Roesler Collin S.
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Working PaperStandards and practices for reporting plankton and other particle observations from images(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-07-26) Neeley, Aimee ; Beaulieu, Stace E. ; Proctor, Chris ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Futrelle, Joe ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Devred, Emmanuel ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Picheral, Marc ; Poulton, Nicole ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Shepherd, AdamThis technical manual guides the user through the process of creating a data table for the submission of taxonomic and morphological information for plankton and other particles from images to a repository. Guidance is provided to produce documentation that should accompany the submission of plankton and other particle data to a repository, describes data collection and processing techniques, and outlines the creation of a data file. Field names include scientificName that represents the lowest level taxonomic classification (e.g., genus if not certain of species, family if not certain of genus) and scientificNameID, the unique identifier from a reference database such as the World Register of Marine Species or AlgaeBase. The data table described here includes the field names associatedMedia, scientificName/ scientificNameID for both automated and manual identification, biovolume, area_cross_section, length_representation and width_representation. Additional steps that instruct the user on how to format their data for a submission to the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) are also included. Examples of documentation and data files are provided for the user to follow. The documentation requirements and data table format are approved by both NASA’s SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) and the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO).
ArticleAn operational overview of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) Northeast Pacific field deployment(University of California Press, 2021-07-07) Siegel, David A. ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Graff, Jason R. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Hamme, Roberta C. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Nicholson, David P. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Robert, Marie ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Amaral, Vinicius ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Bisson, Kelsey ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Boyd, Philip ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Burns, Shannon ; Caprara, Salvatore ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Close, Hilary G. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fields, Erik ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Halsey, Kim ; Huot, Yannick ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Passow, Uta ; Popp, Brian N. ; Potvin, Geneviève ; Resplandy, Laure ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Seraphin, Kanesa ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Tang, Weiyi ; Van Mooy, Benjamin ; Xiong, Yuanheng ; Zhang, XiaodongThe goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) field campaign is to develop a predictive understanding of the export, fate, and carbon cycle impacts of global ocean net primary production. To accomplish this goal, observations of export flux pathways, plankton community composition, food web processes, and optical, physical, and biogeochemical (BGC) properties are needed over a range of ecosystem states. Here we introduce the first EXPORTS field deployment to Ocean Station Papa in the Northeast Pacific Ocean during summer of 2018, providing context for other papers in this special collection. The experiment was conducted with two ships: a Process Ship, focused on ecological rates, BGC fluxes, temporal changes in food web, and BGC and optical properties, that followed an instrumented Lagrangian float; and a Survey Ship that sampled BGC and optical properties in spatial patterns around the Process Ship. An array of autonomous underwater assets provided measurements over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and partnering programs and remote sensing observations provided additional observational context. The oceanographic setting was typical of late-summer conditions at Ocean Station Papa: a shallow mixed layer, strong vertical and weak horizontal gradients in hydrographic properties, sluggish sub-inertial currents, elevated macronutrient concentrations and low phytoplankton abundances. Although nutrient concentrations were consistent with previous observations, mixed layer chlorophyll was lower than typically observed, resulting in a deeper euphotic zone. Analyses of surface layer temperature and salinity found three distinct surface water types, allowing for diagnosis of whether observed changes were spatial or temporal. The 2018 EXPORTS field deployment is among the most comprehensive biological pump studies ever conducted. A second deployment to the North Atlantic Ocean occurred in spring 2021, which will be followed by focused work on data synthesis and modeling using the entire EXPORTS data set.
ArticleRole of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters(Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-01) Estapa, Margaret L. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Mayer, Lawrence M. ; Roesler, Collin S.We investigated the influences of organic content and mineralogical composition on light absorption by mostly mineral suspended particles in aquatic and coastal marine systems. Mass-specific absorption spectra of suspended particles and surface sediments from coastal Louisiana and the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers were measured with a centered sample-mount integrating sphere and analyzed in conjunction with organic carbon (OC), hydrochloric acid– (HCl-) extractable iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption at ultraviolet (UV) and blue wavelengths, while OC and HCl-extractable iron were weakly but positively correlated. Oxidative removal of OC from sediments caused small and variable changes in absorption, while dithionite extraction of iron oxides strongly reduced absorption. Shoulders in the absorption spectra corresponded to absorption bands of iron oxide minerals, and their intensities were well correlated to dithionite-extractable iron contents of the samples. These findings support a primary role for iron oxide and hydroxide minerals in the mass-specific absorption of mostly inorganic particles from the terrestrially influenced coast of Louisiana. Riverine particles had higher dithionite-extractable iron contents and iron oxide–specific absorption features than did marine particles, consistent with current knowledge regarding differential transport of particulate iron oxides and hydroxides through estuarine salinity gradients and reductive alteration of these oxide phases on the Louisiana shelf. The quantifiable dependence of UV absorption features on iron oxide content suggests that, under certain conditions, in situ hyperspectral absorption measurements could be designed to monitor water-column iron mineral transport and transformation.
ArticlePlankton imagery data inform satellite-based estimates of diatom carbon(American Geophysical Union, 2022-06-18) Chase, Alison P. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Culhane, Emmett ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Karp-Boss, LeeEstimating the biomass of phytoplankton communities via remote sensing is a key requirement for understanding global ocean ecosystems. Of particular interest is the carbon associated with diatoms given their unequivocal ecological and biogeochemical roles. Satellite-based algorithms often rely on accessory pigment proxies to define diatom biomass, despite a lack of validation against independent diatom biomass measurements. We used imaging-in-flow cytometry to quantify diatom carbon in the western North Atlantic, and compared results to those obtained from accessory pigment-based approximations. Based on this analysis, we offer a new empirical formula to estimate diatom carbon concentrations from chlorophyll a. Additionally, we developed a neural network model in which we integrated chlorophyll a and environmental information to estimate diatom carbon distributions in the western North Atlantic. The potential for improving satellite-based diatom carbon estimates by integrating environmental information into a model, compared to models that are based solely on chlorophyll a, is discussed.
ArticleNew approaches and technologies for observing harmful algal blooms(Oceanography Society, 2005-06) Babin, Marcel ; Cullen, John C. ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Donaghay, Percy L. ; Doucette, Gregory J. ; Kahru, Mati ; Lewis, Marlon R. ; Scholin, Christopher A. ; Sieracki, Michael E. ; Sosik, Heidi M.Harmful algal blooms (HABs) represent a diverse range of phenomena that universally share only two characteristics: they produce effects on ecosystems or food resources that humans perceive as harmful, and their progression is fundamentally a process of population dynamics under oceanographic control. Because of the complexity, scales, and transient nature of HABs, their monitoring and prediction requires rapid, intensive, extensive, and sustained observations at sea. These requirements cannot be met with traditional approaches that depend on ships for sampling and laboratories for chemical or biological analyses. Fortunately, new sensing technologies that operate autonomously in situ will allow, in the near future, the development of comprehensive observation strategies for timely detection of HABs. In turn, developments in modeling will support prediction of these phenomena, based directly on real-time measurements.
Working PaperEXPORTS Measurements and Protocols for the NE Pacific Campaign(NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-02) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Close, Hilary G. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Graff, Jason R. ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Halsey, Kim ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Liu, Shuting ; Mannino, Antonio ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Passow, Uta ; Perry, Mary J. ; Popp, Brian N. ; Proctor, Chris ; Rafter, Patrick ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rubin, Edwina ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Siegel, David A. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Zhang, XiaodongEXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) is a large-scale NASA-led and NSF co-funded field campaign that will provide critical information for quantifying the export and fate of upper ocean net primary production (NPP) using satellite information and state of the art technology.
ArticleSatellite sensor requirements for monitoring essential biodiversity variables of coastal ecosystems(John Wiley & Sons, 2018-03-06) Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Hestir, Erin ; Ade, Christiana ; Turpie, Kevin ; Roberts, Dar A. ; Siegel, David A. ; Miller, Robert J. ; Humm, David ; Izenberg, Noam ; Keller, Mary ; Morgan, Frank ; Frouin, Robert ; Dekker, Arnold G. ; Gardner, Royal ; Goodman, James ; Schaeffer, Blake ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Pahlevan, Nima ; Mannino, Antonio ; Concha, Javier A. ; Ackleson, Steven G. ; Cavanaugh, Kyle C. ; Romanou, Anastasia ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Pavlick, Ryan ; Freeman, Anthony ; Rousseaux, Cecile S. ; Dunne, John P. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Salas, Eduardo Klein ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Letelier, Ricardo M. ; Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Roffer, Mitchell ; Bracher, Astrid ; Arrigo, Kevin R. ; Dierssen, Heidi M. ; Zhang, Xiaodong ; Davis, Frank W. ; Best, Benjamin D. ; Guralnick, Robert P. ; Moisan, John R. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Mouw, Colleen B. ; Barnard, Andrew H. ; Palacios, Sherry ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Drakou, Evangelia G. ; Appeltans, Ward ; Jetz, WalterThe biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite‐based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near‐infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100‐m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short‐wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14‐bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration <2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity <1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3‐d repeat low‐Earth orbit could sample 30‐km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.
ArticleBio-optical discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton in the surface ocean: Evaluation and refinement of a model for the Northwest Atlantic(Elsevier, 2018-08-15) Kramer, Sasha J. ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Sosik, Heidi M.Diatoms dominate global silica production and export production in the ocean; they form the base of productive food webs and fisheries. Thus, a remote sensing algorithm to identify diatoms has great potential to describe ecological and biogeochemical trends and fluctuations in the surface ocean. Despite the importance of detecting diatoms from remote sensing and the demand for reliable methods of diatom identification, there has not been a systematic evaluation of algorithms that are being applied to this end. The efficacy of these models remains difficult to constrain in part due to limited datasets for validation. In this study, we test a bio-optical algorithm developed by Sathyendranath et al. (2004) to identify diatom dominance from the relationship between ratios of remote sensing reflectance and chlorophyll concentration. We evaluate and refine the original model with data collected at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO), a near-shore location on the New England shelf. We then validated the refined model with data collected in Harpswell Sound, Maine, a site with greater optical complexity than MVCO. At both sites, despite relatively large changes in diatom fraction (0.8–82% of chlorophyll concentration), the magnitude of variability in optical properties due to the dominance or non-dominance of diatoms is less than the variability induced by other absorbing and scattering constituents of the water. While the original model performance was improved through successive re-parameterizations and re-formulations of the absorption and backscattering coefficients, we show that even a model originally parameterized for the Northwest Atlantic and re-parameterized for sites such as MVCO and Harpswell Sound performs poorly in discriminating diatom-dominance from optical properties.