Jamieson John W.
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ArticleSulfide geochronology along the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge(John Wiley & Sons, 2013-07-08) Jamieson, John W. ; Hannington, Mark D. ; Clague, David A. ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Delaney, John R. ; Holden, James F. ; Tivey, Margaret K. ; Kimpe, Linda E.Forty-nine hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate rock samples from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeastern Pacific Ocean, were dated by measuring the decay of 226Ra (half-life of 1600 years) in hydrothermal barite to provide a history of hydrothermal venting at the site over the past 6000 years. This dating method is effective for samples ranging in age from ∼200 to 20,000 years old and effectively bridges an age gap between shorter- and longer-lived U-series dating techniques for hydrothermal deposits. Results show that hydrothermal venting at the active High Rise, Sasquatch, and Main Endeavour fields began at least 850, 1450, and 2300 years ago, respectively. Barite ages of other inactive deposits on the axial valley floor are between ∼1200 and ∼2200 years old, indicating past widespread hydrothermal venting outside of the currently active vent fields. Samples from the half-graben on the eastern slope of the axial valley range in age from ∼1700 to ∼2925 years, and a single sample from outside the axial valley, near the westernmost valley fault scarp is ∼5850 ± 205 years old. The spatial relationship between hydrothermal venting and normal faulting suggests a temporal relationship, with progressive younging of sulfide deposits from the edges of the axial valley toward the center of the rift. These relationships are consistent with the inward migration of normal faulting toward the center of the valley over time and a minimum age of onset of hydrothermal activity in this region of 5850 years.
PreprintPrecipitation and growth of barite within hydrothermal vent deposits from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge( 2015-10) Jamieson, John W. ; Hannington, Mark D. ; Tivey, Margaret K. ; Hansteen, Thor ; Williamson, Nicole M.-B. ; Stewart, Margaret ; Fietzke, Jan ; Butterfield, David A. ; Frische, Matthias ; Allen, Leigh ; Cousens, Brian ; Langer, JuliaHydrothermal vent deposits form on the seafloor as a result of cooling and mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold seawater. Amongst the major sulfide and sulfate minerals that are preserved at vent sites, barite (BaSO4) is unique because it requires the direct mixing of Ba-rich hydrothermal fluid with sulfate-rich seawater in order for precipitation to occur. Because of its extremely low solubility, barite crystals preserve geochemical fingerprints associated with conditions of formation. Here, we present data from petrographic and geochemical analyses of hydrothermal barite from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean, in order to determine the physical and chemical conditions under which barite precipitates within seafloor hydrothermal vent systems. Petrographic analyses of 22 barite-rich samples show a range of barite crystal morphologies: dendritic and acicular barite forms near the exterior vent walls, whereas larger bladed and tabular crystals occur within the interior of chimneys. A two component mixing model based on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr of both seawater and hydrothermal fluid, combined with 87Sr/86Sr data from whole rock and laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of barite crystals indicate that barite precipitates from mixtures containing as low as 17% and as high as 88% hydrothermal fluid component, relative to seawater. Geochemical modelling of the relationship between aqueous species concentrations and degree of fluid mixing indicates that Ba2+ availability is the dominant control on mineral saturation. Observations combined with model results support that dendritic barite forms from fluids of less than 40% hydrothermal component and with a saturation index greater than ~0.6, whereas more euhedral crystals form at lower levels of supersaturation associated with greater contributions of hydrothermal fluid. Fluid inclusions within barite indicate formation temperatures of between ~120 and 240°C during barite crystallization. The comparison of fluid inclusion formation temperatures to modelled mixing temperatures indicates that conductive cooling of the vent fluid accounts for 60 – 120°C reduction in fluid temperature. Strontium zonation within individual barite crystals records fluctuations in the amount of conductive cooling within chimney walls that may result from cyclical oscillations in hydrothermal fluid flux. Barite chemistry and morphology can be used as a reliable indicator for past conditions of mineralization within both extinct seafloor hydrothermal deposits and ancient land-based volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.
ArticleMagnetic and gravity surface geometry inverse modeling of the TAG active mound(American Geophysical Union, 2021-09-29) Galley, Christopher ; Lelièvre, Peter G. ; Haroon, Amir ; Graber, Sebastian ; Jamieson, John W. ; Szitkar, Florent ; Yeo, Isobel A. ; Farquharson, Colin ; Petersen, Sven ; Evans, Rob L.Seafloor massive sulfide deposits form in remote environments, and the assessment of deposit size and composition through drilling is technically challenging and expensive. To aid the evaluation of the resource potential of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, three-dimensional inverse modeling of geophysical potential field data (magnetic and gravity) collected near the seafloor can be carried out to further enhance geologic models interpolated from sparse drilling. Here, we present inverse modeling results of magnetic and gravity data collected from the active mound at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal vent field, located at 26°08′N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, using autonomous underwater vehicle and submersible surveying. Both minimum-structure and surface geometry inverse modeling methods were utilized. Through deposit-scale magnetic modeling, the outer extent of a chloritized alteration zone within the basalt host rock below the mound was resolved, providing an indication of the angle of the rising hydrothermal fluid and the depth and volume of seawater/hydrothermal mixing zone. The thickness of the massive sulfide mound was determined by modeling the gravity data, enabling the tonnage of the mound to be estimated at 2.17 ± 0.44 Mt through this geophysics-based, noninvasive approach.