Pacini Aude F.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name
Aude F.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Article
    Transmission beam pattern and dynamics of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris)
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-06-19) Smith, Adam B. ; Pacini, Aude F. ; Nachtigall, Paul E. ; Laule, Gail E. ; Aragones, Lemnuel V. ; Magno, Carlo ; Suarez, Leo J. A.
    Toothed whales possess a sophisticated biosonar system by which ultrasonic clicks are projected in a highly directional transmission beam. Beam directivity is an important biosonar characteristic that reduces acoustic clutter and increases the acoustic detection range. This study measured click characteristics and the transmission beam pattern from a small odontocete, the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostis). A formerly stranded individual was rehabilitated and trained to station underwater in front of a 16-element hydrophone array. On-axis clicks showed a mean duration of 20.1 μs, with mean peak and centroid frequencies of 58 and 64 kHz [standard deviation (s.d.) ±30 and ±12 kHz], respectively. Clicks were projected in an oval, vertically compressed beam, with mean vertical and horizontal beamwidths of 14.5° (s.d. ± 3.9) and 16.3° (s.d. ± 4.6), respectively. Directivity indices ranged from 14.9 to 27.4 dB, with a mean of 21.7 dB, although this likely represents a broader beam than what is normally produced by wild individuals. A click subset with characteristics more similar to those described for wild individuals exhibited a mean directivity index of 23.3 dB. Although one of the broadest transmission beams described for a dolphin, it is similar to other small bodied odontocetes.
  • Article
    False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) echolocation and acoustic disruption : implications for longline bycatch and depredation
    (NRC Research Press, 2009-07-31) Mooney, T. Aran ; Pacini, Aude F. ; Nachtigall, Paul E.
    False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846)) depredate fish caught by the North Pacific pelagic longline fishery, resulting in loss of target species catch and the whales themselves becoming bycaught. This incidental take of false killer whales exceeds sustainable levels. In an effort to address a potential solution to reducing this depredation and bycatch, we tested an acoustic device designed to deter false killer whales from approaching longlines by reducing the whales’ echolocation performance capabilities. The device produced a series of complex, broadband signals (1–250 kHz) at high intensity levels (up to 182 dB). In the experiment, a trained false killer whale was asked to detect a target in the presence or absence of the acoustic device. Baseline performance capabilities were 95% correct responses. Initially, the device reduced the whale’s echolocation performance to chance levels. However, subsequent sessions demonstrated improvement in echolocation performance up to 85%. This improvement was likely a result of behaviorally adapting to the task and a decrease in the source level of the echolocation “disruptor”. The results underscore the challenges in using acoustic devices to reduce depredation and bycatch, and demonstrate the need for concern regarding anthropogenic noise levels and effects on odontocete echolocation capabilities.
  • Article
    Scaling the laws of thermal imaging-based whale detection
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-05-08) Zitterbart, Daniel ; Smith, Heather R. ; Flau, MichaeI ; Richter, Sebastian ; Burkhardt, Elke ; Beland, Joseph ; Bennett, Louise ; Cammareri, Alejandro ; Davis, Andrew ; Holst, Meike ; Lanfredi, Caterina ; Michel, Hanna ; Noad, Michael ; Owen, Kylie ; Pacini, Aude F. ; Boebel, Olaf
    Marine mammals are under growing pressure as anthropogenic use of the ocean increases. Ship strikes of large whales and loud underwater sound sources including air guns for marine geophysical prospecting and naval midfrequency sonar are criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals. Competent authorities regularly require the implementation of mitigation measures, including vessel speed reductions or shutdown of acoustic sources if marine mammals are sighted in sensitive areas or in predefined exclusion zones around a vessel. To ensure successful mitigation, reliable at-sea detection of animals is crucial. To date, ship-based marine mammal observers are the most commonly implemented detection method; however, thermal (IR) imaging–based automatic detection systems have been used in recent years. This study evaluates thermal imaging–based automatic whale detection technology for its use across different oceans. The performance of this technology is characterized with respect to environmental conditions, and an automatic detection algorithm for whale blows is presented. The technology can detect whales in polar, temperate, and subtropical ocean regimes over distances of up to several kilometers and outperforms marine mammal observers in the number of whales detected. These results show that thermal imaging technology can be used to assist in providing protection for marine mammals against ship strike and acoustic impact across the world’s oceans.