Heinze Christoph

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Heinze
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Christoph
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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-02-02) Sitch, Stephen ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Jones, S. D. ; Murray-Tortarolo, G. ; Ahlstrom, Andreas P. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Graven, Heather ; Heinze, Christoph ; Huntingford, Chris ; Levis, Samuel ; Levy, Peter E. ; Lomas, Mark ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Zaehle, Sonke ; Zeng, Ning ; Arneth, Almut ; Bonan, Gordon B. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Ciais, Philippe ; Ellis, Richard ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Peylin, Philippe ; Piao, S. L. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Smith, Benjamin ; Zhu, Zaichun ; Myneni, Ranga
    The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeochemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990–2009, to attribute these trends to underlying processes in the models, and to quantify the uncertainty and level of inter-model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; land use and land cover changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990–2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of −2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr−1 with a small significant trend of −0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr−2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990–2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of −2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr−1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (−0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr−2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small, trend of −0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr−2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP), whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−2 – primarily as a consequence of widespread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (−0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr−2), with almost no trend over the northern land region, where recent warming and reduced rainfall offsets the positive impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and changes in growing season length on carbon storage. The small uptake trend in the ocean models emerges because climate variability and change, and in particular increasing sea surface temperatures, tend to counter\-act the trend in ocean uptake driven by the increase in atmospheric CO2. Large uncertainty remains in the magnitude and sign of modelled carbon trends in several regions, as well as regarding the influence of land use and land cover changes on regional trends.
  • Article
    Global ocean carbon uptake : magnitude, variability and trends
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-03-22) Wanninkhof, Rik ; Park, Geun-Ha ; Takahashi, Taro ; Sweeney, Colm ; Feely, Richard A. ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Doney, Scott C. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Lenton, Andrew ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Heinze, Christoph ; Schwinger, Jorg ; Graven, Heather ; Khatiwala, Samar
    The globally integrated sea–air anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from 1990 to 2009 is determined from models and data-based approaches as part of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project. Numerical methods include ocean inverse models, atmospheric inverse models, and ocean general circulation models with parameterized biogeochemistry (OBGCMs). The median value of different approaches shows good agreement in average uptake. The best estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake for the time period based on a compilation of approaches is −2.0 Pg C yr−1. The interannual variability in the sea–air flux is largely driven by large-scale climate re-organizations and is estimated at 0.2 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades with some systematic differences between approaches. The largest differences between approaches are seen in the decadal trends. The trends range from −0.13 (Pg C yr−1) decade−1 to −0.50 (Pg C yr−1) decade−1 for the two decades under investigation. The OBGCMs and the data-based sea–air CO2 flux estimates show appreciably smaller decadal trends than estimates based on changes in carbon inventory suggesting that methods capable of resolving shorter timescales are showing a slowing of the rate of ocean CO2 uptake. RECCAP model outputs for five decades show similar differences in trends between approaches.
  • Article
    Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-12-11) Gehlen, M. ; Seferian, Roland ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Roy, T. ; Roth, R. ; Barry, James P. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Heinze, Christoph ; Joos, Fortunat ; Orr, James C. ; Resplandy, L. ; Segschneider, J. ; Tjiputra, Jerry
    This study aims to evaluate the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems in response to IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Deep-sea biota is likely highly vulnerable to changes in seawater chemistry and sensitive to moderate excursions in pH. Here we show, from seven fully coupled Earth system models, that for three out of four RCPs over 17% of the seafloor area below 500 m depth in the North Atlantic sector will experience pH reductions exceeding −0.2 units by 2100. Increased stratification in response to climate change partially alleviates the impact of ocean acidification on deep benthic environments. We report on major pH reductions over the deep North Atlantic seafloor (depth >500 m) and at important deep-sea features, such as seamounts and canyons. By 2100, and under the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5, pH reductions exceeding −0.2 (−0.3) units are projected in close to 23% (~15%) of North Atlantic deep-sea canyons and ~8% (3%) of seamounts – including seamounts proposed as sites of marine protected areas. The spatial pattern of impacts reflects the depth of the pH perturbation and does not scale linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Impacts may cause negative changes of the same magnitude or exceeding the current target of 10% of preservation of marine biomes set by the convention on biological diversity, implying that ocean acidification may offset benefits from conservation/management strategies relying on the regulation of resource exploitation.
  • Article
    Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century : projections with CMIP5 models
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-10-02) Bopp, Laurent ; Resplandy, L. ; Orr, James C. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Gehlen, M. ; Halloran, P. ; Heinze, Christoph ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Seferian, Roland ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Vichi, Marcello
    Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs) over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s) for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72) °C, −0.33 (±0.003) pH unit, −3.45 (±0.44)% and −8.6 (±7.9)%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45) °C, −0.07 (±0.001) pH unit, −1.81 (±0.31)% and −2.0 (±4.1)%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface oxygen prompt us to continue inter-model comparisons to understand these model differences, while calling for caution when using the CMIP5 models to force regional impact models.
  • Article
    Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5 : implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-05-12) Seferian, Roland ; Gehlen, Marion ; Bopp, Laurent ; Resplandy, Laure ; Orr, James ; Marti, Olivier ; Dunne, John P. ; Christian, James R. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Lindsay, Keith ; Halloran, Paul R. ; Heinze, Christoph ; Segschneider, Joachim ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Aumont, Olivier ; Romanou, Anastasia
    During the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) substantial efforts were made to systematically assess the skill of Earth system models. One goal was to check how realistically representative marine biogeochemical tracer distributions could be reproduced by models. In routine assessments model historical hindcasts were compared with available modern biogeochemical observations. However, these assessments considered neither how close modeled biogeochemical reservoirs were to equilibrium nor the sensitivity of model performance to initial conditions or to the spin-up protocols. Here, we explore how the large diversity in spin-up protocols used for marine biogeochemistry in CMIP5 Earth system models (ESMs) contributes to model-to-model differences in the simulated fields. We take advantage of a 500-year spin-up simulation of IPSL-CM5A-LR to quantify the influence of the spin-up protocol on model ability to reproduce relevant data fields. Amplification of biases in selected biogeochemical fields (O2, NO3, Alk-DIC) is assessed as a function of spin-up duration. We demonstrate that a relationship between spin-up duration and assessment metrics emerges from our model results and holds when confronted with a larger ensemble of CMIP5 models. This shows that drift has implications for performance assessment in addition to possibly aliasing estimates of climate change impact. Our study suggests that differences in spin-up protocols could explain a substantial part of model disparities, constituting a source of model-to-model uncertainty. This requires more attention in future model intercomparison exercises in order to provide quantitatively more correct ESM results on marine biogeochemistry and carbon cycle feedbacks.
  • Article
    230 Th normalization: new insights on an essential tool for quantifying sedimentary fluxes in the modern and quaternary ocean
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2020-01-27) Costa, Kassandra M. ; Hayes, Christopher T. ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Pavia, Frank ; Bausch, Alexandra ; Deng, Feifei ; Dutay, Jean-Claude ; Geibert, Walter ; Heinze, Christoph ; Henderson, Gideon M. ; Hillaire‐Marcel, Claude ; Hoffmann, Sharon S. ; Jaccard, Samuel L. ; Jacobel, Allison W. ; Kienast, Stephanie S. ; Kipp, Lauren ; Lerner, Paul ; Lippold, Jörg ; Lund, David C. ; Marcantonio, Franco ; McGee, David ; McManus, Jerry F. ; Mekik, Figen ; Middleton, Jennifer L. ; Missiaen, Lise ; Not, Christelle ; Pichat, Sylvain ; Robinson, Laura F. ; Rowland, George H. ; Roy-Barman, Matthieu ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Torfstein, Adi ; Winckler, Gisela ; Zhou, Yuxin
    230Th normalization is a valuable paleoceanographic tool for reconstructing high‐resolution sediment fluxes during the late Pleistocene (last ~500,000 years). As its application has expanded to ever more diverse marine environments, the nuances of 230Th systematics, with regard to particle type, particle size, lateral advective/diffusive redistribution, and other processes, have emerged. We synthesized over 1000 sedimentary records of 230Th from across the global ocean at two time slices, the late Holocene (0–5,000 years ago, or 0–5 ka) and the Last Glacial Maximum (18.5–23.5 ka), and investigated the spatial structure of 230Th‐normalized mass fluxes. On a global scale, sedimentary mass fluxes were significantly higher during the Last Glacial Maximum (1.79–2.17 g/cm2kyr, 95% confidence) relative to the Holocene (1.48–1.68 g/cm2kyr, 95% confidence). We then examined the potential confounding influences of boundary scavenging, nepheloid layers, hydrothermal scavenging, size‐dependent sediment fractionation, and carbonate dissolution on the efficacy of 230Th as a constant flux proxy. Anomalous 230Th behavior is sometimes observed proximal to hydrothermal ridges and in continental margins where high particle fluxes and steep continental slopes can lead to the combined effects of boundary scavenging and nepheloid interference. Notwithstanding these limitations, we found that 230Th normalization is a robust tool for determining sediment mass accumulation rates in the majority of pelagic marine settings (>1,000 m water depth).