Jones Ian T.

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Ian T.

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Article
    Soundscapes as heard by invertebrates and fishes: particle motion measurements on coral reefs
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2022-07-14) Jones, Ian T. ; Gray, Michael D. ; Mooney, T. Aran
    Coral reef soundscapes are increasingly studied for their ecological uses by invertebrates and fishes, for monitoring habitat quality, and to investigate effects of anthropogenic noise pollution. Few examinations of aquatic soundscapes have reported particle motion levels and variability, despite their relevance to invertebrates and fishes. In this study, ambient particle acceleration was quantified from orthogonal hydrophone arrays over several months at four coral reef sites, which varied in benthic habitat and fish communities. Time-averaged particle acceleration magnitudes were similar across axes, within 3 dB. Temporal trends of particle acceleration corresponded with those of sound pressure, and the strength of diel trends in both metrics significantly correlated with percent coral cover. Higher magnitude particle accelerations diverged further from pressure values, potentially representing sounds recorded in the near field. Particle acceleration levels were also reported for boat and example fish sounds. Comparisons with particle acceleration derived audiograms suggest the greatest capacity of invertebrates and fishes to detect soundscape components below 100 Hz, and poorer detectability of soundscapes by invertebrates compared to fishes. Based on these results, research foci are discussed for which reporting of particle motion is essential, versus those for which sound pressure may suffice.
  • Preprint
    Developmental exposure to domoic acid disrupts startle response behavior and circuitry in zebrafish
    (Oxford University Press, 2021-06-07) Panlilio, Jennifer M. ; Jones, Ian T. ; Salanga, Matthew C. ; Aluru, Neelakanteswar ; Hahn, Mark E.
    Harmful algal blooms produce potent neurotoxins that accumulate in seafood and are hazardous to human health. Developmental exposure to the harmful algal bloom toxin, domoic acid (DomA), has behavioral consequences well into adulthood, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DomA developmental neurotoxicity are largely unknown. To assess these, we exposed zebrafish embryos to DomA during the previously identified window of susceptibility and used the well-known startle response circuit as a tool to identify specific neuronal components that are targeted by exposure to DomA. Exposure to DomA reduced startle responsiveness to both auditory/vibrational and electrical stimuli, and even at the highest stimulus intensities tested, led to a dramatic reduction of one type of startle (short-latency c-starts). Furthermore, DomA-exposed larvae had altered kinematics for both types of startle responses tested, exhibiting shallower bend angles and slower maximal angular velocities. Using vital dye staining, immunolabeling, and live imaging of transgenic lines, we determined that although the sensory inputs were intact, the reticulospinal neurons required for short-latency c-starts were absent in most DomA-exposed larvae. Furthermore, axon tracing revealed that DomA-treated larvae also showed significantly reduced primary motor neuron axon collaterals. Overall, these results show that developmental exposure to DomA targets large reticulospinal neurons and motor neuron axon collaterals, resulting in measurable deficits in startle behavior. They further provide a framework for using the startle response circuit to identify specific neural populations disrupted by toxins or toxicants and to link these disruptions to functional consequences for neural circuit function and behavior.
  • Article
    Audiogram of a Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-11-25) Mooney, T. Aran ; Castellote, Manuel ; Jones, Ian T. ; Rouse, Natalie ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Mahoney, Barbara ; Goertz, Caroline
    Noise is a stressor to wildlife, yet the precise sound sensitivity of individuals and populations is often unknown or unmeasured. Cook Inlet, Alaska belugas (CIBs) are a critically endangered and declining marine mammal population. Anthropogenic noise is a primary threat to these animals. Auditory evoked potentials were used to measure the hearing of a wild, stranded CIB as part of its rehabilitation assessment. The beluga showed broadband (4–128 kHz) and sensitive hearing (<80 dB) for a wide-range of frequencies (16–80 kHz), reflective of a healthy odontocete auditory system. Data were similar to healthy, adult belugas from the comparative Bristol Bay population (the only other published data set of healthy, wild marine mammal hearing). Repeated October and December 2017 measurements were similar, showing continued auditory health of the animal throughout the rehabilitation period. Hearing data were compared to pile-driving and container-ship noise measurements made in Cook Inlet, two sources of concern, suggesting masking is likely at ecologically relevant distances. These data provide the first empirical hearing data for a CIB allowing for estimations of sound-sensitivity in this population. The beluga's sensitive hearing and likelihood of masking show noise is a clear concern for this population struggling to recover.
  • Article
    Sound detection by the American lobster (Homarus americanus)
    (The Company of Biologists, 2021-03-25) Jézéquel, Youenn ; Jones, Ian T. ; Bonnel, Julien ; Chauvaud, Laurent ; Atema, Jelle ; Mooney, T. Aran
    Although many crustaceans produce sounds, their hearing abilities and mechanisms are poorly understood, leaving uncertainties regarding whether or how these animals use sound for acoustic communication. Marine invertebrates lack gas-filled organs required for sound pressure detection, but some of them are known to be sensitive to particle motion. Here, we examined whether the American lobster (Homarus americanus) could detect sound and subsequently sought to discern the auditory mechanisms. Acoustic stimuli responses were measured using auditory evoked potential (AEP) methods. Neurophysiological responses were obtained from the brain using tone pips between 80 and 250 Hz, with best sensitivity at 80–120 Hz. There were no significant differences between the auditory thresholds of males and females. Repeated controls (recordings from deceased lobsters, moving electrodes away from the brain and reducing seawater temperature) indicated the evoked potentials' neuronal origin. In addition, AEP responses were similar before and after antennules (including statocysts) were ablated, demonstrating that the statocysts, a long-proposed auditory structure in crustaceans, are not the sensory organs responsible for lobster sound detection. However, AEPs could be eliminated (or highly reduced) after immobilizing hairfans, which cover much of lobster bodies. These results suggest that these external cuticular hairs are likely to be responsible for sound detection, and imply that hearing is mechanistically possible in a wider array of invertebrates than previously considered. Because the lobsters' hearing range encompasses the fundamental frequency of their buzzing sounds, it is likely that they use sound for intraspecific communication, broadening our understanding of the sensory ecology of this commercially vital species. The lobsters' low-frequency acoustic sensitivity also underscores clear concerns about the potential impacts of anthropogenic noise.
  • Article
    Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson
    (The Company of Biologists, 2016-01-15) Maas, Amy E. ; Jones, Ian T. ; Reitzel, Adam M. ; Tarrant, Ann M.
    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species.
  • Article
    Model-assisted measurements of suspension-feeding flow velocities
    (Company of Biologists, 2017-05-31) Du Clos, Kevin T. ; Jones, Ian T. ; Carrier, Tyler ; Brady, Damian C. ; Jumars, Peter A.
    Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, measured using a direct method based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Past uses of PIV in suspension-feeding studies have been limited by strong laser reflections that interfere with velocity measurements proximate to the siphon. We used a new approach based on fitting PIV-based velocity profile measurements to theoretical profiles from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which allowed us to calculate inhalant siphon Reynolds numbers (Re). We used these inhalant Re and measurements of siphon diameters to calculate exhalant Re, pumping rates, and mean inlet and outlet velocities. For the three species studied, inhalant Re ranged from 8 to 520, and exhalant Re ranged from 15 to 1073. Volumetric pumping rates ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 l h−1 for M. arenaria, 0.3 to 3.6 l h−1 for M. mercenaria and 0.07 to 0.97 l h−1 for C. intestinalis. We also used CFD models based on measured pumping rates to calculate capture regions, which reveal the spatial extent of pumped water. Combining PIV data with CFD models may be a valuable approach for future suspension-feeding studies.
  • Thesis
    Assessing anthropogenic noise impacts and relevant soundscape cues for marine invertebrates: leveraging squid and coral reefs as model systems
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-09) Jones, Ian T.
    Sound is utilized by marine animal taxa for many ecologically important functions, and these taxa are vulnerable to adverse effects of anthropogenic noise on hearing and behavior. However, little is known about marine invertebrates’ responses to anthropogenic noise, and the ambient environmental sounds (“soundscapes”) they detect and respond to. Most acoustic studies report sound pressure (detected by mammals and some fish), but few report particle motion, the back-and-forth vibratory component of sound detected by marine invertebrates. I investigated invertebrate use of and response to sounds in two facets: 1) behavioral responses of longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii to anthropogenic noise, and 2) particle motion of coral reef soundscapes in the U.S. Virgin Islands. In laboratory-based experiments I exposed D. pealeii to construction noise originally recorded from an offshore wind farm. I found significant increases in squids’ alarm responses and in failed prey capture attempts during noise. Conversely, noise exposure had no significant effects on reproductive behaviors of groups of D. pealeii, indicating high motivation of these squid to reproduce during this stressor. Collectively, these experiments revealed the importance of considering behavioral context in studies and regulatory decisions regarding invertebrates’ susceptibility to anthropogenic noise impacts. In studying coral reef soundscapes, I reported particle motion trends over several months for coral reefs varying in habitat quality, including coral cover and fish abundance. I found acoustic properties over which particle motion closely scaled with pressure, and others over which it did not. I compared soundscape data with particle motion hearing thresholds, and found that invertebrates may only detect high amplitude and low frequency transient sound cues on reefs, such as those produced by fishes. My research bring new insights on natural and anthropogenic sound cues detectable by marine invertebrates, and how and when invertebrates will be vulnerable to anthropogenic noise pollution.