Lu Xiaoliang

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  • Article
    Optimization of terrestrial ecosystem model parameters using atmospheric CO2 concentration data with the Global Carbon Assimilation System (GCAS)
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-12-23) Chen, Zhuoqi ; Chen, Jing M. ; Zhang, Shupeng ; Zheng, Xiaogu ; Ju, Weiming ; Mo, Gang ; Lu, Xiaoliang
    The Global Carbon Assimilation System that assimilates ground-based atmospheric CO2 data is used to estimate several key parameters in a terrestrial ecosystem model for the purpose of improving carbon cycle simulation. The optimized parameters are the leaf maximum carboxylation rate at 25°C (V25 max), the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Q10), and the soil carbon pool size. The optimization is performed at the global scale at 1° resolution for the period from 2002 to 2008. The results indicate that vegetation from tropical zones has lower V25 max values than vegetation in temperate regions. Relatively high values of Q10 are derived over high/midlatitude regions. Both V25 max and Q10 exhibit pronounced seasonal variations at middle-high latitudes. The maxima in V25 max occur during growing seasons, while the minima appear during nongrowing seasons. Q10 values decrease with increasing temperature. The seasonal variabilities of V25 max and Q10 are larger at higher latitudes. Optimized V25 max and Q10 show little seasonal variabilities at tropical regions. The seasonal variabilities of V25 max are consistent with the variabilities of LAI for evergreen conifers and broadleaf evergreen forests. Variations in leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll contents may partly explain the variations in V25 max. The spatial distribution of the total soil carbon pool size after optimization is compared favorably with the gridded Global Soil Data Set for Earth System. The results also suggest that atmospheric CO2 data are a source of information that can be tapped to gain spatially and temporally meaningful information for key ecosystem parameters that are representative at the regional and global scales.
  • Article
    Land carbon sequestration within the conterminous United States : regional- and state-level analyses
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-02-28) Lu, Xiaoliang ; Kicklighter, David W. ; Melillo, Jerry M. ; Reilly, John M. ; Xu, Liyi
    A quantitative understanding of the rate at which land ecosystems are sequestering or losing carbon at national-, regional-, and state-level scales is needed to develop policies to mitigate climate change. In this study, a new improved historical land use and land cover change data set is developed and combined with a process-based ecosystem model to estimate carbon sources and sinks in land ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the contemporary period of 2001–2005 and over the last three centuries. We estimate that land ecosystems in the conterminous United States sequestered 323 Tg C yr−1 at the beginning of the 21st century with forests accounting for 97% of this sink. This land carbon sink varied substantially across the conterminous United States, with the largest sinks occurring in the Southeast. Land sinks are large enough to completely compensate fossil fuel emissions in Maine and Mississippi, but nationally, carbon sinks compensate for only 20% of U.S. fossil fuel emissions. We find that regions that are currently large carbon sinks (e.g., Southeast) tend to have been large carbon sources over the longer historical period. Both the land use history and fate of harvested products can be important in determining a region's overall impact on the atmospheric carbon budget. While there are numerous options for reducing fossil fuels (e.g., increase efficiency and displacement by renewable resources), new land management opportunities for sequestering carbon need to be explored. Opportunities include reforestation and managing forest age structure. These opportunities will vary from state to state and over time across the United States.
  • Article
    Spatial scale-dependent land–atmospheric methane exchanges in the northern high latitudes from 1993 to 2004
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-04-01) Zhu, Xudong ; Zhuang, Qianlai ; Lu, Xiaoliang ; Song, L.
    Effects of various spatial scales of water table dynamics on land–atmospheric methane (CH4) exchanges have not yet been assessed for large regions. Here we used a coupled hydrology–biogeochemistry model to quantify daily CH4 exchanges over the pan-Arctic from 1993 to 2004 at two spatial scales of 100 km and 5 km. The effects of sub-grid spatial variability of the water table depth (WTD) on CH4 emissions were examined with a TOPMODEL-based parameterization scheme for the northern high latitudes. We found that both WTD and CH4 emissions are better simulated at a 5 km spatial resolution. By considering the spatial heterogeneity of WTD, net regional CH4 emissions at a 5 km resolution are 38.1–55.4 Tg CH4 yr−1 from 1993 to 2004, which are on average 42% larger than those simulated at a 100 km resolution using a grid-cell-mean WTD scheme. The difference in annual CH4 emissions is attributed to the increased emitting area and enhanced flux density with finer resolution for WTD. Further, the inclusion of sub-grid WTD spatial heterogeneity also influences the inter-annual variability of CH4 emissions. Soil temperature plays an important role in the 100 km estimates, while the 5 km estimates are mainly influenced by WTD. This study suggests that previous macro-scale biogeochemical models using a grid-cell-mean WTD scheme might have underestimated the regional CH4 emissions. The spatial scale-dependent effects of WTD should be considered in future quantification of regional CH4 emissions.
  • Article
    Performance of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in estimating water-use efficiency in a temperate forest
    (MDPI AG, 2018-05-20) Lu, Xiaoliang ; Liu, Zhunqiao ; Zhou, Yuyu ; Liu, Yaling ; Tang, Jianwu
    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a critical variable describing the interrelationship between carbon uptake and water loss in land ecosystems. Different WUE formulations (WUEs) including intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), inherent water use efficiency (IWUE), and underlying water use efficiency (uWUE) have been proposed. Based on continuous measurements of carbon and water fluxes and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) at a temperate forest, we analyze the correlations between SIF emission and the different WUEs at the canopy level by using linear regression (LR) and Gaussian processes regression (GPR) models. Overall, we find that SIF emission has a good potential to estimate IWUE and uWUE, especially when a combination of different SIF bands and a GPR model is used. At an hourly time step, canopy-level SIF emission can explain as high as 65% and 61% of the variances in IWUE and uWUE. Specifically, we find that (1) a daily time step by averaging hourly values during daytime can enhance the SIF-IWUE correlations, (2) the SIF-IWUE correlations decrease when photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature exceed their optimal biological thresholds, (3) a low Leaf Area Index (LAI) has a negative effect on the SIF-IWUE correlations due to large evaporation fluxes, (4) a high LAI in summer also reduces the SIF-IWUE correlations most likely due to increasing scattering and (re)absorption of the SIF signal, and (5) the observation time during the day has a strong impact on the SIF-IWUE correlations and SIF measurements in the early morning have the lowest power to estimate IWUE due to the large evaporation of dew. This study provides a new way to evaluate the stomatal regulation of plant-gas exchange without complex parameterizations.
  • Preprint
    Global evaluation of gap-filling approaches for seasonal NDVI with considering vegetation growth trajectory, protection of key point, noise resistance and curve stability
    ( 2016-11) Liu, Ronggao ; Shang, Rong ; Liu, Yang ; Lu, Xiaoliang
    A variety of approaches are available to fill the gaps in the time series of vegetation parameters estimated from satellite observations. In this paper, a scheme considering vegetation growth trajectory, protection of key point, noise resistance and curve stability was proposed to evaluate the gap-filling approaches. Six approaches for gap filling were globally evaluated pixel-by-pixel based on a reference NDVI generated from MODIS observations during the past 15 years. The evaluated approaches include the Fourier-based approach (Fourier), the double logistic model (DL), the iterative interpolation for data reconstruction (IDR), the Whittaker smoother (Whit), the Savitzky-Golay filter (SG) and the locally adjusted cubic spline capping approach (LACC). Considering the five aspects, the ranks of the overall performance are LACC > Fourier > IDR > DL > SG > Whit. The six approaches are similar in filling the gaps and remaining the curve stability but there are large difference in protection of key points and noise resistance. The SG is sensitive to noises and the Whit is poor in protection of key points. In the monsoon regions of India, all evaluated approaches don’t work well. This paper provides some new views for evaluating the gap filling approaches that will be helpful in selecting the optimal approach to reconstruct the time series of parameters for data applications.
  • Preprint
    Chlorophyll fluorescence tracks seasonal variations of photosynthesis from leaf to canopy in a temperate forest
    ( 2016-11) Yang, Hualei ; Yang, Xi ; Zhang, Yongguang ; Heskel, Mary ; Lu, Xiaoliang ; Munger, J. William ; Sun, Shucun ; Tang, Jianwu
    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales, and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R2=0.73, 0.77 and 0.86 at leaf, canopy and satellite scales, respectively; p<0.0001). We developed a model to estimate GPP from the tower-based measurement of SIF and leaf-level ChlF parameters. The estimation of GPP from this model agreed well with flux tower observations of GPP (R2=0.68; p<0.0001), demonstrating the potential of SIF for modeling GPP. At the leaf scale, we found that leaf Fq’/Fm’, the fraction of absorbed photons that are used for photochemistry for a light adapted measurement from a pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer, was the best leaf fluorescence parameter to correlate with canopy-SIF yield (SIF/APAR, R2=0.79; p<0.0001). We also found that canopy-SIF and SIF-derived GPP (GPPSIF) were strongly correlated to leaf-level biochemistry and canopy structure, including chlorophyll content (R2=0.65 for canopy-GPPSIF and chlorophyll content; p<0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R2=0.35 for canopy-GPPSIF and LAI; p<0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R2=0.36 for canopy-GPPSIF and NDVI; p<0.0001). Our results suggest that ChlF can be a powerful tool to track photosynthetic rates at leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales.
  • Article
    Using canopy greenness index to identify leaf ecophysiological traits during the foliar senescence in an oak forest
    (Ecological Society of America, 2018-07-31) Liu, Zhunqiao ; An, Shuqing ; Lu, Xiaoliang ; Hu, Haibo ; Tang, Jianwu
    Camera‐based observation of forest canopies allows for low‐cost, continuous, high temporal‐spatial resolutions of plant phenology and seasonality of functional traits. In this study, we extracted canopy color index (green chromatic coordinate, Gcc) from the time‐series canopy images provided by a digital camera in a deciduous forest in Massachusetts, USA. We also measured leaf‐level photosynthetic activities and leaf area index (LAI) development in the field during the growing season, and corresponding leaf chlorophyll concentrations in the laboratory. We used the Bayesian change point (BCP) approach to analyze Gcc. Our results showed that (1) the date of starting decline of LAI (DOY 263), defined as the start of senescence, could be mathematically identified from the autumn Gcc pattern by analyzing change points of the Gcc curve, and Gcc is highly correlated with LAI after the first change point when LAI was decreasing (R2 = 0.88, LAI < 2.5 m2/m2); (2) the second change point of Gcc (DOY 289) started a more rapid decline of Gcc when chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis rates were relatively low (13.4 ± 10.0% and 23.7 ± 13.4% of their maximum values, respectively) and continuously reducing; and (3) the third change point of Gcc (DOY 295) marked the end of growing season, defined by the termination of photosynthetic activities, two weeks earlier than the end of Gcc curve decline. Our results suggested that with the change point analysis, camera‐based phenology observation can effectively quantify the dynamic pattern of the start of senescence (with declining LAI) and the end of senescence (when photosynthetic activities terminated) in the deciduous forest.
  • Article
    Tidal wetland resilience to sea level rise increases their carbon sequestration capacity in United States
    (Nature Research, 2019-11-28) Wang, Faming ; Lu, Xiaoliang ; Sanders, Christian J. ; Tang, Jianwu
    Coastal wetlands are large reservoirs of soil carbon (C). However, the annual C accumulation rates contributing to the C storage in these systems have yet to be spatially estimated on a large scale. We synthesized C accumulation rate (CAR) in tidal wetlands of the conterminous United States (US), upscaled the CAR to national scale, and predicted trends based on climate change scenarios. Here, we show that the mean CAR is 161.8 ± 6 g Cm−2 yr−1, and the conterminous US tidal wetlands sequestrate 4.2–5.0 Tg C yr−1. Relative sea level rise (RSLR) largely regulates the CAR. The tidal wetland CAR is projected to increase in this century and continue their C sequestration capacity in all climate change scenarios, suggesting a strong resilience to sea level rise. These results serve as a baseline assessment of C accumulation in tidal wetlands of US, and indicate a significant C sink throughout this century.
  • Article
    Comparison of phenology estimated from reflectance-based indices and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations in a temperate forest using GPP-based phenology as the standard
    (MDPI AG, 2018-06-13) Lu, Xiaoliang ; Liu, Zhunqiao ; Zhou, Yuyu ; Liu, Yaling ; An, Shuqing ; Tang, Jianwu
    We assessed the performance of reflectance-based vegetation indices and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) datasets with various spatial and temporal resolutions in monitoring the Gross Primary Production (GPP)-based phenology in a temperate deciduous forest. The reflectance-based indices include the green chromatic coordinate (GCC), field measured and satellite remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); and the SIF datasets include ground-based measurement and satellite-based products. We found that, if negative impacts due to coarse spatial and temporal resolutions are effectively reduced, all these data can serve as good indicators of phenological metrics for spring. However, the autumn phenological metrics derived from all reflectance-based datasets are later than the those derived from ground-based GPP estimates (flux sites). This is because the reflectance-based observations estimate phenology by tracking physiological properties including leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), which does not reflect instantaneous changes in phenophase transitions, and thus the estimated fall phenological events may be later than GPP-based phenology. In contrast, we found that SIF has a good potential to track seasonal transition of photosynthetic activities in both spring and fall seasons. The advantage of SIF in estimating the GPP-based phenology lies in its inherent link to photosynthesis activities such that SIF can respond quickly to all factors regulating phenological events. Despite uncertainties in phenological metrics estimated from current spaceborne SIF observations due to their coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, dates in middle spring and autumn—the two most important metrics—can still be reasonably estimated from satellite SIF. Our study reveals that SIF provides a better way to monitor GPP-based phenological metrics.
  • Article
    A large-scale methane model by incorporating the surface water transport
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-28) Lu, Xiaoliang ; Zhuang, Qianlai ; Liu, Yaling ; Zhou, Yuyu ; AghaKouchak, Amir
    The effect of surface water movement on methane emissions is not explicitly considered in most of the current methane models. In this study, a surface water routing was coupled into our previously developed large-scale methane model. The revised methane model was then used to simulate global methane emissions during 2006–2010. From our simulations, the global mean annual maximum inundation extent is 10.6 ± 1.9 km2 and the methane emission is 297 ± 11 Tg C/yr in the study period. In comparison to the currently used TOPMODEL-based approach, we found that the incorporation of surface water routing leads to 24.7% increase in the annual maximum inundation extent and 30.8% increase in the methane emissions at the global scale for the study period, respectively. The effect of surface water transport on methane emissions varies in different regions: (1) the largest difference occurs in flat and moist regions, such as Eastern China; (2) high-latitude regions, hot spots in methane emissions, show a small increase in both inundation extent and methane emissions with the consideration of surface water movement; and (3) in arid regions, the new model yields significantly larger maximum flooded areas and a relatively small increase in the methane emissions. Although surface water is a small component in the terrestrial water balance, it plays an important role in determining inundation extent and methane emissions, especially in flat regions. This study indicates that future quantification of methane emissions shall consider the effects of surface water transport.