Paul Walter

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  • Working Paper
    Biological assessment for a blue mussel ocean aquaculture experiment in Rhode Island Sound
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998-04) Hoagland, Porter ; Kite-Powell, Hauke L. ; Paul, Walter ; Hampson, George R.
    This report assesses the potential biological impacts on certain protected species of the deployment of a longline for growing blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Rhode Island Sound. The proposed project is a scientific research experiment designed to test the feasibility of offshore aquaculture from engineering, biological, and economic perspectives. The proposed project is small in scale, limited in duration, and located in an area of the ocean that is known to be only a minor, nonessential habitat for the protected species of concern. Of crucial significance to the relevant protected species and to the project, the project's geographic location is not believed to be critical habitat in even the broadest sense of the term. The project does not involve feeding mussels or treating the mussels with any type of pharmaceuticals. The project relies upon a set of spat from naturally occurring stocks in the region. As a result, the project principal investigators believe that the potential for adverse effects on individuals or stocks of protected species or on their environment is extremely small.
  • Technical Report
    The horizontal mooring : a two-dimensional array, description of the array, components, instrumentation, deployment and recovery operations
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1999-09) Trask, Richard P. ; Anderson, Steven P. ; Way, Bryan S. ; Ostrom, William M. ; Paul, Walter ; Grosenbaugh, Mark A. ; Gobat, Jason I. ; Weller, Robert A.
    A moored two-dimensional array with instrumentation distributed both horizontally and vertically was deployed for 27 days in August 1998 at an 85 meter deep site in Massachusetts Bay near Stellwagon basin. The horizontal mooring consisted of a 160- meter long horizontal element positioned at a depth of 20 meters between two subsurface moorings. Suspended below the horizontal member were five 25-meter long vertical strings. The vertical strings had a horizontal separation of 30 meters and each had instruments at depths of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 meters. Instrumentation deployed on the two-dimensional array included acoustic current meters, temperature sensors, conductivity measuring instruments, pressure sensors and motion monitoring packages. This report includes a detailed description of the two-dimensional array, the anchoring system and the instrumentation that were deployed. Also included is a description of the deployment and recovery techniques that were employed as well as an assessment of the performance of the array.
  • Technical Report
    The determination of the elastic modulus of rubber mooring tethers and their use in coastal moorings
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2005-12) Irish, James D. ; Paul, Walter ; Wyman, David M.
    Compliance must be supplied to any surface mooring to allow the buoy to move with the waves and currents, and remain moored in position. This can be supplied with a traditional chain catenary or newer compliant elastic tether or stretch hose technologies. Some applications of each of these three techniques are shown, with the emphasis placed on the use of compliant elastic tethers. For modeling and designing these moorings, the elastic modulus of the tether material must be known. Therefore, a new and used piece of elastic material was terminated, tested for the stretch-strain relationship under set conditions, and the elastic modulus calculated. For these tests, the elastic tether was stretched out to a mean elongation between 100 and 250%, then cycled about that stretch by ±25 and ±50% to duplicate a moored application. The resultant elastic modulus is presented to aid in mooring design. At low elongations, the elastic modulus is constant at about 125 PSI, but as the mean elongation increases the modulus increases, and as the cycle tension increase the modulus also increases, reaching a maximum of 900 PSI at 275% stretch.
  • Technical Report
    Design considerations for stretch conductors in oceanographic moorings
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995-12) Paul, Walter
    A copper conductor formed into a helical configuration like a telephone cord can stretch by extending its geometry without elongating the conductor itself. This report establishes the proper configuration of copper conductors arranged in a helical pattern around a fiber core which can be used as center of a nylon rope with at least 20 percent working stretch. The calculation procedure allows the determination of the conductor's helix angle or pitch as function of the required assembly elongation, the cable assembly's geometry, and the fiber core's Poisson ratio. Limits of the geometry are established to assure defined flexibilty of the cable assembly to allow bending of a surrounding fiber rope without conductor layer blockage. A sample stretch conductor assembly was procured and initial testing is described, proving the calculation method's ability to determine the correct geometry of the conductor assembly. Such conductor assemblies can be used as conductive core of nylon ropes suitable for coastal and deepsea buoy moorings or as lift or trigger lines for instrumentation. They are also considered the most suitable configuration which can endure the high stretch requirements of embedded conductors in a stretch hose wall at its transition into a coupling section.
  • Technical Report
    Instrumentation for open ocean aquaculture monitoring
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-10) Irish, James D. ; Carroll, Megan ; Singer, Robin C. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Paul, Walter ; Johnson, Craig ; Witzell, Nick ; Rice, Glen ; Fredriksson, David W.
    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is assisting the University of New Hampshire by instrumenting a fish cage and mooring as part of their Open Ocean Aquaculture demonstration program in the Gulf of Maine. To understand these systems, the wave and current forcing and the response of the mooring and fish cage needs to be measured. A UNH mooring with an ADCP measured the current forcing. Tension in the mooring lines was measured by load cells deployed with the mooring during servicing in August 2000. Load cells were placed in each anchor line, and, in the NE corner, also in the two grid lines and the riser line to the fish cage. Low power recording systems were deployed on the load cell mounting bars by divers on 22 October 2000, recorded good data through January 2001, when they were turned around and redeployed. Three single load cell recorders were recovered in July 2001 and recorded though 23 June when their data storage filled. The four load cell system was recovered in March after a large winter storm, and had failed in early March. The wave forcing was measured with a wave rider buoy with a 3-axis accelerometer measuring its motion. The acceleration was integrated twice to obtain wave displacement. The system mooring contained a compliant elastic. The wave rider was deployed on 4 January 2001 and recovered on 17 March 2001 after a major Northeast storm. It recorded data throughout its deployment. The motion of the moored fish cage was measured by a motion package constructed around a 6-axis Motion-Pak and a PC-104 data system. The motion package was deployed on the fish cage from Jan into March 2001 and recorded motions thoughout without difficuly. It observed a major storm in early March where the counter weight was lost from the fish cage, and its increase in motion thereafter.
  • Technical Report
    Deployment of the northern fish cage and mooring, University of New Hampshire — Open Ocean Aquaculture Program summer 2000
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000-09) Irish, James D. ; Paul, Walter ; Ostrom, William M. ; Chambers, Michael ; Fredriksson, David W. ; Stommel, Matt
    The University of New Hampshire - Open Ocean Aquaculture (UNH-OOA) program has worked for the past few years on developing the technology to deploy and maintain fish cages in open, exposed northern waters. In June 1999, two Sea Station octagonal net cages by Ocean Spar Technologies were deployed with their UNH designed and constructed moorings. In June 2000 the Northern Cage and its mooring were retrieved, examined and repaired , and readied for redeployment. This was a complex operation, initiated by a team of UNH ocean engineers lead by Dr. Barbaros Celikkol. This year's effort was expanded with the addition of a Program Manager (Michael Chambers), the Fishing Vessel Nobska, and researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). During the week of 21 to 25 August 2000, the cage and mooring were assembled and deployed at the UNH-OOA site seven miles offshore the New Hampshire coast, south of the Isle of Shoals. This collaborative effort involved members of the UNH Mechanical Engineering Dept., UNH divers, members of the WHOI Applied Ocean Physics & Engineering Dept. and the Captain and crew of the FV Nobska. Ship support for the deployment was provided by the R/V Gulf Challenger and Galen J. (UNH) and the FV Nobska (a 100 foot fishing vessel based at Woods Hole, MA). The work was favored by light wind and sea conditions. The endeavor resulted in the successful placement of the North Cage and its complex mooring system with load cells and environmental sensors. Unexpected and unexplained tangling of the mooring system, in particular near its grid corner points, was encountered and corrected.
  • Technical Report
    Hose elements for buoy moorings : design, fabrication and mechanical properties
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2004-07) Paul, Walter
    This report describes the design of tire cord reinforced rubber hoses, which have found an application as mooring hoses for oceanographic and offshore aquaculture buoy systems. These hoses stand out due to their ruggedness and ability to significantly stretch under load. The ruggedness is achieved through a steam curing = vulcanization process of the completed hose, generating a similar toughness of the hoses like automobile tires. Elastic stretch ranges can be designed from 30 to 130 percent through variation of the arrangement of the load carrying tire cord layers in the hose body. The hoses can also be furnished with electrical conductors and possibly optical light-guides as part of the hose wall. This technical report describes the design, fabrication, and mechanical properties of the mooring hoses to allow engineers to custom develop hoses with tailored mechanical properties.