Hwang Jeomshik

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  • Article
    Lateral organic carbon supply to the deep Canada Basin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-06-12) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Manganini, Steven J. ; Honjo, Susumu
    Understanding the processes driving the carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean is important for assessing the impacts of the predicted rapid and amplified climate change in this region. We analyzed settling particle samples intercepted by a time-series sediment trap deployed in the abyssal Canada Basin (at 3067 m) in order to examine carbon export to the deep Arctic Ocean. Strikingly old radiocarbon ages (apparent mean 14C age = ∼1900 years) of the organic carbon, abundant lithogenic material (∼80%), and mass flux variations temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary productivity in overlying surface waters together suggest that, unlike other ocean basins, the majority of the particulate organic carbon entering the deep Canada Basin is supplied from the surrounding margins.
  • Article
    Lithogenic particle transport trajectories on the Northwest Atlantic Margin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-12-04) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Giosan, Liviu ; Kim, Minkyoung ; Manganini, Steven J. ; Montluçon, Daniel ; Toole, John M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    The neodymium isotopic composition of the detrital (lithogenic) fraction (εNd‐detrital) of surface sediments and sinking particles was examined to constrain transport trajectories associated with hemipelagic sedimentation on the northwest Atlantic margin. The provenance of resuspended sediments and modes of lateral transport in the water column were of particular interest given the energetic hydrodynamic regime that sustains bottom and intermediate nepheloid layers over the margin. A large across‐margin gradient of ∼5 εNd units was observed for surface sediments, implying strong contrasts in sediment provenance, with εNd‐detrital values on the lower slope similar to those of “upstream regions” (Scotian margin) under the influence of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Sinking particles collected at three depths at a site (total water depth, ∼3,000 m) on the New England margin within the core of the DWBC exhibited a similarly large range in εNd‐detrital values. The εNd‐detrital values of particles intercepted at intermediate water depths (1,000 and 2,000 m) were similar to each other but significantly higher than those at 3,000 m (∼50 m above the seafloor). These observations suggest that lithogenic material accumulating in the upper two traps was primarily advected in intermediate nepheloid layers emanating from the adjacent shelf, while that at 3,000 m is strongly influenced by sediment resuspension and along‐margin, southward lateral transport within the bottom nepheloid layer via entrainment in the DWBC. Our results highlight the importance of both along‐ and across‐margin sediment transport as vectors for lithogenic material and associated organic carbon transport.
  • Article
    Transport of organic carbon from the California coast to the slope region : a study of Δ14C and δ13C signatures of organic compound classes
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-05-05) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Komada, Tomoko
    Surface sediments along a transect from an abyssal site in the northeastern Pacific (Station M, 34°50′N, 123°00′W) to a small mountainous river on the California coast (Santa Clara River) were studied to investigate the sources and cycling of organic matter on the continental margin. Sediment samples were separated into organic compound fractions (extractable lipids, amino acids (THAA), carbohydrates (TCHO), and the acid-insoluble fraction), and their carbon isotope ratios were measured. The Δ14C values of all the THAA and TCHO fractions were greater than −100‰, indicating relatively modern organic carbon (OC) source(s), and rapid cycling of these fractions. In contrast, the Δ14C values of extractable lipids and the acid-insoluble fraction were distinctly lower than those of the THAA and TCHO fractions. The Δ14C values of source OC to the sediments were estimated using a simple mixed layer model. These values were lower than the Δ14C signatures of pre-industrial plankton suggesting input of both old OC and contemporary plankton to the margin sediments. The source of old OC at the 2000-m site was likely from laterally transported coastal sediment. The estimated low Δ14C value of the transported OC suggests that old lipids and acid-insoluble material were selectively transported to the 2000-m site. The contribution of riverine POC to the margin sediments were estimated from Δ14C and δ13C values and indicate that relict OC exported by rivers was an important source of old lipids and acid-insoluble material to sedimentary OC on the shelf.
  • Article
    Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-12-09) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Druffel, Ellen R. M.
    To study cycling of organic fractions in the ocean, relative abundances and radio- and stable-carbon isotope measurements of total lipid extract, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) were made. Changes in relative abundances occurred mostly in the upper 1000 m of the water column, with a decrease in total lipid extract and the acid-soluble fraction and an increase in the acid-insoluble fraction with increasing depth. We found lower Δ14C values for total lipid extract and the acid-insoluble fraction than for the acid-soluble fraction, which is consistent with the previous suggestion of incorporation of dissolved organic carbon and/or resuspended sediment to POC (Druffel and Williams, 1990; Sherrell et al., 1998). The Δ14C values of these fractions in a given organic carbon pool must be understood in terms of acquisition of 14C-depleted carbon from other carbon pools in addition to aging within the reservoir.
  • Article
    Biological and physical controls on the flux and characteristics of sinking particles on the Northwest Atlantic margin
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-06-01) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Manganini, Steven J. ; Park, Jonglin ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; Toole, John M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Biogenic matter characteristics and radiocarbon contents of organic carbon (OC) were examined on sinking particle samples intercepted at three nominal depths of 1000 m, 2000 m, and 3000 m (∼50 m above the seafloor) during a 3 year sediment trap program on the New England slope in the Northwest Atlantic. We have sought to characterize the sources of sinking particles in the context of vertical export of biogenic particles from the overlying water column and lateral supply of resuspended sediment particles from adjacent margin sediments. High aluminum (Al) abundances and low OC radiocarbon contents indicated contributions from resuspended sediment which was greatest at 3000 m but also significant at shallower depths. The benthic source (i.e., laterally supplied resuspended sediment) of opal appears negligible based on the absence of a correlation with Al fluxes. In comparison, CaCO3 fluxes at 3000 m showed a positive correlation with Al fluxes. Benthic sources accounted for 42 ∼ 63% of the sinking particle flux based on radiocarbon mass balance and the relationship between Al flux and CaCO3 flux. Episodic pulses of Al at 3000 m were significantly correlated with the near-bottom current at a nearby hydrographic mooring site, implying the importance of current variability in lateral particle transport. However, Al fluxes at 1000 m and 2000 m were coherent but differed from those at 3000 m, implying more than one mode of lateral supply of particles in the water column.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial variability of particle transport in the deep Arctic Canada Basin
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-11) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Kim, Minkyoung ; Manganini, Steven J. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Park, Jong Jin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To better understand the current carbon cycle and potentially detect its change in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, we examined sinking particles collected quasi-continuously over a period of 7 years (2004–2011) by bottom-tethered sediment trap moorings in the central Canada Basin. Total mass flux was very low (<100 mg m−2 d−1) at all sites and was temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary production in surface waters. Extremely low radiocarbon contents of particulate organic carbon and high aluminum contents in sinking particles reveal high contributions of resuspended sediment to total sinking particle flux in the deep Canada Basin. Station A (75°N, 150°W) in the southwest quadrant of the Canada Basin is most strongly influenced while Station C (77°N, 140°W) in the northeast quadrant is least influenced by lateral particle supply based on radiocarbon content and Al concentration. The results at Station A, where three sediment traps were deployed at different depths, imply that the most likely mode of lateral particle transport was as thick clouds of enhanced particle concentration extending well above the seafloor. At present, only 1%–2% of the low levels of new production in Canada Basin surface waters reaches the interior basin. Lateral POC supply therefore appears to be the major source of organic matter to the interior basin. However, ongoing changes to surface ocean boundary conditions may influence both lateral and vertical supply of particulate material to the deep Canada Basin.
  • Article
    Widespread influence of resuspended sediments on oceanic particulate organic carbon : insights from radiocarbon and aluminum contents in sinking particles
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-11-20) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Particulate organic carbon (POC) in the ocean often exhibits more depleted radiocarbon contents (lower Δ 14C values) than expected if its sole source were POC recently synthesized by primary production and export from the overlying surface waters. An examination of available Δ14C data sets for sinking POC show that this phenomenon is both common and globally widespread. Also, a strong correlation is found to exist between Δ14C values of organic carbon and aluminum content in sinking particles that is consistent over a range of oceanic settings. Together, these findings imply that aged organic carbon associated with lithogenic material from sediment resuspension is responsible for the observed low Δ 14C values as opposed to other processes such as incorporation of dissolved inorganic carbon or dissolved organic carbon into POC at depth. An estimate based on POC flux-weighted Δ14C values shows that about 35% of sinking POC at the locations studied is derived from resuspended sediment. Our results suggest that resuspension of sediment and its subsequent lateral transport is an important component of the oceanic carbon cycle and should be considered in models of oceanic carbon export and burial.