Sundfjord Arild

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  • Preprint
    Greater role for Atlantic inflows on sea-ice loss in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean
    ( 2017-03) Polyakov, Igor V. ; Pnyushkov, Andrey ; Alkire, Matthew ; Ashik, Igor M. ; Baumann, Till M. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Goszczko, Ilona ; Guthrie, John D. ; Ivanov, Vladimir V. ; Kanzow, Torsten ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Kwok, Ron ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Morison, James H. ; Rember, Robert ; Yulin, Alexander
    Arctic sea-ice loss is a leading indicator of climate change and can be attributed, in large part, to atmospheric forcing. Here we show that recent ice reductions, weakening of the halocline, and shoaling of intermediate-depth Atlantic Water layer in the eastern Eurasian Basin have increased winter ventilation in the ocean interior, making this region structurally similar to that of the western Eurasian Basin. The associated enhanced release of oceanic heat has reduced winter sea-ice formation at a rate now comparable to losses from atmospheric thermodynamic forcing, thus explaining the recent reduction in sea-ice cover in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This encroaching “atlantification” of the Eurasian Basin represents an essential step toward a new Arctic climate state, with a substantially greater role for Atlantic inflows.
  • Article
    The Atlantic Water boundary current in the Nansen Basin : transport and mechanisms of lateral exchange
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-09-22) Våge, Kjetil ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Pavlov, Vladimir ; Lin, Peigen ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    Data from a shipboard hydrographic survey near 30°E in the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are used to investigate the structure and transport of the Atlantic Water boundary current. Two high-resolution synoptic crossings of the current indicate that it is roughly 30 km wide and weakly middepth-intensified. Using a previously determined definition of Atlantic Water, the transport of this water mass is calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.3 Sv, which is similar to the transport of Atlantic Water in the inner branch of the West Spitsbergen Current. At the time of the survey a small anticyclonic eddy of Atlantic Water was situated just offshore of the boundary current. The data suggest that the feature was recently detached from the boundary current, and, due to compensating effects of temperature and salinity on the thermal wind shear, the maximum swirl speed was situated below the hydrographic property core. Two other similar features were detected within our study domain, suggesting that these eddies are common and represent an effective means of fluxing warm and salty water from the boundary current into the interior. An atmospheric low-pressure system transiting south of our study area resulted in southeasterly winds prior to and during the field measurements. A comparison to hydrographic data from the Pacific Water boundary current in the Canada Basin under similar atmospheric forcing suggests that upwelling was taking place during the survey. This provides a second mechanism related to cross-stream exchange of heat and salt in this region of the Nansen Basin.
  • Article
    Variability and redistribution of heat in the Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-09-12) Renner, Angelika H. H. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Janout, Markus A. ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Pérez-Hernández, M. Dolores
    We quantify Atlantic Water heat loss north of Svalbard using year‐long hydrographic and current records from three moorings deployed across the Svalbard Branch of the Atlantic Water boundary current in 2012–2013. The boundary current loses annually on average 16 W m−2 during the eastward propagation along the upper continental slope. The largest vertical fluxes of >100 W m−2 occur episodically in autumn and early winter. Episodes of sea ice imported from the north in November 2012 and February 2013 coincided with large ocean‐to‐ice heat fluxes, which effectively melted the ice and sustained open water conditions in the middle of the Arctic winter. Between March and early July 2013, a persistent ice cover‐modulated air‐sea fluxes. Melting sea ice at the start of the winter initiates a cold, up to 100‐m‐deep halocline separating the ice cover from the warm Atlantic Water. Semidiurnal tides dominate the energy over the upper part of the slope. The vertical tidal structure depends on stratification and varies seasonally, with the potential to contribute to vertical fluxes with shear‐driven mixing. Further processes impacting the heat budget include lateral heat loss due to mesoscale eddies, and modest and negligible contributions of Ekman pumping and shelf break upwelling, respectively. The continental slope north of Svalbard is a key example regarding the role of ocean heat for the sea ice cover. Our study underlines the complexity of the ocean's heat budget that is sensitive to the balance between oceanic heat advection, vertical fluxes, air‐sea interaction, and the sea ice cover.
  • Article
    Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: physical oceanography
    (University of California Press, 2022-02-07) Rabe, Benjamin ; Heuzé, Céline ; Regnery, Julia ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Allerholt, Jacob ; Athanase, Marylou ; Bai, Youcheng ; Basque, Chris R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Baumann, Till M. ; Chen, Dake ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Craw, Lisa ; Davies, Andrew ; Damm, Ellen ; Dethloff, Klaus ; Divine, Dmitry V. ; Doglioni, Francesca ; Ebert, Falk ; Fang, Ying-Chih ; Fer, Ilker ; Fong, Allison A. ; Gradinger, Rolf ; Granskog, Mats A. ; Graupner, Rainer ; Haas, Christian ; He, Hailun ; Hoppmann, Mario ; Janout, Markus A. ; Kadko, David ; Kanzow, Torsten C. ; Karam, Salar ; Kawaguchi, Yusuke ; Koenig, Zoe ; Kong, Bin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Krumpen, Thomas ; Kuhlmey, David ; Kuznetsov, Ivan ; Lan, Musheng ; Laukert, Georgi ; Lei, Ruibo ; Li, Tao ; Torres-Valdes, Sinhue ; Lin, Lina ; Lin, Long ; Liu, Hailong ; Liu, Na ; Loose, Brice ; Ma, Xiaobing ; McKay, Rosalie ; Mallet, Maria ; Mallett, Robbie ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Mertens, Christian ; Mohrholz, Volker ; Muilwijk, Morven ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; O’Brien, Jeffrey K. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Ren, Jian ; Rex, Markus ; Ribeiro, Natalia ; Rinke, Annette ; Schaffer, Janin ; Schuffenhauer, Ingo ; Schulz, Kirstin ; Shupe, Matthew ; Shaw, William J. ; Sokolov, Vladimir T. ; Sommerfeld, Anja ; Spreen, Gunnar ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Stephens, Mark ; Su, Jie ; Sukhikh, Natalia ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Thomisch, Karolin ; Tippenhauer, Sandra ; Toole, John M. ; Vredenborg, Myriel ; Walter, Maren ; Wang, Hangzhou ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, Yuntao ; Wendisch, Manfred ; Zhao, Jinping ; Zhou, Meng ; Zhu, Jialiang
    Arctic Ocean properties and processes are highly relevant to the regional and global coupled climate system, yet still scarcely observed, especially in winter. Team OCEAN conducted a full year of physical oceanography observations as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), a drift with the Arctic sea ice from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the program to characterize the Arctic Ocean system in unprecedented detail, from the seafloor to the air-sea ice-ocean interface, from sub-mesoscales to pan-Arctic. The oceanographic measurements were coordinated with the other teams to explore the ocean physics and linkages to the climate and ecosystem. This paper introduces the major components of the physical oceanography program and complements the other team overviews of the MOSAiC observational program. Team OCEAN’s sampling strategy was designed around hydrographic ship-, ice- and autonomous platform-based measurements to improve the understanding of regional circulation and mixing processes. Measurements were carried out both routinely, with a regular schedule, and in response to storms or opening leads. Here we present along-drift time series of hydrographic properties, allowing insights into the seasonal and regional evolution of the water column from winter in the Laptev Sea to early summer in Fram Strait: freshening of the surface, deepening of the mixed layer, increase in temperature and salinity of the Atlantic Water. We also highlight the presence of Canada Basin deep water intrusions and a surface meltwater layer in leads. MOSAiC most likely was the most comprehensive program ever conducted over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. While data analysis and interpretation are ongoing, the acquired datasets will support a wide range of physical oceanography and multi-disciplinary research. They will provide a significant foundation for assessing and advancing modeling capabilities in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice
    (Nature Publishig Group, 2019-01-17) Assmy, Philipp ; Fernández-Méndez, Mar ; Duarte, Pedro ; Meyer, Amelie ; Randelhoff, Achim ; Mundy, Christopher J. ; Olsen, Lasse M. ; Kauko, Hanna Maria ; Bailey, Allison ; Chierici, Melissa ; Cohen, Lana ; Doulgeris, Anthony P. ; Ehn, Jens K. ; Fransson, Agneta ; Gerland, Sebastian ; Hop, Haakon ; Hudson, Stephen R. ; Hughes, Nick ; Itkin, Polona ; Johnsen, Geir ; King, Jennifer A. ; Koch, Boris P. ; Koenig, Zoe ; Kwasniewski, Slawomir ; Laney, Samuel R. ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; Pavlov, Alexey K. ; Polashenski, Christopher M. ; Provost, Christine ; Rösel, Anja ; Sandbu, Marthe ; Spreen, Gunnar ; Smedsrud, Lars H. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Taskjelle, Torbjørn ; Tatarek, Agnieszka ; Wiktor, Jozef ; Wagner, Penelope M. ; Wold, Anette ; Steen, Harald ; Granskog, Mats A.
    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m−2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    The Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard in late summer
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-03-21) Perez-Hernandez, M. Dolores ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Pavlov, Vladimir ; Våge, Kjetil ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Renner, Angelika H. H. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.
    Data from a shipboard hydrographic/velocity survey carried out in September 2013 of the region north of Svalbard in the Nansen Basin are analyzed to characterize the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current as it flows eastward along the continental slope. Eight meridional transects across the current, spanning an alongstream distance of 180 km, allow for a detailed description of the current and the regional water masses. During the survey the winds were light and there was no pack-ice. The mean section reveals that the boundary current was O(40 km) wide, surface-intensified, with a maximum velocity of 20 cm/s. Its mean transport during the survey was 3.11 ± 0.33 Sv, of which 2.31 ± 0.29 Sv was AW. This suggests that the two branches of AW entering the Arctic Ocean via Fram Strait—the Yermak Plateau branch and the Svalbard branch—have largely combined into a single current by 30°E. At this location the boundary current meanders with a systematic change in its kinematic structure during offshore excursions. A potential vorticity analysis indicates that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with previous observations of AW anticyclones offshore of the current as well as the presence of a near-field cyclone in this data set. Our survey indicates that only a small portion of the boundary current is diverted into the Kvitøya Trough (0.17 ± 0.08 Sv) and that the AW temperature/salinity signal is quickly eroded within the trough.
  • Article
    Structure, transport, and seasonality of the Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard: Results from a yearlong mooring array
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-02-15) Pérez-Hernández, M. Dolores ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Renner, Angelika H. H. ; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka ; von Appen, Wilken‐Jon ; Pavlov, Vladimir
    The characteristics and seasonality of the Svalbard branch of the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current in the Eurasian Basin are investigated using data from a six‐mooring array deployed near 30°E between September 2012 and September 2013. The instrument coverage extended to 1,200‐m depth and approximately 50 km offshore of the shelf break, which laterally bracketed the flow. Averaged over the year, the transport of the current over this depth range was 3.96 ± 0.32 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s). The transport within the AW layer was 2.08 ± 0.24 Sv. The current was typically subsurface intensified, and its dominant variability was associated with pulsing rather than meandering. From late summer to early winter the AW was warmest and saltiest, and its eastward transport was strongest (2.44 ± 0.12 Sv), while from midspring to midsummer the AW was coldest and freshest and its transport was weakest (1.10 ± 0.06 Sv). Deep mixed layers developed through the winter, extending to 400‐ to 500‐m depth in early spring until the pack ice encroached the area from the north shutting off the air‐sea buoyancy forcing. This vertical mixing modified a significant portion of the AW layer, suggesting that, as the ice cover continues to decrease in the southern Eurasian Basin, the AW will be more extensively transformed via local ventilation.