Anderson Katie M.
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ArticleStructural changes in gill DNA reveal the effects of contaminants on Puget Sound fish(National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2003-12-18) Malins, Donald C. ; Stegeman, John J. ; Anderson, Jack W. ; Johnson, Paul M. ; Gold, Jordan ; Anderson, Katie M.Structural differences were identified in gill DNA from two groups of English sole collected from Puget Sound, Washington, in October 2000. One group was from the industrialized Duwamish River (DR) in Seattle and the other from relatively clean Quartermaster Harbor (QMH). Chemical markers of sediment contamination [e.g., polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] established that the DR was substantially more contaminated than QMH. The levels of these chemicals in the sediments of both sites were consistent with levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression in the gills of English sole from the same sites. Structural differences in gill DNA between the groups were evinced via statistical models of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Marked structural damage was found in the gill DNA of the DR fish as reflected in differences in base functional groups (e.g., C–O and NH2) and conformational properties (e.g., arising from perturbations in vertical base stacking interactions). These DNA differences were used to discriminate between the two fish groups through principal components analysis of mean FT-IR spectra. In addition, logistic regression analysis allowed for the development of a “DNA damage index” to assess the effects of contaminants on the gill. The evidence implies that environmental chemicals contribute to the DNA changes in the gill. The damaged DNA is a promising marker for identifying, through gill biopsies, contaminant effects on fish.
ArticleBiomarkers signal contaminant effects on the organs of English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Puget Sound(National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2006-06) Malins, Donald C. ; Anderson, Katie M. ; Stegeman, John J. ; Jaruga, Pawel ; Green, Virginia M. ; Gilman, Naomi K. ; Dizdaroglu, MiralFish living in contaminated environments accumulate toxic chemicals in their tissues. Biomarkers are needed to identify the resulting health effects, particularly focusing on early changes at a subcellular level. We used a suite of complementary biomarkers to signal contaminant-induced changes in the DNA structure and cellular physiology of the livers and gills of English sole (Parophrys vetulus) . These sediment-dwelling fish were obtained from the industrialized lower Duwamish River (DR) in Seattle, Washington, and from Quartermaster Harbor (QMH) , a relatively clean reference site in south Puget Sound. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) , and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) identified potentially deleterious alterations in the DNA structure of the DR fish livers and gills, compared with the QMH fish. Expression of CYP1A (a member of the cytochrome P450 multigene family of enzymes) signaled changes in the liver associated with the oxidation of organic xenobiotics, as previously found with the gill. The FT-IR models demonstrated that the liver DNA of the DR fish had a unique structure likely arising from exposure to environmental chemicals. Analysis by LC/MS and GC/MS showed higher concentrations of DNA base lesions in the liver DNA of the DR fish, suggesting that these base modifications contributed to this discrete DNA structure. A comparable analysis by LC/MS and GC/MS of base modifications provided similar results with the gill. The biomarkers described are highly promising for identifying contaminant-induced stresses in fish populations from polluted and reference sites and, in addition, for monitoring the progress of remedial actions.