Farrington John W.

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Farrington
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John W.
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  • Technical Report
    Methane production in the waters off Walvis Bay
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1978-09) Scranton, Mary I. ; Farrington, John W.
    Nine stations were occupied in the vicinity of Walvis Bay, Namibia, during a detailed study of the distribution of methane in this highly productive coastal environment. The principal features of the observed coastal methane distribution included ( I) excess methane in the mixed layer of from 2 times to greater than 300 times solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere, (2) a subsurface maximum, located in the top of the pycnocline, at which concentrations ranged from 2.6 to 440 times solubility equilibrium. (3) an intermediate depth minimum, where concentrations were comparable to those offshore at similar depths and which we attribute to the influence of onshore movement of subsurface offshore water, and (4) a bottom maximum, which we attribute to input of methane to the water column from the anoxic sediments in the Walvis Bay area. An attempt was made to identify the relative importance for methane supply to the coastal mixed layer of in situ biological production and of eddy diffusive and advective transport of methane-rich water which has been in contact with the bottom at the coast. Calculations suggest that both in situ production and physical processes are major sources of excess methane for the highly productive coastal surface waters. However, the complicated circulation patterns make quantification extremely difficult.
  • Technical Report
    U.S. "Mussel Watch" Program : transuranic element data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1976-1983
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1984-05) Palmieri, Julianne ; Livingston, Hugh ; Farrington, John W.
    Bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus californianus, Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea equestris) were collected once per year during 1976, 1977, and 1978 along the United States coast and analyzed for 239,240 Pu, 241Am and 137Cs as part of the U. S. Mussel Watch program. Monthly samples were collected during 1976-1980 from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Bodega Head, California and analyzed for 239,240 Pu, 241Am , and 137Cs. There is no evidence in the data for systematic regional or local elevated concentrations of radionuclides as a result of releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Elevated concentrations of 239,240 Pu in mussels from the central California coast are due to uptake from upwelled water fed by North Pacific water which has elevated 239,240 Pu from input of nuclear weapons test fallout. Monthly fluctuations in radionuclide concentrations in the Narragansett Bay mussels appear to be primarily influenced by spawning. The slight monthly fluctuations in the radionuclide concentrations for the Bodega Head mussels are less coherent from year to year compared to Narragansett Bay although 239,240 Pu may be influenced by upwelling season. Limited data on transplants of mussels as well as mussel data from the Ebro estuary on the Spanish coast and from the Irish Sea are also reported.
  • Technical Report
    Fatty acids and fatty acid esters of particulate matter collected in sediment traps in the Peru upwelling area R/V Knorr Cruise 73, February/March 1978
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1983-09) Wakeham, Stuart G. ; Livramento, Joaquim B. ; Farrington, John W.
    Particulate matter samples were collected using free-drifting sediment traps in the Peru upwelling area in 1978 to assess the vertical flux and organic composition of lipids associated with particles sinking out of the euphotic zone. Samples have been analyzed for a variety of lipids, including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, wax esters, steryl esters, triacylglycerols, alkyldiacylglycerols, fatty alcohols, sterols, and steroid ketones. The purpose of this report is to collate the fatty acid and fatty acid ester (wax ester, steryl ester, triacylglycerol, and alkyldiacylglycerol) for the 20 floating sediment traps which were deployed.
  • Article
    Framework for a community health observing system for the Gulf of Mexico Region: preparing for future disasters
    (Frontiers Media, 2020-10-15) Sandifer, Paul ; Knapp, Landon ; Lichtveld, Maureen ; Manley, Ruth ; Abramson, David ; Caffey, Rex ; Cochran, David ; Collier, Tracy K. ; Ebi, Kristie ; Engel, Lawrence ; Farrington, John W. ; Finucane, Melissa ; Hale, Christine ; Halpern, David ; Harville, Emily ; Hart, Leslie ; Hswen, Yulin ; Kirkpatrick, Barbara ; McEwen, Bruce F. ; Morris, Glenn ; Orbach, Raymond ; Palinkas, Lawrence ; Partyka, Melissa ; Porter, Dwayne ; Prather, Aric A. ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Scott, Geoffrey ; Seeman, Teresa ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. ; Svendsen, Erik ; Tincher, Terry ; Trtanj, Juli ; Walker, Ann Hayward ; Yehuda, Rachel ; Yip, Fuyuen ; Yoskowitz, David ; Singer, Burton
    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region is prone to disasters, including recurrent oil spills, hurricanes, floods, industrial accidents, harmful algal blooms, and the current COVID-19 pandemic. The GoM and other regions of the U.S. lack sufficient baseline health information to identify, attribute, mitigate, and facilitate prevention of major health effects of disasters. Developing capacity to assess adverse human health consequences of future disasters requires establishment of a comprehensive, sustained community health observing system, similar to the extensive and well-established environmental observing systems. We propose a system that combines six levels of health data domains, beginning with three existing, national surveys and studies plus three new nested, longitudinal cohort studies. The latter are the unique and most important parts of the system and are focused on the coastal regions of the five GoM States. A statistically representative sample of participants is proposed for the new cohort studies, stratified to ensure proportional inclusion of urban and rural populations and with additional recruitment as necessary to enroll participants from particularly vulnerable or under-represented groups. Secondary data sources such as syndromic surveillance systems, electronic health records, national community surveys, environmental exposure databases, social media, and remote sensing will inform and augment the collection of primary data. Primary data sources will include participant-provided information via questionnaires, clinical measures of mental and physical health, acquisition of biological specimens, and wearable health monitoring devices. A suite of biomarkers may be derived from biological specimens for use in health assessments, including calculation of allostatic load, a measure of cumulative stress. The framework also addresses data management and sharing, participant retention, and system governance. The observing system is designed to continue indefinitely to ensure that essential pre-, during-, and post-disaster health data are collected and maintained. It could also provide a model/vehicle for effective health observation related to infectious disease pandemics such as COVID-19. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive, disaster-focused health observing system such as the one proposed here currently in existence or planned elsewhere. Significant strengths of the GoM Community Health Observing System (CHOS) are its longitudinal cohorts and ability to adapt rapidly as needs arise and new technologies develop.
  • Technical Report
    Coastal Research Center report of the period May 1984-February 1986
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1986-04) Farrington, John W.
    The Coastal Research Center activities for the period of 1984 to 1986 are described briefly. Major projects include: Assimilative Capacity-Buzzards Bay, Georges Bank book; Instrumentation-Experimental Seawater Flume, Sea Level Change - Measurement and Consequences; and Fisheries Ecology. General activities are also described.
  • Article
    Biogeochemical processes affecting the fate of discharged Deepwater Horizon gas and oil new insights and remaining gaps in our understanding
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Farrington, John W. ; Overton, Edward B. ; Passow, Uta
    Research funded under the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative provided new insights into the biogeochemical processes influencing the fate of petroleum chemicals entering the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident. This overview of that work is based on detailed recent reviews of aspects of the biogeochemistry as well as on activities supported by the US Natural Resource Damage Assessment. The main topics presented here are distribution of hydrocarbons in the water column; the role of photo-oxidation of petroleum compounds at the air-sea interface; the role of particulates in the fate of the DWH hydrocarbons, especially marine oil snow (MOS) and marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA); oil deposition and accumulation in sediments; and fate of oil on beaches and in marshes. A brief discussion of bioaccumulation is also included. Microbial degradation is addressed in a separate paper in this special issue of Oceanography. Important future research recommendations include: conduct a more robust assessment of the mass balance of various chemical groupings and even individual chemicals during specific time intervals; seek a better understanding of the roles of photo-oxidation products, MOS, and MOSSFA and their relationships to microbial degradation; and determine the fates of the insoluble highly degraded and viscous oil residues in the environment.
  • Article
  • Article
    Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2000-05) Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Farrington, John W. ; Moffett, James W.
    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-µm marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3',4,4'-14C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 ± 0.03 min-1 and (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10-5 (g of organic carbon)-1 min-1, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.
  • Technical Report
    Annual report of the Coastal Research Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-01) Farrington, John W.
    Coastal research at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution was the subject of a special series of seminars and discussions in 1978-1979 which led to the identification of three important issues: (1) The need for more formal multidisciplinary interactions in order to effectively tackle some key research problems; (2) The need for facilities for experimentation; and (3) The need for unrestricted funds to initiate new multidisciplinary research ventures or to act as the "glue" binding together ongoing research projects. The Coastal Research Center was established in late 1979 with the charge of meeting these needs and initiating and carrying out projects in coastal research. Work within the Center is carried out by scientists and students from the scientific departments, visiting scientists, and post-doctoral investigators. A Planning Committee advises the Center Director in areas of research projects, budgets, and experimental facilities. Three specific projects were chosen for initial emphasis: (1) Georges Bank; (2) Assimilative Capacity; (3) Instrumentation. Planned new facilities for coastal research include an experimental laboratory which is now under construction, a 100-meter flume, a greenhouse, and an addition to the existing Environmental Systems Laboratory.
  • Article
    Organic chemicals of environmental concern : water sampling and analytical challenges
    (The Oceanography Society, 2014-03) Farrington, John W.
    A detailed understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of organic chemicals of environmental concern (OCEC) in the ocean requires measurement of their concentrations in the water column. Obtaining these measurements remains a major challenge. Those of us who have attempted low concentration OCEC measurements in open ocean seawater know that research vessels can be considered a floating cloud of contaminants of the same or interfering compounds, as is true for trace metals.
  • Article
    Changing ocean chemistry : an introduction to this special issue
    (The Oceanography Society, 2014-03) Froelich, Flip ; Farrington, John W.
    The modern industrialized and urbanized world, dubbed the "Anthropocene" by Paul Crutzen (2006), includes the past 250 years of multiple human impacts. Nobel Prize winner and atmospheric chemist Crutzen states: During the past 3 centuries human population increased tenfold to 6,000 million, growing by a factor of four during the past century alone. More than half of all accessible fresh water is used by mankind. Fisheries remove more than 25% of the primary production of the oceans in the upwelling regions and 35% in the temperature continental shelf regions. 30–50% of the world's land surface has been transformed by human action. Coastal wetlands have lost 50% of the world's mangroves. More nitrogen is now fixed synthetically and applied as fertilizers in agriculture than fixed naturally in all terrestrial ecosystems. Many of the world's rivers have been dammed or diverted.
  • Article
    A decade of GoMRI dispersant science: lessons learned and recommendations for the future
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Quigg, Antonietta ; Farrington, John W. ; Gilbert, Sherryl ; Murawski, Steven A. ; John, Vijay
    Dispersants are among a number of options available to oil spill responders. The goals of this technique are to remove oil from surface waters in order to reduce exposure of surface-​dwelling organisms, to keep oil slicks from impacting sensitive shorelines, and to protect responders from volatile organic compounds. During the Deepwater Horizon response, unprecedented volumes of dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527) were both sprayed on surface slicks from airplanes and applied directly at the wellhead (~1,500 m water depth). A decade of research followed, leading to a deeper understanding of dispersant effectiveness, fate, and effects. These studies resulted in new knowledge regarding dispersant formulations, efficacy, and effects on organisms and processes at a broad range of exposure levels, and about potential environmental and human impacts. Future studies should focus on the application of high volumes of dispersants subsea and the long-term fate and effects of dispersants and dispersed oil. In considering effects, the research and applications of the knowledge gained should go beyond concerns for acute toxicity and consider sublethal impacts at all levels of biological organization. Contingency planning for the use of dispersants during oil spill response should consider more deeply the temporal duration, effectiveness (especially of subsurface applications), spatial reach, and volume applied.
  • Article
    Summary of findings and research recommendations from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Wilson, Charles A. ; Feldman, Michael G. ; Carron, Michael J. ; Dannreuther, Nilde Maggie ; Farrington, John W. ; Halanych, Kenneth M. ; Petitt, Jennifer L. ; Rullkötter, Jürgen ; Sandifer, Paul ; Shaw, J. Kevin ; Shepherd, John G. ; Westerholm, David G. ; Yanoff, Callan J. ; Zimmermann, Leigh A.
    Following the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill in 2010, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) was established to improve society’s ability to understand, respond to, and mitigate the impacts of petroleum pollution and related stressors of the marine and coastal ecosystems. This article provides a high-level overview of the major outcomes of the scientific work undertaken by GoMRI. This i scientifically independent initiative, consisting of over 4,500 experts in academia, government, and industry, contributed to significant knowledge advances across the physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic research fields, as well as in related technology, socioeconomics, human health, and oil spill response measures. For each of these fields, this paper outlines key advances and discoveries made by GoMRI-funded scientists (along with a few surprises), synthesizing their efforts in order to highlight lessons learned, future research needs, remaining gaps, and suggestions for the next generation of scientists.
  • Technical Report
    Hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDE in mussels and oysters from the U.S. Coast - 1965-1978 - the mussel watch
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-10) Farrington, John W. ; Risebrough, Robert W. ; Parker, Patrick L. ; Davis, Alan C. ; De Lappe, Brock ; Winters, Kenneth ; Boatwright, Dan ; Frew, Nelson M.
    Mytilus edulis, Mytilus californianus, Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea equestris were sampled at 90 to 100 stations around the United States coastline during each of three years- 1976, 1977, 1978. Data for concentrations of PCB, DDE, total hydrocarbons, gas chromatographically unresolved complex mixture hydrocarbons, and selected aromatic hydrocarbons are presented for most of the samples. Similar data for monthly samples of Mytilus edulis from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A. and Mytilus californianus from Bodega Head, California, U.S.A. and laboratory intercalibrations are presented and discussed. Monthly temporal changes of factors of two to ten were found for ·organic pollutants in mussels from the Narragansett Bay station. Concentrations of PCBs and fossil fuel hydrocarbons for some urban stations were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in remote areas. The northeast "megapolis" of the U.S. coast from the Chesapeake Bay area to Boston, Massachusetts clearly shows elevated concentrations of PCBs and fossil fuel hydrocarbons. The composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in samples with elevated concentrations shows both the influence of oil spill or chronic oil inputs and pyrogenic sources.
  • Article
    Synthesis and crosscutting topics of the GoMRI special issue
    (The Oceanography Society, 2016-09) Farrington, John W. ; Burns, Kathryn A. ; Leinen, Margaret S.
    In recent years, there have been significant advances in fluid dynamics/physical oceanography, microbiology, weathering, remote sensing, and analytical chemistry as they pertain to the fate and effects of oil spills. Effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on water column organisms and ecosystems have been difficult to ascertain. Laboratory experiments have expanded understanding of oil effects on phytoplankton and zooplankton. “Marine oil snow” has been identified as a significant factor in the fate of oil chemicals and their deposition with sediments. Oil chemicals and their effects on 24 km2 of mud-benthic communities surrounding the well site, and in a few other areas, have lasted several years. Some deep-sea corals have also been affected for several years, and oil chemicals and their effects in heavily oiled marsh areas are projected to last a decade or longer. Lightly oiled marsh areas have recovered or are recovering. Research about use of dispersants highlights the need to update the 2005 National Research Council study of dispersant use on oil spills. Ongoing research should provide some closure for the issues of long-term effects on fisheries and marine mammals, and impacts on human health. Practical uses of this new knowledge are discussed briefly.
  • Technical Report
    No. 2 fuel oil compound retention and release by Mytilus edulis : 1983 Cape Cod Canal oil spill
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1986-03) Farrington, John W. ; Xiaoping, Jia ; Clifford, C. Hovey ; Tripp, Bruce W. ; Livramento, Joaquim B. ; Davis, Alan C. ; Frew, Nelson M. ; Johnson, Carl G.
    Retention and release of No. 2 fuel oil compounds by Mytilus edulis contaminated by a small oil spill in the Cape Cod Canal in 1983 has been studied for the population "in situ" and for a subsample transplanted to a clean laboratory seawater system. Compounds analyzed include C13 to C24 n-alkanes; pristane; phytane; C2-, C3-naphthalenes; fluorene; phenanthrene; C1-, C2-, C3-phenanthrenes; fluoranthene; pyrene and dibenzothiophene. Biological half-lives were determined for the compounds from Day-3 to Day-29 following the spill and ranged from 1.5 days for C2-naphthalenes to 9.9 days for C2-phenanthrenes. Biological half-lives for the unresolved complex mixture determined by gas chromatographic analyses were 17 days for the alkane-cycloalkane fraction and 35 days for the aromatic fraction. Results compared favorably with data from a small oil spill contaminating the same mussel population at the same time of the year in 1978, although marked differences were noted for certain parameters. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometer analyses of C2- and C3-phenanthrenes revealed changes in relative abundance of compounds within isomer groups from samples at Day-29 to the time when no further detection of fuel oil was noted. These results suggest a release or metabolism of these compounds which is molecular structure specific. This study also demonstrated the feasibility of training an analyst unfamiliar with analyses of hydrocarbons in tissues to conduct high resolution glass capillary GC analyses and some aspects of GCMS data systems output within a period of four to five months.
  • Article
    What was released? Assessing the physical properties and chemical composition of petroleum and products of burned oil
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Rullkötter, Jürgen ; Farrington, John W.
    The severity of oil spills depends on the quantity of material released and its physical and chemical properties. The total amount of petroleum spilled during the Deepwater Horizon incident and the relative fractions of the chemical compound classes of the Macondo oil were obtained by measurements, observations, and model calculations, with a significant amount of uncertainty. Because petroleum is an extremely complex mixture of many thousands or more of gaseous, liquid, and solid constituents, full elucidation of their compositions at the molecular level is impossible with presently available analytical techniques. This paper reviews published work on widely used analytical techniques and points out that scientists’ varying approaches to research questions and preferences for methods of analysis constitute a source of uncertainty. In addition, the focus is on two technical advancements developed over the last two decades, namely two-dimensional gas chromatography and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Both were particularly valuable in the analysis of the spilled Macondo oil and its weathering products. Among the different processes of alteration of the original oil, only in situ oil burning is dealt with in this paper. This review reveals the paucity of data on this mitigation process and shows the need for more systematic coordination of methods in burned oil research studies.
  • Article
    Preparedness, planning, and advances in operational response
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Westerholm, David G. ; Ainsworth, Cameron H. ; Barker, Christopher H. ; Brewer, Peter G. ; Farrington, John W. ; Justić, Dubravko ; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H. ; Murawski, Steven A. ; Shepherd, John G. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
    During the last 50 years, the numbers and sizes of oil spills have been significantly reduced through prevention. But spills still occur, and it is critical to prepare for these events through planning and exercises. Operational decisions are designed to expedite cleanup and minimize overall impacts, yet they often involve complex trade-offs between a multitude of competing interests. It is imperative to apply the best technology and science when events occur. However, while planning and response tactics have evolved over time, determining what may be most at risk is often confounded by sparse background data, modeling limitations, scalability, or research gaps. Since 2010, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) and other oil spill research helped address many issues and propelled advances in spill modeling. As a result, there is an increased understanding of environmental impacts, how to assess damages, and the unintended consequences of spill countermeasures. The unprecedented amount of information resulting from this research has strengthened the bridge between the academic community and operational responders and brought improvements in preparedness, planning, and operations. This paper focuses primarily on GoMRI research and advances that relate to operational activities, as well as limitations and opportunities for gap-filling future research.