Leadbetter Edward R.

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Edward R.

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  • Article
    Revisiting the pink-red pigmented basidiomycete mirror yeast of the phyllosphere
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-05-10) Cobban, Alec ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Burgaud, Gaëtan ; Repeta, Daniel J. ; Leadbetter, Edward R.
    By taking advantage of the ballistoconidium-forming capabilities of members of the genus Sporobolomyces, we recovered ten isolates from deciduous tree leaves collected from Vermont and Washington, USA. Analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene indicate that all isolates are closely related. Further analysis of their physiological attributes shows that all were similarly pigmented yeasts capable of growth under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions, all were tolerant of repeated freezing and thawing, minimally tolerant to elevated temperature and desiccation, and capable of growth in liquid or on solid media containing pectin or galacturonic acid. The scientific literature on ballistoconidium-forming yeasts indicates that they are a polyphyletic group. Isolates of Sporobolomyces from two geographically separated sites show almost identical phenotypic and physiological characteristics and a monophyly with a broad group of differently named Sporobolomyces/Sporidiobolus species based on both small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences.
  • Article
    Structured multiple endosymbiosis of bacteria and archaea in a ciliate from marine sulfidic sediments : a survival mechanism in low oxygen, sulfidic sediments?
    (Frontiers Media, 2011-03-25) Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Leadbetter, Edward R. ; Bourland, William A. ; Beaudoin, David J. ; Bernhard, Joan M.
    Marine micro-oxic to sulfidic environments are sites of intensive biogeochemical cycling and elemental sequestration, where prokaryotes are major driving forces mediating carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and metal cycles, important from both biogeochemical and evolutionary perspectives. Associations between single-celled eukaryotes and bacteria and/or archaea are common in such habitats. Here we describe a ciliate common in the micro-oxic to anoxic, typically sulfidic, sediments of Santa Barbara Basin (CA, USA). The ciliate is 95% similar to Parduzcia orbis (18S rRNA). Transmission electron micrographs reveal clusters of at least three different endobiont types organized within membrane-bound sub-cellular regions. Catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescent in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA clone libraries confirm the symbionts include up to two sulfate reducers (Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfobacteraceae), a methanogen (Methanobacteriales), and possibly a Bacteroidete (Cytophaga) and a Type I methanotroph, suggesting synergistic metabolisms in this environment. This case study is discussed in terms of implications to biogeochemistry, and benthic ecology.
  • Preprint
    Inter-­comparison of the potentially active prokaryotic communities in the halocline sediments of Mediterranean deep-sea hypersaline basins
    ( 2015-07) Kormas, Konstantinos Ar. ; Pachiadaki, Maria G. ; Karayanni, Hera ; Leadbetter, Edward R. ; Bernhard, Joan M. ; Edgcomb, Virginia P.
    The sediment microbiota of the Mediterranean deep-sea anoxic hypersaline basins (DHABs) are understudied relative to communities in the brines and halocline waters. In this study, the active fraction of the prokaryotic community in the halocline sediments of L’ Atalante, Urania, and Discovery DHABs was investigated based on extracted total RNA and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial and archaeal communities were different in the sediments underlying the halocline waters of the three habitats, reflecting the unique chemical settings of each basin. The relative abundance of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was also different between deep-sea control sediments and sediments underlying DHAB haloclines, suggesting adaptation to the steep DHAB chemical gradients. Only a few OTUs were affiliated to known bacterial halophilic and/or anaerobic groups. Many OTUs, including some of the dominant ones, were related to aerobic taxa. Archaea were detected only in few halocline samples, with lower OTU richness relative to Bacteria, and were dominated by taxa associated with methane cycling. This study suggests that, while metabolically active prokaryotic communities appear to be present in sediments underlying the three DHABs investigated, their diversity and activity are likely to be more reduced in sediments underlying the brines.