Hyde Kimberly J. W.

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Kimberly J. W.

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  • Article
    High rates of N-2 fixation in temperate, western North Atlantic coastal waters expand the realm of marine diazotrophy
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-06-10) Mulholland, Margaret R. ; Bernhardt, Peter W. ; Widner, Brittany ; Selden, Corday ; Chappell, Phoebe Dreux ; Clayton, Sophie A. ; Mannino, Antonio ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W.
    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation can alleviate N limitation of primary productivity by introducing fixed nitrogen (N) to the world's oceans. Although measurements of pelagic marine N2 fixation are predominantly from oligotrophic oceanic regions, where N limitation is thought to favor growth of diazotrophic microbes, here we report high rates of N2 fixation from seven cruises spanning four seasons in temperate, western North Atlantic coastal waters along the North American continental shelf between Cape Hatteras and Nova Scotia, an area representing 6.4% of the North Atlantic continental shelf area. Integrating average areal rates of N2 fixation during each season and for each domain in the study area, the estimated N input from N2 fixation to this temperate shelf system is 0.02 Tmol N/year, an amount equivalent to that previously estimated for the entire North Atlantic continental shelf. Unicellular group A cyanobacteria (UCYN‐A) were most often the dominant diazotrophic group expressing nifH, a gene encoding the nitrogenase enzyme, throughout the study area during all seasons. This expands the domain of these diazotrophs to include coastal waters where dissolved N concentrations are not always depleted. Further, the high rates of N2 fixation and diazotroph diversity along the western North Atlantic continental shelf underscore the need to reexamine the biogeography and the activity of diazotrophs along continental margins. Accounting for this substantial but previously overlooked source of new N to marine systems necessitates revisions to global marine N budgets.
  • Article
    Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades : a case study at BATS and HOT
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-09-15) Saba, Vincent S. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Carr, Mary-Elena ; Antoine, David ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Asanuma, Ichio ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bennington, Val ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bruggeman, Jorn ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Church, Matthew J. ; Ciotti, Aurea M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dowell, Mark ; Dunne, John P. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Gregg, Watson ; Hoepffner, Nicolas ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W. ; Ishizaka, Joji ; Kameda, Takahiko ; Karl, David M. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Lomas, Michael W. ; Marra, John F. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Melin, Frederic ; Moore, J. Keith ; Morel, Andre ; O'Reilly, John ; Salihoglu, Baris ; Scardi, Michele ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Tang, Shilin ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Uitz, Julia ; Vichi, Marcello ; Waters, Kirk ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Yool, Andrew
    The performance of 36 models (22 ocean color models and 14 biogeochemical ocean circulation models (BOGCMs)) that estimate depth-integrated marine net primary productivity (NPP) was assessed by comparing their output to in situ 14C data at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study (BATS) and the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) over nearly two decades. Specifically, skill was assessed based on the models' ability to estimate the observed mean, variability, and trends of NPP. At both sites, more than 90% of the models underestimated mean NPP, with the average bias of the BOGCMs being nearly twice that of the ocean color models. However, the difference in overall skill between the best BOGCM and the best ocean color model at each site was not significant. Between 1989 and 2007, in situ NPP at BATS and HOT increased by an average of nearly 2% per year and was positively correlated to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index. The majority of ocean color models produced in situ NPP trends that were closer to the observed trends when chlorophyll-a was derived from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rather than fluorometric or SeaWiFS data. However, this was a function of time such that average trend magnitude was more accurately estimated over longer time periods. Among BOGCMs, only two individual models successfully produced an increasing NPP trend (one model at each site). We caution against the use of models to assess multiannual changes in NPP over short time periods. Ocean color model estimates of NPP trends could improve if more high quality HPLC chlorophyll-a time series were available.
  • Article
    Shelf break exchange processes influence the availability of the northern shortfin squid, Illex illecebrosus, in the Northwest Atlantic
    (Wiley, 2023-04-14) Salois, Sarah L. ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W. ; Silver, Adrienne ; Lowman, Brooke A. ; Gangopadhyay, Avijit ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen ; Mercer, Anna J. M. ; Manderson, John P. ; Gaichas, Sarah K. ; Hocking, Daniel J. ; Galuardi, Benjamin ; Jones, Andrew W. ; Kaelin, Jeff ; DiDomenico, Greg ; Almeida, Katie ; Bright, Bill ; Lapp, Meghan
    The United States Northern Shortfin squid fishery is known for its large fluctuations in catch at annual scales. In the last 5 years, this fishery has experienced increased availability of Illex illecebrosus along the Northeast US continental shelf (NES), resulting in high catch per unit effort (CPUE) and early fishery closures due to quota exceedance. The fishery occurs within the Northwest Atlantic, whose complex dynamics are set up by the interplay between the large‐scale Gulf Stream, mesoscale eddies, Shelfbreak Jet, and shelf‐slope exchange processes. Our ability to understand and quantify this regional variability is requisite for understanding the availability patterns of Illex, which are largely influenced by oceanographic conditions. In an effort to advance our current understanding of the seasonal and interannual variability in this species' relative abundance on the NES, we used generalized additive models to examine the relationships between the physical environment and hotspots of productivity to changes in CPUE of I. illecebrosus in the Southern stock component, which comprises the US fishery. Specifically, we derived oceanographic indicators by pairing high‐resolution remote sensing data and global ocean reanalysis physical data to high‐resolution fishery catch data. We identified a suite of environmental covariates that were strongly related to instances of higher catch rates. In particular, bottom temperature, warm core rings, subsurface features, and frontal dynamics together serve as indicators of habitat condition and primary productivity hotspots, providing great utility for understanding the distribution of Illex with the potential for forecasting seasonal and interannual availability.