, Lionel ; Gorsky, Gabriel ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Gaube, Peter ; Gallager, Scott M. ; Dubelaar, George ; Cowen, Robert K. ; Carlotti, François ; Briseño-Avena, Christian ; Berline, Leo ; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J. ; Bax, Nicholas ; Batten, Sonia ; Ayata, Sakina Dorothée ; Artigas, Luis Felipe ; Appeltans, Ward
    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.