Wefer Gerold

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  • Technical Report
    Current measurements from the northern Nordic Seas, 1983-1986
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1987-02) Honjo, Susumu ; Wooding, Christine M. ; Wefer, Gerold
    Records from ten Aanderaa current meters deployed along with 5 current meter/sediment trap mooring arrays in the Fram Strait and Greenland Basin, each deployed for approximately one year between 1983 and 1986, are presented in this data file. Data included are current vectors, temperatures, frequency spectra, and two- and three-dimensional vector diagrams.
  • Article
    Tectonically-triggered sediment and carbon export to the Hadal zone
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-01-09) Bao, Rui ; Strasser, Michael ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Wefer, Gerold ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Sediments in deep ocean trenches may contain crucial information on past earthquake history and constitute important sites of carbon burial. Here we present 14C data on bulk organic carbon (OC) and its thermal decomposition fractions produced by ramped pyrolysis/oxidation for a core retrieved from the >7.5 km-deep Japan Trench. High-resolution 14C measurements, coupled with distinctive thermogram characteristics of OC, reveal hemipelagic sedimentation interrupted by episodic deposition of pre-aged OC in the trench. Low δ13C values and diverse 14C ages of thermal fractions imply that the latter material originates from the adjacent margin, and the co-occurrence of pre-aged OC with intervals corresponding to known earthquake events implies tectonically triggered, gravity-flow-driven supply. We show that 14C ages of thermal fractions can yield valuable chronological constraints on sedimentary sequences. Our findings shed new light on links between tectonically driven sedimentological processes and marine carbon cycling, with implications for carbon dynamics in hadal environments.
  • Article
    Abrupt changes of temperature and water chemistry in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene Black Sea
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-01-12) Bahr, Andre ; Lamy, Frank ; Arz, Helge W. ; Major, Candace O. ; Kwiecien, Olga ; Wefer, Gerold
    New Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and published stable oxygen isotope and 87Sr/86Sr data obtained on ostracods from gravity cores located on the northwestern Black Sea slope were used to infer changes in the Black Sea hydrology and water chemistry for the period between 30 to 8 ka B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon years). The period prior to 16.5 ka B.P. was characterized by stable conditions in all records until a distinct drop in δ 18O values combined with a sharp increase in 87Sr/86Sr occurred between 16.5 and 14.8 ka B.P. This event is attributed to an increased runoff from the northern drainage area of the Black Sea between Heinrich Event 1 and the onset of the Bølling warm period. While the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca records remained rather unaffected by this inflow; they show an abrupt rise with the onset of the Bølling/Allerød warm period. This rise was caused by calcite precipitation in the surface water, which led to a sudden increase of the Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios of the Black Sea water. The stable oxygen isotopes also start to increase around 15 ka B.P., although in a more gradual manner, due to isotopically enriched meteoric precipitation. While Sr/Ca remains constant during the following interval of the Younger Dryas cold period, a decrease in the Mg/Ca ratio implies that the intermediate water masses of the Black Sea temporarily cooled by 1–2°C during the Younger Dryas. The 87Sr/86Sr values drop after the cessation of the water inflow at 15 ka B.P. to a lower level until the Younger Dryas, where they reach values similar to those observed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This might point to a potential outflow to the Mediterranean Sea via the Sea of Marmara during this period. The inflow of Mediterranean water started around 9.3 ka B.P., which is clearly detectable in the abruptly increasing Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr values. The accompanying increase in the δ 18O record is less pronounced and would fit to an inflow lasting ∼100 a.