Gaines Arthur G.

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Arthur G.

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  • Technical Report
    Developing a national marine electronics agenda : proceedings of the Marine Instrumentation Panel meeting, September 12-14, 1989
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-12) Gaines, Arthur G. ; Lindborg, Kristina L. C.
    Thirteen short papers address aspects of competitiveness in the marine electronics instrumentation industry. Topics include activity and status of government initiatives in Japan and Europe to promote this industry; and the possible role of federal-state collaboration in the U.S. Papers address technology transfer between research institutions and the commercial sector; the role of "strategic alliances" in this process; and the "dual-use" concept in effective technology development and commercialization. Other papers address electronic technology applications in speific marine areas, such as the use and implications of the COMSAT mobile satellite communication infrastructure; electronic charts and safety of tanker operations; and instrumentation applications in aquaculture and environmental monitoring.
  • Technical Report
    Recent evolution of an active barrier beach complex : Popponesset Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-01) Aubrey, David G. ; Gaines, Arthur G.
    Popponesset Spit, the barrier beach sheltering Popponesset Bay on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has experienced large changes in its location and shape over the past thirty years. Concern by the public over loss of this barrier beach and the associated recreational and wildlife resources, as well as its storm-protection function, resulted in a number of studies involving local, state and federal officials. The purpose of these studies was to identify causes and future trends (Benoit and Donahoe, 1979) and to identify engineering solutions to this instability (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1972; Camp, Dresser and McKee, 1981). For various reasons, these studies were incomplete and stated some conclusions which were generally misleading or incorrect. The purpose of the present study was to provide a thorough reexamination of the geological problem at Popponesset Spit, to dispel the misconceptions and to more rigorously document the large-scale changes. The impetus for our concern over the beach was a desire to contribute to an effective, rational management and utilization strategy for this coastal region.
  • Technical Report
    Cruise Report W-39 : scientific activities undertaken aboard R/V Westward, Key West - Woods Hole, April 12 - May 24, 1978
    (SEA Education Association, 1978-05) Gaines, Arthur G.
    Our objective in this report is to present a record and an overview of the scientific program conducted during W-39. The annotations which accompany these abstracted results are intended to make this more than a standard oceanographic cruise report. We regard this report as an opportunity to clarify, to define and to summarize some of the research-related multidisciplinary subject matter treated in Introduction to Marine Science Laboratory, a course which inevitably draws students of diverse backgrounds.
  • Technical Report
    Toward an effective protocol on land-based marine pollution in the wider Caribbean Region
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995-07) Hoagland, Porter ; Schumacher, Mary E. ; Gaines, Arthur G.
    This study was undertaken to advance the basis for discussions among Contracting Parties to the Cartagena Convention concerning a protocol on land-based marine pollution (LBMP) in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR). The study has four principal objectives: (1) a review and summary of LBMP problems to determine common problems and priority areas; (2) a survey of broadly defined environmental infrastructure to help identify national commitments and national capacities to prevent, reduce, or control LBMP; (3) a survey and analysis of subregional differences in commitment or interest in regional control of LBMP; and (4) a comparison of program approaches from other regions, providing lessons from which an effective program for the Caribbean might be designed. The study argues that the environmental, economic, and institutional diversity of the region as a whole suggests (1) an incremental approach to international resolution of LBMP problems, one that builds upon successful arangements among states that have appropriate incentives for solving real transboundary pollution problems; and (2) a subregional approach to the control of localized but widely occurring pollution problems, in which the "umbrella" function of a regional protocol would concentrate on the need to ensure uniform access to all clearinghouse products and on the internal allocation of financial and technical assistance to individual states and subregions.
  • Technical Report
    Scientific research and the Galapagos marine resources reserve : synopsis of a workshop April 20-24, 1987 Guayaquil, Ecuador
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991) Gaines, Arthur G. ; Andrade, Hernan Moreano
    In 1986 the Government of Ecuador established the Galápagos Marine Resources Reserve encompassing the entire Galápagos Archipelago, an area embracing 70,00 square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean and its underlying seabed. A workshop, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, was held on April 20-24, 1987, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to address the role of scientific information in planning for the management of this new Marine Reserve. The "Scientific Research and the Galápagos Marine Resources Reserve Workshop" was jointly coordinated by the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and the Oceanographic Institute of the Navy of Ecuador (Instituto Oceanografico de la Armada). Ten North American scholars and about thirty scholars from Ecuadorian governmental and non-governmental scientific organizations, concerned with issues related to the Galápagos, met to discuss the status of scientific information on marine areas surrounding these islands. The workshop also focused on the role this information should play in crafting a management plan that will, a) recognize and mesh with environmental realities of this complex oceanic setting, b) incorporate new scientific information as it becomes available, and c) accommodate the needs of scientists working in the remote, typically harsh and often unique setting the Archipelago provides the international academic community. Despite some important gaps, considerable scientific information is available to Reserve managers, and examples of the use of scientific information in other marine reserves is also available. Important areas of innovation are needed in order to gather and use information effectively for the management of this vast ocean area. Remote sensing technology and international cooperation offer promise in this regard.
  • Technical Report
    Cruise Report W-45 : scientific activities undertaken aboard R/V Westward, Key West - Woods Hole, April 11 - May 23, 1979
    (SEA Education Association, 1979-05) Gaines, Arthur G.
    This cruise report outlines the scientific activities for the Strombus Expedition, the forty-fifth cruise of the R/V Westward. These activities fall into two separate categories which, however, serve each other: a traditional academic program offered purely and directly for the students' scholastic benefit; and, a program of research and student projects in which the students' skill and drive and curiosity determined the scope and benefit of their participation.
  • Technical Report
    Cruise Report W-42 : scientific activities undertaken aboard R/V Westward, Woods Hole - St. Thomas, October 11 - November 22, 1978
    (SEA Education Association, 1978-11) Gaines, Arthur G.
    This report presents an outline of the scientific activities and observations conducted aboard the R/V Westward during W-42. These activities fall into two categories: an academic program offered in more or less traditional format, but on board ship; and research and project work conducted on a more individual basis. Most of this report consists of abstracts from the students' Shipboard Reports which outline individual projects and give a first assessment of the results. The staff has also taken this opportunity to enlarge upon or interrelate aspects of our activities which may have seemed unclear during the cruise.
  • Technical Report
    Manejo de recursos costeros y marinos para las Islas Galapagos
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1984-10) Broadus, James M. ; Pires, Ivon A. ; Gaines, Arthur G. ; Bailey, Connor ; Knecht, Robert W. ; Cicin-Sain, Biliana
    Este informe describe brevemente los usos y problemas de los recursos costeros y marinos en Galapagos, discute los principios generales del manejo de la zona costera y de los recursos marinos, examina la situaci6n actual del manejo de estos recursos en Galapagos, y ofrece observaciones sobre posibles medidas para su mejoramiento. El archipielago ha sido por largo tiempo el objeto de interes cientffico mundial. La creciente demanda sobre los recursos costeros y marinos de las Galapagos, para servir a su poblaci6n en aumento y al turismo, potencialmente lucrativo, da la pauta sobre la necesidad de prestar mayor atenci6n al manejo de estos recursos. Los asuntos y problemas costeros y marinos en Galapagos que pueden ser tratados en un proceso de manejo incluyen: conservaci6n de la biota y los habitats excepcionales de las islas; turismo; desarrollo de areas portuarias; eliminacion de desperdicios; extraccion de recursos; y pesca. Los elementos basicos de un sistema de manejo de zona costera y de recursos marinas existen actualmente en Galapagos, pero tienen un funcionamiento ad hoc y no coordinado. Se describen actuales y posibles ambigliedades o conflictos entre la Marina/Capitanfas de Puerto, las municipalidades, el Parque Nacional, la entidad de desarrollo para Galapagos (INGALA), y otras dependiancias. Se propane un sistema de manejo de dos zonas para los recursos costeros y marinos. Este sistema evita el establecimiento de nuevas sistemas de linderos y instituciones, adaptandose en cambio a la situaci6n actual. Cuatro mecanismos potenciales se identifican: un enfoque de cooperacion administrativa; un consejo de zona costera y recursos marinos; una serie de convenios entre las instituciones representativas; y la aplicaci6n de incentivos. Se discute la posibilidad de la creacion de una area marina protegida, incluyendo razones fundamentales para su establecimiento, su designacion y organizacion, jurisdicciones, linderos y zonificacion, y protecci6n de usos tradicionales.
  • Technical Report
    Cruise Report W-36 : scientific activities undertaken aboard R/V Westward, Woods Hole - San Juan, October 12 - November 23, 1977
    (SEA Education Association, 1977-11) Gaines, Arthur G.
    This report is the outcome of a six-week cruise aboard the Research Vessel Westward that took twenty-three students across the western North Atlantic Ocean and the eastern Caribbean Sea. The pages that follow outline the structure of Introduction to Marine Science (NS 225 at Boston University) and abstract the research and project work which constitutes its framework. Our objective, in addition, is to provide the students with an overview of what has been accomplished and the staff with a last opportunity to summarize observations or measurements whose significance requires reemphasis. The scientific merit and sophistication of the student reports varies appreciably; in part this reflects the variable scientific content of their academic backgrounds. I find it interesting, however, that there are striking exceptions to this correlation. In preparing this report at sea we are imparting to it limitations that time, library facilities and reflection could mitigate. On the other hand the students will soon disseminate across the Western Hemisphere and there will be no other opportunity.
  • Technical Report
    Coastal and marine resources management for the Galapagos Islands
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1984-10) Broadus, James M. ; Pires, Ivon A. ; Gaines, Arthur G. ; Bailey, Connor ; Knecht, Robert W. ; Cicin-Sain, Biliana
    The report briefly describes coastal and marine resource uses and problems in Ecuador's Galapagos Islands, discusses general principles of coastal zone management (CZM) and marine resources management (MRM), examines the current status of CZM and MRM in the Galapagos Islands, and offers observations on possible avenues for improvement. The archipelago has long been the object of worldwide scientific interest. Increased demands on its coastal and marine resources, to serve a growing resident population and to accommodate potentially lucrative tourism, signal a need for greater attention to the management of these resources. Coastal and marine affairs and problems in the Galapagos which can be addressed by a CZM/MRM process include: conservation of the Islands' unique biota and habitats; tourism; port development; waste disposal; resource extraction; and fisheries. The basic elements of a CZM and MRM system are already in place in the Galapagos, but they are uncoordinated and largely ad hoc in nature. Existing and potential jurisdictional ambiguities or conflicts between the Navy/Port Captaincies, the municipalities, the National Park, the development agency for the Galapagos (INGALA) and other organizations are described. A two-zone management scheme for coastal and marine resources is outlined. It avoids the establishment of complicated new systems of boundaries and institutions, instead adapting itself to the existing situation. Four possible mechanisms for improved coordination are identified: cooperative management; a coastal zone and marine resources council; a series of agreements ("convenios") between relevant agencies; and application of incentives. The possible creation of a marine protected area is discussed, including rationale for the area's establishment, its designation and organization, jurisdictions, boundaries and zoning, and the protection of traditional uses.