Kleinrock Martin C.

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Martin C.

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  • Article
    Megamullions and mullion structure defining oceanic metamorphic core complexes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    (American Geophysical Union, 1998-05-10) Tucholke, Brian E. ; Lin, Jian ; Kleinrock, Martin C.
    In a study of geological and geophysical data from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we have identified 17 large, domed edifices (megamullions) that have surfaces corrugated by distinctive mullion structure and that are developed within inside-corner tectonic settings at ends of spreading segments. The edifices have elevated residual gravity anomalies, and limited sampling has recovered gabbros and serpentinites, suggesting that they expose extensive cross sections of the oceanic crust and upper mantle. Oceanic megamullions are comparable to continental metamorphic core complexes in scale and structure, and they may originate by similar processes. The megamullions are interpreted to be rotated footwall blocks of low-angle detachment faults, and they provide the best evidence to date for the common development and longevity (∼1–2 m.y.) of such faults in ocean crust. Prolonged slip on a detachment fault probably occurs when a spreading segment experiences a lengthy phase of relatively amagmatic extension. During these periods it is easier to maintain slip on an existing fault at the segment end than it is to break a new fault in the strong rift-valley lithosphere; slip on the detachment fault probably is facilitated by fault weakening related to deep lithospheric changes in deformation mechanism and mantle serpentinization. At the segment center, minor, episodic magmatism may continue to weaken the axial lithosphere and thus sustain inward jumping of faults. A detachment fault will be terminated when magmatism becomes robust enough to reach the segment end, weaken the axial lithosphere, and promote inward fault jumps there. This mechanism may be generally important in controlling the longevity of normal faults at segment ends and thus in accounting for variable and intermittent development of inside-corner highs.
  • Article
    Segmentation and crustal structure of the western Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank, 25°25′–27°10′N and 0–29 m.y.
    (American Geophysical Union, 1997-05-10) Tucholke, Brian E. ; Lin, Jian ; Kleinrock, Martin C. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Reed, Thomas B. ; Goff, John A. ; Jaroslow, Gary E.
    We conducted a detailed geological-geophysical survey of the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 25°25′N and 27°10′N and from the ridge axis out to 29 Ma crust, acquiring Hydrosweep multibeam bathymetry, HAWAII MR1 sidescan-sonar imagery, gravity, magnetics, and single-channel seismic reflection profiles. The survey covered all or part of nine spreading segments bounded by mostly nontransform, right-stepping discontinuities which are subparallel to flow lines but which migrated independently of one another. Some discontinuities alternated between small right- and left-stepping offsets or exhibited zero offset for up to 3–4 m.y. Despite these changes, the spreading segments have been long-lived and extend 20 m.y. or more across isochrons. A large shift (∼9°) in relative plate motion about 24–22 Ma caused significant changes in segmentation pattern. The nature of this plate-boundary response, together with the persistence of segments through periods of zero offset at their bounding discontinuities, suggest that the position and longevity of segments are controlled primarily by the subaxial position of buoyant mantle diapirs or focused zones of rising melt. Within segments, there are distinct differences in seafloor depth, morphology, residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly, and apparent crustal thickness between inside-corner and outside-corner crust. This demands fundamentally asymmetric crustal accretion and extension across the ridge axis, which we attribute to low-angle, detachment faulting near segment ends. Cyclic variations in residual gravity over the crossisochron run of segments also suggest crustal-thickness changes of at least 1–2 km every 2–3 m.y. These are interpreted to be caused by episodes of magmatic versus relatively amagmatic extension, controlled by retention and quasiperiodic release of melt from the upwelling mantle. Detachment faulting appears to be especially effective in exhuming lower crust to upper mantle at inside corners during relatively amagmatic episodes, creating crustal domes analogous to “turtleback” metamorphic core complexes that are formed by low-angle, detachment faulting in subaerial extensional environments.
  • Article
    Quantitative analysis of abyssal hills in the Atlantic Ocean : a correlation between inferred crustal thickness and extensional faulting
    (American Geophysical Union, 1995-11-10) Goff, John A. ; Tucholke, Brian E. ; Lin, Jian ; Jaroslow, Gary E. ; Kleinrock, Martin C.
    A recent cruise to the Office of Naval Research Atlantic Natural Laboratory obtained ∼100% Hydrosweep bathymetrie coverage, >200% Hawaii MRl (HMRl) side scan coverage, gravity and magnetics over an area spanning three ridge segments along axis (∼25°25′N to ∼27°10′N), and crustal ages from 0 to 26–30 Ma (∼400 km) on the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This data set represents a first opportunity for an extensive regional analysis of abyssal hill morphology created at a slow spreading ridge. The primary purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between abyssal hill morphology and the properties of the ridge crest at which they were formed. We apply the method of Goff and Jordan [1988] for the estimation of two-dimensional statistical properties of abyssal hill morphology from the gridded Hydrosweep bathymetry. Important abyssal hill parameters derived from this analysis include root-mean-square (rms) height, characteristic width, and plan view aspect ratio. The analysis is partitioned into two substudies: (1) analysis of near-axis (< 7 Ma) abyssal hills for each of the three segments and (2) analysis of temporal variations (∼2–29 Ma) in abyssal hill morphology along the run of the south segment. The results of this analysis are compared and correlated with analysis of the gravity data and preliminary determination of faulting characteristics based on HMRl side scan data. Principal results of this study are: (1) Abyssal hill morphology within the study region is strongly influenced by the inside-outside corner geometry of the mid-ocean ridge segments; abyssal hills originating at inside corners have larger rms height and characteristic width and smaller plan view aspect ratio than those originating at outside corners. (2) The residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly is positively correlated with intersegment and along-flow-line variations in rms height and characteristic width, and it is negatively correlated with plan view aspect ratio. From this result, we infer that lower-relief, narrower, and more elongated abyssal hills are produced when the crust being generated is thicker. (3) Intersegment variations in near-axis rms height negatively correlate with average fault density as determined from analysis of HMRl side scan imagery.