Nooner Scott L.
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ArticleAxial Seamount(Oceanography Society, 2010-03) Chadwick, William W. ; Butterfield, David A. ; Embley, Robert W. ; Tunnicliffe, Verena ; Huber, Julie A. ; Nooner, Scott L. ; Clague, David A.Axial Seamount is a hotspot volcano superimposed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Due to its robust magma supply, it rises ~ 800 m above the rest of JdFR and has a large elongate summit caldera with two rift zones that parallel and overlap with adjacent segments of the spreading center.
ArticleThe magnetization of an underwater caldera: a time‐lapse magnetic anomaly study of axial seamount(American Geophysical Union, 2022-09-03) Fluegel, Bailey ; Tivey, Maurice ; Biasi, Joseph ; Chadwick, William W. ; Nooner, Scott L.Axial Seamount in the northeast Pacific erupted in 2015, 2011, and 1998. Although monitored by the Regional Cabled Array of the Ocean Observatory Initiative, few magnetic surveys have been conducted over the region. This study uses high‐resolution magnetic data over the seamount collected by autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry during three years (2015, 2017, and 2020). The goal is to investigate whether there are temporal changes in the near‐surface magnetic field observable over the time scale of one volcanic cycle. We compare magnetic maps from repeated tracklines from each year. We find maps of the yearly difference in magnetization show coherent patterns that are not random. The central region of the caldera has become more magnetic during recent years, suggesting cooling of the surficial lava flows since 2015. Sentry data are more sensitive to shallow crustal structure compared to sea surface data which show longer wavelength anomalies extending deeper into the crust.Plain Language SummaryAxial Seamount is an active underwater volcano located off the coast of Oregon that has recently erupted in 2015, 2011, and 1998. Though Axial is monitored by many seafloor instruments, the magnetism of the region and how it changes with time has not been studied. However, we believe studying the magnetics of Axial can provide powerful insights into the internal structure of the volcano. Specifically, volcanic rocks contain magnetic minerals called magnetite. Above a certain temperature, called the Curie temperature, these minerals become non‐magnetic. Thus, magnetism may be able to detect changes in the high temperature areas of the volcano between eruptions, such as the magma chamber or young lava flows. Here, we perform the first study analyzing three separate years of high‐resolution magnetic data collected using an autonomous underwater vehicle over Axial seamount. We create magnetic maps using repeated vehicle tracklines to highlight differences between each year and compare our findings with broader surveys of the region. Our results indicate the central region of Axial has become more magnetic during recent years, suggesting cooling of the lavas erupted in 2015 and their associated subsurface feeder zones.Key PointsRepeat magnetic surveys at active submarine volcanos image temporal change in thermal structure related to geologic and volcanic processesHigh resolution magnetic data can be used for low‐cost volcano monitoring in the marine environment over relevant timescales