Urban Edward

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Pilot projects for publishing and citing ocean data
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-10-23) Urban, Edward ; Leadbetter, Adam ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Raymond, Lisa ; Pikula, Linda
    In the ocean sciences, a project was started in 2008 to bring together scientists, data managers, and library experts to explore means to (1) increase the submission of data to data centers, (2) make data more accessible for reuse, (3) link data more closely to traditional journal publications, and (4) create a system that gives more credit to data generators. This project is a joint effort among the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research, the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library.
  • Presentation
    SCOR/IODE/MBLWHOI Library collaboration on data publication [poster] 
    ( 2011-05-25) Raymond, Lisa ; Pikula, Linda ; Lowry, Roy ; Urban, Edward ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Norton, Cathy N.
    This poster describes the development of international standards to publish oceanographic datasets. Research areas include the assignment of persistent identifiers, tracking provenance, linking datasets to publications, attributing credit to data providers, and best practices for the physical composition and semantic description of the content.
  • Article
    Listening forward: approaching marine biodiversity assessments using acoustic methods
    (The Royal Society, 2020-08-26) Mooney, T. Aran ; Di Iorio, Lucia ; Lammers, Marc O. ; Lin, Tzu-Hao ; Nedelec, Sophie L. ; Parsons, Miles J. G. ; Radford, Craig A. ; Urban, Edward ; Stanley, Jenni A.
    Ecosystems and the communities they support are changing at alarmingly rapid rates. Tracking species diversity is vital to managing these stressed habitats. Yet, quantifying and monitoring biodiversity is often challenging, especially in ocean habitats. Given that many animals make sounds, these cues travel efficiently under water, and emerging technologies are increasingly cost-effective, passive acoustics (a long-standing ocean observation method) is now a potential means of quantifying and monitoring marine biodiversity. Properly applying acoustics for biodiversity assessments is vital. Our goal here is to provide a timely consideration of emerging methods using passive acoustics to measure marine biodiversity. We provide a summary of the brief history of using passive acoustics to assess marine biodiversity and community structure, a critical assessment of the challenges faced, and outline recommended practices and considerations for acoustic biodiversity measurements. We focused on temperate and tropical seas, where much of the acoustic biodiversity work has been conducted. Overall, we suggest a cautious approach to applying current acoustic indices to assess marine biodiversity. Key needs are preliminary data and sampling sufficiently to capture the patterns and variability of a habitat. Yet with new analytical tools including source separation and supervised machine learning, there is substantial promise in marine acoustic diversity assessment methods.
  • Article
    An International Quiet Ocean Experiment
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-06) Boyd, Ian L. ; Frisk, George V. ; Urban, Edward ; Tyack, Peter L. ; Ausubel, Jesse ; Seeyave, Sphie ; Cato, Doug ; Southall, Brandon L. ; Weise, Michael ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Akamatsu, Tomonari ; Dekeling, Rene ; Erbe, Christine ; Farmer, David M. ; Gentry, Roger ; Gross, Thomas F. ; Hawkins, Anthony D. ; Li, Fenghua ; Metcalf, Kathy ; Miller, James H. ; Moretti, David J. ; Rodrigo, Cristian ; Shinke, Tomio
    The effect of noise on marine life is one of the big unknowns of current marine science. Considerable evidence exists that the human contribution to ocean noise has increased during the past few decades: human noise has become the dominant component of marine noise in some regions, and noise is directly correlated with the increasing industrialization of the ocean. Sound is an important factor in the lives of many marine organisms, and theory and increasing observations suggest that human noise could be approaching levels at which negative effects on marine life may be occurring. Certain species already show symptoms of the effects of sound. Although some of these effects are acute and rare, chronic sublethal effects may be more prevalent, but are difficult to measure. We need to identify the thresholds of such effects for different species and be in a position to predict how increasing anthropogenic sound will add to the effects. To achieve such predictive capabilities, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans (POGO) are developing an International Quiet Ocean Experiment (IQOE), with the objective of coordinating the international research community to both quantify the ocean soundscape and examine the functional relationship between sound and the viability of key marine organisms. SCOR and POGO will convene an open science meeting to gather community input on the important research, observations, and modeling activities that should be included in IQOE.
  • Article
    Sounding the call for a global library of underwater biological sounds
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-02-08) Parsons, Miles J. G. ; Lin, Tzu-Hao ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Erbe, Christine ; Juanes, Francis ; Lammers, Marc O. ; Li, Songhai ; Linke, Simon ; Looby, Audrey ; Nedelec, Sophie L. ; Van Opzeeland, Ilse ; Radford, Craig A. ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Sayigh, Laela S. ; Stanley, Jenni A. ; Urban, Edward ; Di Iorio, Lucia
    Aquatic environments encompass the world’s most extensive habitats, rich with sounds produced by a diversity of animals. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is an increasingly accessible remote sensing technology that uses hydrophones to listen to the underwater world and represents an unprecedented, non-invasive method to monitor underwater environments. This information can assist in the delineation of biologically important areas via detection of sound-producing species or characterization of ecosystem type and condition, inferred from the acoustic properties of the local soundscape. At a time when worldwide biodiversity is in significant decline and underwater soundscapes are being altered as a result of anthropogenic impacts, there is a need to document, quantify, and understand biotic sound sources–potentially before they disappear. A significant step toward these goals is the development of a web-based, open-access platform that provides: (1) a reference library of known and unknown biological sound sources (by integrating and expanding existing libraries around the world); (2) a data repository portal for annotated and unannotated audio recordings of single sources and of soundscapes; (3) a training platform for artificial intelligence algorithms for signal detection and classification; and (4) a citizen science-based application for public users. Although individually, these resources are often met on regional and taxa-specific scales, many are not sustained and, collectively, an enduring global database with an integrated platform has not been realized. We discuss the benefits such a program can provide, previous calls for global data-sharing and reference libraries, and the challenges that need to be overcome to bring together bio- and ecoacousticians, bioinformaticians, propagation experts, web engineers, and signal processing specialists (e.g., artificial intelligence) with the necessary support and funding to build a sustainable and scalable platform that could address the needs of all contributors and stakeholders into the future.
  • Book
    Ocean data publication cookbook
    (UNESCO, 2013) Leadbetter, Adam ; Raymond, Lisa ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Pikula, Linda ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Urban, Edward
    Executive summary: This “Cookbook” has been written for data managers and librarians who are interested in assigning a permanent identifier to a dataset for the purposes of publishing that dataset online and for the citation of that dataset within the scientific literature. A formal publishing process adds value to the dataset for the data originators as well as for future users of the data. Value may be added by providing an indication of the scientific quality and importance of the dataset (as measured through a process of peer review), and by ensuring that the dataset is complete, frozen and has enough supporting metadata and other information to allow it to be used by others. Publishing a dataset also implies a commitment to persistence of the data and allows data producers to obtain academic credit for their work in creating the datasets. One form of persistent identifier is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI is a character string (a "digital identifier") used to provide a unique identity of an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. A DOI may be obtained for a variety of objects, including documents, data files and images. The assignment of DOIs to peer-reviewed journal articles has become commonplace. This cookbook provides a step-by-step guide to the data publication process and showcases some best practices for data publication.