Timmermans Mary-Louise

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  • Article
    Sea surface pCO2 and O2 dynamics in the partially ice-covered Arctic Ocean
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-02-25) Islam, Fakhrul ; DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Beatty, Cory ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M. ; Laney, Samuel R.
    Understanding the physical and biogeochemical processes that control CO2 and dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in the Arctic Ocean (AO) is crucial for predicting future air-sea CO2 fluxes and ocean acidification. Past studies have primarily been conducted on the AO continental shelves during low-ice periods and we lack information on gas dynamics in the deep AO basins where ice typically inhibits contact with the atmosphere. To study these gas dynamics, in situ time-series data have been collected in the Canada Basin during late summer to autumn of 2012. Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), DO concentration, temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Chl-a) were measured in the upper ocean in a range of sea ice states by two drifting instrument systems. Although the two systems were on average only 222 km apart, they experienced considerably different ice cover and external forcings during the 40–50 day periods when data were collected. The pCO2 levels at both locations were well below atmospheric saturation whereas DO was almost always slightly supersaturated. Modeling results suggest that air-sea gas exchange, net community production (NCP), and horizontal gradients were the main sources of pCO2 and DO variability in the sparsely ice-covered AO. In areas more densely covered by sea ice, horizontal gradients were the dominant source of variability, with no significant NCP in the surface mixed layer. If the AO reaches equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 as ice cover continues to decrease, aragonite saturation will drop from a present mean of 1.00 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.01.
  • Article
    Changes in the arctic ocean carbon cycle with diminishing ice cover
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-05-24) DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Evans, Wiley ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Williams, William J. ; Steele, Michael
    Less than three decades ago only a small fraction of the Arctic Ocean (AO) was ice free and then only for short periods. The ice cover kept sea surface pCO2 at levels lower relative to other ocean basins that have been exposed year round to ever increasing atmospheric levels. In this study, we evaluate sea surface pCO2 measurements collected over a 6‐year period along a fixed cruise track in the Canada Basin. The measurements show that mean pCO2 levels are significantly higher during low ice years. The pCO2 increase is likely driven by ocean surface heating and uptake of atmospheric CO2 with large interannual variability in the contributions of these processes. These findings suggest that increased ice‐free periods will further increase sea surface pCO2, reducing the Canada Basin's current role as a net sink of atmospheric CO2.
  • Article
    Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin.
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-05-07) DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Lai, Chun-Ze ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Torres, Daniel J.
    Solute exclusion during sea ice formation is a potentially important contributor to the Arctic Ocean inorganic carbon cycle that could increase as ice cover diminishes. When ice forms, solutes are excluded from the ice matrix, creating a brine that includes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT). The brine sinks, potentially exporting DIC and AT to deeper water. This phenomenon has rarely been observed, however. In this manuscript, we examine a ~1 year pCO2 mooring time series where a ~35‐μatm increase in pCO2 was observed in the mixed layer during the ice formation period, corresponding to a simultaneous increase in salinity from 27.2 to 28.5. Using salinity and ice based mass balances, we show that most of the observed increases can be attributed to solute exclusion during ice formation. The resulting pCO2 is sensitive to the ratio of AT and DIC retained in the ice and the mixed layer depth, which controls dilution of the ice‐derived AT and DIC. In the Canada Basin, of the ~92 μmol/kg increase in DIC, 17 μmol/kg was taken up by biological production and the remainder was trapped between the halocline and the summer stratified surface layer. Although not observed before the mooring was recovered, this inorganic carbon was likely later entrained with surface water, increasing the pCO2 at the surface. It is probable that inorganic carbon exclusion during ice formation will have an increasingly important influence on DIC and pCO2 in the surface of the Arctic Ocean as seasonal ice production and wind‐driven mixing increase with diminishing ice cover.
  • Article
    Influences of the ocean surface mixed layer and thermohaline stratification on Arctic Sea ice in the central Canada Basin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-10-08) Toole, John M. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Richter-Menge, Jackie A.
    Variations in the Arctic central Canada Basin mixed layer properties are documented based on a subset of nearly 6500 temperature and salinity profiles acquired by Ice-Tethered Profilers during the period summer 2004 to summer 2009 and analyzed in conjunction with sea ice observations from ice mass balance buoys and atmosphere-ocean heat flux estimates. The July–August mean mixed layer depth based on the Ice-Tethered Profiler data averaged 16 m (an overestimate due to the Ice-Tethered Profiler sampling characteristics and present analysis procedures), while the average winter mixed layer depth was only 24 m, with individual observations rarely exceeding 40 m. Guidance interpreting the observations is provided by a 1-D ocean mixed layer model. The analysis focuses attention on the very strong density stratification at the base of the mixed layer in the Canada Basin that greatly impedes surface layer deepening and thus limits the flux of deep ocean heat to the surface that could influence sea ice growth/decay. The observations additionally suggest that efficient lateral mixed layer restratification processes are active in the Arctic, also impeding mixed layer deepening.
  • Article
    Characterizing the eddy field in the Arctic Ocean halocline
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-22) Zhao, Mengnan ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Toole, John M.
    Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITP), deployed in the Arctic Ocean between 2004 and 2013, have provided detailed temperature and salinity measurements of an assortment of halocline eddies. A total of 127 mesoscale eddies have been detected, 95% of which were anticyclones, the majority of which had anomalously cold cores. These cold-core anticyclonic eddies were observed in the Beaufort Gyre region (Canadian water eddies) and the vicinity of the Transpolar Drift Stream (Eurasian water eddies). An Arctic-wide calculation of the first baroclinic Rossby deformation radius Rd has been made using ITP data coupled with climatology; Rd ∼ 13 km in the Canadian water and ∼8 km in the Eurasian water. The observed eddies are found to have scales comparable to Rd. Halocline eddies are in cyclogeostrophic balance and can be described by a Rankine vortex with maximum azimuthal speeds between 0.05 and 0.4 m/s. The relationship between radius and thickness for the eddies is consistent with adjustment to the ambient stratification. Eddies may be divided into four groups, each characterized by distinct core depths and core temperature and salinity properties, suggesting multiple source regions and enabling speculation of varying formation mechanisms.
  • Article
    Eddies in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, observed from ice-tethered profilers
    (American Meteorological Society, 2008-01) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Toole, John M. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Plueddemann, Albert J.
    Five ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2004 and 2006, have provided detailed potential temperature θ and salinity S profiles from 21 anticyclonic eddy encounters in the central Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The 12–35-m-thick eddies have center depths between 42 and 69 m in the Arctic halocline, and are shallower and less dense than the majority of eddies observed previously in the central Canada Basin. They are characterized by anomalously cold θ and low stratification, and have horizontal scales on the order of, or less than, the Rossby radius of deformation (about 10 km). Maximum azimuthal speeds estimated from dynamic heights (assuming cyclogeostrophic balance) are between 9 and 26 cm s−1, an order of magnitude larger than typical ambient flow speeds in the central basin. Eddy θ–S and potential vorticity properties, as well as horizontal and vertical scales, are consistent with their formation by instability of a surface front at about 80°N that appears in historical CTD and expendable CTD (XCTD) measurements. This would suggest eddy lifetimes longer than 6 months. While the baroclinic instability of boundary currents cannot be ruled out as a generation mechanism, it is less likely since deeper eddies that would originate from the deeper-reaching boundary flows are not observed in the survey region.
  • Article
    Ice-tethered profiler measurements of dissolved oxygen under permanent ice cover in the Arctic Ocean
    (American Meteorological Society, 2010-11) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Laney, Samuel R. ; Toole, John M.
    Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted with the permanent ice pack and returned 2 one-way profiles per day of temperature, salinity, and DO. Long-term calibration drift of the oxygen sensor can be characterized and removed by referencing to recently calibrated ship DO observations on deep isotherms. Observed changes in the water column time series are due to both drift of the ITP into different water masses and seasonal variability, driven by both physical and biological processes within the water column. Several scientific examples are highlighted that demonstrate the considerable potential for sustained ITP-based DO measurements to better understand the Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and biogeochemical processes beneath the sea ice.
  • Article
    Dynamics in the deep Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, inferred by thermistor chain time series
    (American Meteorological Society, 2007-04) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Melling, Humfrey ; Rainville, Luc
    A 50-day time series of high-resolution temperature in the deepest layers of the Canada Basin in the Arctic Ocean indicates that the deep Canada Basin is a dynamically active environment, not the quiet, stable basin often assumed. Vertical motions at the near-inertial (tidal) frequency have amplitudes of 10– 20 m. These vertical displacements are surprisingly large considering the downward near-inertial internal wave energy flux typically observed in the Canada Basin. In addition to motion in the internal-wave frequency band, the measurements indicate distinctive subinertial temperature fluctuations, possibly due to intrusions of new water masses.
  • Article
    Greenland freshwater pathways in the sub-Arctic Seas from model experiments with passive tracers
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-25) Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Myers, Paul G. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Curry, Beth ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Bamber, Jonathan L. ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Hu, Xianmin ; Lee, Craig M. ; Somavilla, Raquel
    Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus freshwater discharge from Greenland since the 1990s, comparable in volume to the amount of freshwater present during the Great Salinity Anomaly events, could spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas, influencing convective processes there. However, hydrographic observations in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas, where the Greenland freshening signal might be expected to propagate, do not show a persistent freshening in the upper ocean during last two decades. This raises the question of where the surplus Greenland freshwater has propagated. In order to investigate the fate, pathways, and propagation rate of Greenland meltwater in the sub-Arctic seas, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to track the spreading of Greenland freshwater have been conducted as a part of the Forum for Arctic Ocean Modeling and Observational Synthesis effort. The models show that Greenland freshwater propagates and accumulates in the sub-Arctic seas, although the models disagree on the amount of tracer propagation into the convective regions. Results highlight the differences in simulated physical mechanisms at play in different models and underscore the continued importance of intercomparison studies. It is estimated that surplus Greenland freshwater flux should have caused a salinity decrease by 0.06–0.08 in the sub-Arctic seas in contradiction with the recently observed salinification (by 0.15–0.2) in the region. It is surmised that the increasing salinity of Atlantic Water has obscured the freshening signal.
  • Article
    The Arctic Ocean spices up
    (American Meteorological Society, 2016-04-05) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Jayne, Steven R.
    The contemporary Arctic Ocean differs markedly from midlatitude, ice-free, and relatively warm oceans in the context of density-compensating temperature and salinity variations. These variations are invaluable tracers in the midlatitudes, revealing essential fundamental physical processes of the oceans, on scales from millimeters to thousands of kilometers. However, in the cold Arctic Ocean, temperature variations have little effect on density, and a measure of density-compensating variations in temperature and salinity (i.e., spiciness) is not appropriate. In general, temperature is simply a passive tracer, which implies that most of the heat transported in the Arctic Ocean relies entirely on the ocean dynamics determined by the salinity field. It is shown, however, that as the Arctic Ocean warms up, temperature will take on a new role in setting dynamical balances. Under continued warming, there exists the possibility for a regime shift in the mechanisms by which heat is transported in the Arctic Ocean. This may result in a cap on the storage of deep-ocean heat, having profound implications for future predictions of Arctic sea ice.
  • Article
    The Ice-Tethered Profiler : Argo of the Arctic
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-09) Toole, John M. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITPs), first deployed in fall 2004, have significantly increased the number of high-quality upper-ocean water-property observations available from the central Arctic. This article reviews the instrument technology and provides a status report on performance, along with several examples of the science that ITPs and companion instrumentation support.
  • Article
    Spatial variability of the Arctic Ocean's double-diffusive staircase
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-02-08) Shibley, Nicole C. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Carpenter, Jeffrey R. ; Toole, John M.
    The Arctic Ocean thermohaline stratification frequently exhibits a staircase structure overlying the Atlantic Water Layer that can be attributed to the diffusive form of double-diffusive convection. The staircase consists of multiple layers of O(1) m in thickness separated by sharp interfaces, across which temperature and salinity change abruptly. Through a detailed analysis of Ice-Tethered Profiler measurements from 2004 to 2013, the double-diffusive staircase structure is characterized across the entire Arctic Ocean. We demonstrate how the large-scale Arctic Ocean circulation influences the small-scale staircase properties. These staircase properties (layer thicknesses and temperature and salinity jumps across interfaces) are examined in relation to a bulk vertical density ratio spanning the staircase stratification. We show that the Lomonosov Ridge serves as an approximate boundary between regions of low density ratio (approximately 3–4) on the Eurasian side and higher density ratio (approximately 6–7) on the Canadian side. We find that the Eurasian Basin staircase is characterized by fewer, thinner layers than that in the Canadian Basin, although the margins of all basins are characterized by relatively thin layers and the absence of a well-defined staircase. A double-diffusive 4/3 flux law parametrization is used to estimate vertical heat fluxes in the Canadian Basin to be O(0.1) W m−2. It is shown that the 4/3 flux law may not be an appropriate representation of heat fluxes through the Eurasian Basin staircase. Here molecular heat fluxes are estimated to be between O(0.01) and O(0.1) W m−2. However, many uncertainties remain about the exact nature of these fluxes.
  • Article
    Arctic circulation regimes
    (The Royal Society, 2015-09-07) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Bamber, Jonathan L.
    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.
  • Article
    Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin : an apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-07-23) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Richter-Menge, Jackie A. ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Toole, John M.
    Data collected by an autonomous ice-based observatory that drifted into the Eurasian Basin between April and November 2010 indicate that the upper ocean was appreciably fresher than in 2007 and 2008. Sea ice and snowmelt over the course of the 2010 drift amounted to an input of less than 0.5 m of liquid freshwater to the ocean (comparable to the freshening by melting estimated for those previous years), while the observed change in upper-ocean salinity over the melt period implies a freshwater gain of about 0.7 m. Results of a wind-driven ocean model corroborate the observations of freshening and suggest that unusually fresh surface waters observed in parts of the Eurasian Basin in 2010 may have been due to the spreading of anomalously fresh water previously residing in the Beaufort Gyre. This flux is likely associated with a 2009 shift in the large-scale atmospheric circulation to a significant reduction in strength of the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift Stream.
  • Article
    Deep-water flow over the Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean
    (American Meteorological Society, 2005-08) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Winsor, Peter ; Whitehead, John A.
    The Arctic Ocean likely impacts global climate through its effect on the rate of deep-water formation and the subsequent influence on global thermohaline circulation. Here, the renewal of the deep waters in the isolated Canadian Basin is quanitified. Using hydraulic theory and hydrographic observations, the authors calculate the magnitude of this renewal where circumstances have thus far prevented direct measurements. A volume flow rate of Q = 0.25 ± 0.15 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3s−1) from the Eurasian Basin to the Canadian Basin via a deep gap in the dividing Lomonosov Ridge is estimated. Deep-water renewal time estimates based on this flow are consistent with 14C isolation ages. The flow is sufficiently large that it has a greater impact on the Canadian Basin deep water than either the geothermal heat flux or diffusive fluxes at the deep-water boundaries.
  • Article
    Observational inferences of lateral eddy diffusivity in the halocline of the Beaufort Gyre
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-12-26) Meneghello, Gianluca ; Marshall, John ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise
    Using Ekman pumping rates mediated by sea ice in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre (BG), the magnitude of lateral eddy diffusivities required to balance downward pumping is inferred. In this limit—that of vanishing residual-mean circulation—eddy-induced upwelling exactly balances downward pumping. The implied eddy diffusivity varies spatially and decays with depth, with values of 50–400 m2/s. Eddy diffusivity estimated using mixing length theory applied to BG mooring data exhibits a similar decay with depth and range of values from 100 m2/s to more than 600 m2/s. We conclude that eddy diffusivities in the BG are likely large enough to balance downward Ekman pumping, arresting the deepening of the gyre and suggesting that eddies play a zero-order role in buoyancy and freshwater budgets of the BG.
  • Article
    Warming of the interior Arctic Ocean linked to sea ice losses at the basin margins
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-08-29) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Toole, John M. ; Krishfield, Richard A.
    Arctic Ocean measurements reveal a near doubling of ocean heat content relative to the freezing temperature in the Beaufort Gyre halocline over the past three decades (1987–2017). This warming is linked to anomalous solar heating of surface waters in the northern Chukchi Sea, a main entryway for halocline waters to join the interior Beaufort Gyre. Summer solar heat absorption by the surface waters has increased fivefold over the same time period, chiefly because of reduced sea ice coverage. It is shown that the solar heating, considered together with subduction rates of surface water in this region, is sufficient to account for the observed halocline warming. Heat absorption at the basin margins and its subsequent accumulation in the ocean interior, therefore, have consequences for Beaufort Gyre sea ice beyond the summer season.
  • Article
    Evolution of the eddy field in the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin, 2005–2015
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-08-03) Zhao, Mengnan ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M.
    The eddy field across the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin is analyzed using Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) and moored measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity spanning 2005 to 2015. ITPs encountered 243 eddies, 98% of which were anticyclones, with approximately 70% of these having anomalously cold cores. The spatially and temporally varying eddy field is analyzed accounting for sampling biases in the unevenly distributed ITP data and caveats in detection methods. The highest concentration of eddies was found in the western and southern portions of the basin, close to topographic margins and boundaries of the Beaufort Gyre. The number of lower halocline eddies approximately doubled from 2005–2012 to 2013–2014. The increased eddy density suggests more active baroclinic instability of the Beaufort Gyre that releases available potential energy to balance the wind energy input; this may stabilize the Gyre spin-up and associated freshwater increase.
  • Article
    Deterioration of perennial sea ice in the Beaufort Gyre from 2003 to 2012 and its impact on the oceanic freshwater cycle
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-02-22) Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Tateyama, Kazutaka ; Williams, William J. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise
    Time series of ice draft from 2003 to 2012 from moored sonar data are used to investigate variability and describe the reduction of the perennial sea ice cover in the Beaufort Gyre (BG), culminating in the extreme minimum in 2012. Negative trends in median ice drafts and most ice fractions are observed, while open water and thinnest ice fractions (<0.3 m) have increased, attesting to the ablation or removal of the older sea ice from the BG over the 9 year period. Monthly anomalies indicate a shift occurred toward thinner ice after 2007, in which the thicker ice evident at the northern stations was reduced. Differences in the ice characteristics between all of the stations also diminished, so that the ice cover throughout the region became statistically homogenous. The moored data are used in a relationship with satellite radiometer data to estimate ice volume changes throughout the BG. Summer solid fresh water content decreased drastically in consecutive years from 730 km3 in 2006 to 570 km3 in 2007, and to 240 km3 in 2008. After a short rebound, solid fresh water fell below 220 km3 in 2012. Meanwhile, hydrographic data indicate that liquid fresh water in the BG in summer increased 5410 km3 from 2003 to 2010 and decreased at least 210 km3 by 2012. The reduction of both solid and liquid fresh water components indicates a net export of approximately 320 km3 of fresh water from the region occurred between 2010 and 2012, suggesting that the anticyclonic atmosphere-ocean circulation has weakened.
  • Article
    Toward quantifying the increasing role oceanic heat in sea ice loss in the new Arctic
    (American Meteorological Society, 2015-12) Carmack, Eddy C. ; Polyakov, Igor V. ; Padman, Laurie ; Fer, Ilker ; Hunke, Elizabeth C. ; Hutchings, Jennifer K. ; Jackson, Jennifer M. ; Kelley, Daniel E. ; Kwok, Ron ; Layton, Chantelle ; Melling, Humfrey ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Persson, Ola ; Ruddick, Barry R. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Toole, John M. ; Ross, Tetjana ; Vavrus, Steve ; Winsor, Peter
    The loss of Arctic sea ice has emerged as a leading signal of global warming. This, together with acknowledged impacts on other components of the Earth system, has led to the term “the new Arctic.” Global coupled climate models predict that ice loss will continue through the twenty-first century, with implications for governance, economics, security, and global weather. A wide range in model projections reflects the complex, highly coupled interactions between the polar atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere, including teleconnections to lower latitudes. This paper summarizes our present understanding of how heat reaches the ice base from the original sources—inflows of Atlantic and Pacific Water, river discharge, and summer sensible heat and shortwave radiative fluxes at the ocean/ice surface—and speculates on how such processes may change in the new Arctic. The complexity of the coupled Arctic system, and the logistic and technological challenges of working in the Arctic Ocean, require a coordinated interdisciplinary and international program that will not only improve understanding of this critical component of global climate but will also provide opportunities to develop human resources with the skills required to tackle related problems in complex climate systems. We propose a research strategy with components that include 1) improved mapping of the upper- and middepth Arctic Ocean, 2) enhanced quantification of important process, 3) expanded long-term monitoring at key heat-flux locations, and 4) development of numerical capabilities that focus on parameterization of heat-flux mechanisms and their interactions.