Diaz Julia M.

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Julia M.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Article
    Polyphosphate dynamics at Station ALOHA, North Pacific subtropical gyre
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-10-27) Diaz, Julia M. ; Björkman, Karin M. ; Haley, Sheean T. ; Ingall, Ellery ; Karl, David M. ; Longo, Amelia ; Dyhrman, Sonya T.
    Polyphosphate (polyP) was examined within the upper water column (≤ 150 m) of Station ALOHA (22° 45′N, 158° 00′W) during two cruises conducted in May–June 2013 and September 2013. Phosphorus molar ratios of particulate polyP to total particulate phosphorus (TPP) were relatively low, similar to previously reported values from the temperate western North Atlantic, and did not exhibit strong vertical gradients, reflecting a lack of polyP recycling relative to other forms of TPP with depth. Furthermore, relationships among polyP:TPP, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were also consistent with previous observations from the Atlantic Ocean. To ascertain potential mechanisms of biological polyP production and utilization, surface seawater was incubated following nutrient additions. Results were consistent with polyP:TPP enrichment under opposite extremes of APA, suggesting diverse polyP accumulation/retention mechanisms. Addition of exogenous polyP (45 ± 5 P atoms) to field incubations did not increase chlorophyll content relative to controls, suggesting that polyP was not bioavailable to phytoplankton at Station ALOHA. To clarify this result, phytoplankton cultures were screened for the ability to utilize exogenous polyP. PolyP bioavailability was variable among model diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira, yet chain length did not influence polyP bioavailability. Thus, microbial community composition may influence polyP dynamics in the ocean, and vice versa.
  • Article
    Dynamic regulation of extracellular superoxide production by the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP 374)
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-12) Plummer, Sydney ; Taylor, Alexander E. ; Harvey, Elizabeth L. ; Hansel, Colleen M. ; Diaz, Julia M.
    In marine waters, ubiquitous reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive biogeochemical cycling of metals and carbon. Marine phytoplankton produce the ROS superoxide (O2−) extracellularly and can be a dominant source of O2− in natural aquatic systems. However, the cellular regulation, biological functioning, and broader ecological impacts of extracellular O2− production by marine phytoplankton remain mysterious. Here, we explored the regulation and potential roles of extracellular O2− production by a noncalcifying strain of the cosmopolitan coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, a key species of marine phytoplankton that has not been examined for extracellular O2− production previously. Cell-normalized extracellular O2− production was the highest under presumably low-stress conditions during active proliferation and inversely related to cell density during exponential growth phase. Removal of extracellular O2− through addition of the O2− scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD), however, increased growth rates, growth yields, cell biovolume, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) indicating an overall physiological improvement. Thus, the presence of extracellular O2− does not directly stimulate E. huxleyi proliferation, as previously suggested for other phytoplankton, bacteria, fungi, and protists. Extracellular O2− production decreased in the dark, suggesting a connection with photosynthetic processes. Taken together, the tight regulation of this stress independent production of extracellular O2− by E. huxleyi suggests that it could be involved in fundamental photophysiological processes.
  • Article
    Species-specific control of external superoxide levels by the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-12-07) Diaz, Julia M. ; Hansel, Colleen M. ; Apprill, Amy ; Brighi, Caterina ; Zhang, Tong ; Weber, Laura ; McNally, Sean ; Xun, Liping
    The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2·−) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes. Extracellular superoxide concentrations are independent of light, algal symbiont abundance and bleaching status, but depend on coral species and bacterial community composition. Furthermore, coral-derived superoxide concentrations ranged from levels below bulk seawater up to ∼120 nM, some of the highest superoxide concentrations observed in marine systems. Overall, these results unveil the ability of corals and/or their microbiomes to regulate superoxide in their immediate surroundings, which suggests species-specific roles of superoxide in coral health and physiology.
  • Article
    Tight regulation of extracellular superoxide points to its vital role in the physiology of the globally relevant Roseobacter clade.
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2019-03-12) Hansel, Colleen M. ; Diaz, Julia M. ; Plummer, Sydney
    There is a growing appreciation within animal and plant physiology that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide is not only detrimental but also essential for life. Yet, despite widespread production of extracellular superoxide by healthy bacteria and phytoplankton, this molecule remains associated with stress and death. Here, we quantify extracellular superoxide production by seven ecologically diverse bacteria within the Roseobacter clade and specifically target the link between extracellular superoxide and physiology for two species. We reveal for all species a strong inverse relationship between cell-normalized superoxide production rates and cell number. For exponentially growing cells of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 and Roseobacter sp. strain AzwK-3b, we show that superoxide levels are regulated in response to cell density through rapid modulation of gross production and not decay. Over a life cycle of batch cultures, extracellular superoxide levels are tightly regulated through a balance of both production and decay processes allowing for nearly constant levels of superoxide during active growth and minimal levels upon entering stationary phase. Further, removal of superoxide through the addition of exogenous superoxide dismutase during growth leads to significant growth inhibition. Overall, these results point to tight regulation of extracellular superoxide in representative members of the Roseobacter clade, consistent with a role for superoxide in growth regulation as widely acknowledged in fungal, animal, and plant physiology.
  • Article
    Extracellular superoxide production by key microbes in the global ocean
    (Wiley, 2019-07-10) Sutherland, Kevin M. ; Coe, Allison ; Gast, Rebecca J. ; Plummer, Sydney ; Suffridge, Christopher ; Diaz, Julia M. ; Bowman, Jeff S. ; Wankel, Scott D. ; Hansel, Colleen M.
    Bacteria and eukaryotes produce the reactive oxygen species superoxide both within and outside the cell. Although superoxide is typically associated with the detrimental and sometimes fatal effects of oxidative stress, it has also been shown to be involved in a range of essential biochemical processes, including cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and defense. Light‐independent extracellular superoxide production has been shown to be widespread among many marine heterotrophs and phytoplankton, but the extent to which this trait is relevant to marine microbial physiology and ecology throughout the global ocean is unknown. Here, we investigate the dark extracellular superoxide production of five groups of organisms that are geographically widespread and represent some of the most abundant organisms in the global ocean. These include Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Pelagibacter, Phaeocystis, and Geminigera. Cell‐normalized net extracellular superoxide production rates ranged seven orders of magnitude, from undetectable to 14,830 amol cell−1 h−1, with the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus being the lowest producer and the cryptophyte Geminigera being the most prolific producer. Extracellular superoxide production exhibited a strong inverse relationship with cell number, pointing to a potential role in cell signaling. We demonstrate that rapid, cell‐number–dependent changes in the net superoxide production rate by Synechococcus and Pelagibacter arose primarily from changes in gross production of extracellular superoxide, not decay. These results expand the relevance of dark extracellular superoxide production to key marine microbes of the global ocean, suggesting that superoxide production in marine waters is regulated by a diverse suite of marine organisms in both dark and sunlit waters.
  • Article
    Dynamics of extracellular superoxide production by Trichodesmium colonies from the Sargasso Sea
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-05-12) Hansel, Colleen M. ; Buchwald, Carolyn ; Diaz, Julia M. ; Ossolinski, Justin E. ; Dyhrman, Sonya T. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Polyviou, Despo
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the health and biogeochemistry of the ocean and its inhabitants. The vital contribution of microorganisms to marine ROS levels, particularly superoxide, has only recently come to light, and thus the specific biological sources and pathways involved in ROS production are largely unknown. To better understand the biogenic controls on ROS levels in tropical oligotrophic systems, we determined rates of superoxide production under various conditions by natural populations of the nitrogen-fixing diazotroph Trichodesmium obtained from various surface waters in the Sargasso Sea. Trichodesmium colonies collected from eight different stations all produced extracellular superoxide at high rates in both the dark and light. Colony density and light had a variable impact on extracellular superoxide production depending on the morphology of the Trichodesmium colonies. Raft morphotypes showed a rapid increase in superoxide production in response to even low levels of light, which was not observed for puff colonies. In contrast, superoxide production rates per colony decreased with increasing colony density for puff morphotypes but not for rafts. These findings point to Trichodesmium as a likely key source of ROS to the surface oligotrophic ocean. The physiological and/or ecological factors underpinning morphology-dependent controls on superoxide production need to be unveiled to better understand and predict superoxide production by Trichodesmium and ROS dynamics within marine systems.
  • Article
    NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2019-08-13) Diaz, Julia M. ; Plummer, Sydney ; Hansel, Colleen M. ; Andeer, Peter F. ; Saito, Mak A. ; McIlvin, Matthew R.
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide drive rapid transformations of carbon and metals in aquatic systems and play dynamic roles in biological health, signaling, and defense across a diversity of cell types. In phytoplankton, however, the ecophysiological role(s) of extracellular superoxide production has remained elusive. Here, the mechanism and function of extracellular superoxide production by the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica are described. Extracellular superoxide production in T. oceanica exudates was coupled to the oxidation of NADPH. A putative NADPH-oxidizing flavoenzyme with predicted transmembrane domains and high sequence similarity to glutathione reductase (GR) was implicated in this process. GR was also linked to extracellular superoxide production by whole cells via quenching by the flavoenzyme inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and oxidized glutathione, the preferred electron acceptor of GR. Extracellular superoxide production followed a typical photosynthesis-irradiance curve and increased by 30% above the saturation irradiance of photosynthesis, while DPI significantly impaired the efficiency of photosystem II under a wide range of light levels. Together, these results suggest that extracellular superoxide production is a byproduct of a transplasma membrane electron transport system that serves to balance the cellular redox state through the recycling of photosynthetic NADPH. This photoprotective function may be widespread, consistent with the presence of putative homologs to T. oceanica GR in other representative marine phytoplankton and ocean metagenomes. Given predicted climate-driven shifts in global surface ocean light regimes and phytoplankton community-level photoacclimation, these results provide implications for future ocean redox balance, ecological functioning, and coupled biogeochemical transformations of carbon and metals.
  • Article
    Spatial heterogeneity in particle-associated, light-independent superoxide production within productive coastal waters
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-10-06) Sutherland, Kevin M. ; Grabb, Kalina C. ; Karolewski, Jennifer S. ; Plummer, Sydney ; Farfan, Gabriela A. ; Wankel, Scott D. ; Diaz, Julia M. ; Lamborg, Carl H. ; Hansel, Colleen M.
    In the marine environment, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide is produced through a diverse array of light‐dependent and light‐independent reactions, the latter of which is thought to be primarily controlled by microorganisms. Marine superoxide production influences organic matter remineralization, metal redox cycling, and dissolved oxygen concentrations, yet the relative contributions of different sources to total superoxide production remain poorly constrained. Here we investigate the production, steady‐state concentration, and particle‐associated nature of light‐independent superoxide in productive waters off the northeast coast of North America. We find exceptionally high levels of light‐independent superoxide in the marine water column, with concentrations ranging from 10 pM to in excess of 2,000 pM. The highest superoxide concentrations were particle associated in surface seawater and in aphotic seawater collected meters off the seafloor. Filtration of seawater overlying the continental shelf lowered the light‐independent, steady‐state superoxide concentration by an average of 84%. We identify eukaryotic phytoplankton as the dominant particle‐associated source of superoxide to these coastal waters. We contrast these measurements with those collected at an off‐shelf station, where superoxide concentrations did not exceed 100 pM, and particles account for an average of 40% of the steady‐state superoxide concentration. This study demonstrates the primary role of particles in the production of superoxide in seawater overlying the continental shelf and highlights the importance of light‐independent, dissolved‐phase reactions in marine ROS production.
  • Article
    Dark production of extracellular superoxide by the coral Porites astreoides and representative symbionts
    (Frontiers Media, 2016-11-24) Zhang, Tong ; Diaz, Julia M. ; Brighi, Caterina ; Parsons, Rachel J. ; McNally, Sean ; Apprill, Amy ; Hansel, Colleen M.
    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide has been implicated in both beneficial and detrimental processes in coral biology, ranging from pathogenic disease resistance to coral bleaching. Despite the critical role of ROS in coral health, there is a distinct lack of ROS measurements and thus an incomplete understanding of underpinning ROS sources and production mechanisms within coral systems. Here, we quantified in situ extracellular superoxide concentrations at the surfaces of aquaria-hosted Porites astreoides during a diel cycle. High concentrations of superoxide (~10's of nM) were present at coral surfaces, and these levels did not change significantly as a function of time of day. These results indicate that the coral holobiont produces extracellular superoxide in the dark, independent of photosynthesis. As a short-lived anion at physiological pH, superoxide has a limited ability to cross intact biological membranes. Further, removing surface mucus layers from the P. astreoides colonies did not impact external superoxide concentrations. We therefore attribute external superoxide derived from the coral holobiont under these conditions to the activity of the coral host epithelium, rather than mucus-derived epibionts or internal sources such as endosymbionts (e.g., Symbiodinium). However, endosymbionts likely contribute to internal ROS levels via extracellular superoxide production. Indeed, common coral symbionts, including multiple strains of Symbiodinium (clades A to D) and the bacterium Endozoicomonas montiporae LMG 24815, produced extracellular superoxide in the dark and at low light levels. Further, representative P. astreoides symbionts, Symbiodinium CCMP2456 (clade A) and E. montiporae, produced similar concentrations of superoxide alone and in combination with each other, in the dark and low light, and regardless of time of day. Overall, these results indicate that healthy, non-stressed P. astreoides and representative symbionts produce superoxide externally, which is decoupled from photosynthetic activity and circadian control. Corals may therefore produce extracellular superoxide constitutively, highlighting an unclear yet potentially beneficial role for superoxide in coral physiology and health.