Tivey Maurice A.

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Maurice A.

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  • Article
    Central Anomaly Magnetization High documentation of crustal accretion along the East Pacific Rise (9°55′–9°25′N)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-04-09) Williams, Clare M. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Schouten, Hans A. ; Fornari, Daniel J.
    Near-bottom magnetic data collected along the crest of the East Pacific Rise between 9°55′ and 9°25′N identify the Central Anomaly Magnetization High (CAMH), a geomagnetic anomaly modulated by crustal accretionary processes over timescales of ∼104 years. A significant decrease in CAMH amplitude is observed along-axis from north to south, with the steepest gradient between 9°42′ and 9°36′N. The source of this variation is neither a systematic change in geochemistry nor varying paleointensity at the time of lava eruption. Instead, magnetic moment models show that it can be accounted for by an observed ∼50% decrease in seismic Layer 2A thickness along-axis. Layer 2A is assumed to be the extrusive volcanic layer, and we propose that this composes most of the magnetic source layer along the ridge axis. The 9°37′N overlapping spreading center (OSC) is located at the southern end of the steep CAMH gradient, and the 9°42′–9°36′N ridge segment is interpreted to be a transition zone in crustal accretion processes, with robust magmatism north of 9°42′N and relatively low magmatism at present south of 9°36′N. The 9°37′N OSC is also the only bathymetric discontinuity associated with a shift in the CAMH peak, which deviates ∼0.7 km to the west of the axial summit trough, indicating southward migration of the OSC. CAMH boundaries (defined from the maximum gradients) lie within or overlie the neovolcanic zone (NVZ) boundaries throughout our survey area, implying a systematic relationship between recent volcanic activity and CAMH source. Maximum flow distances and minimum lava dip angles are inferred on the basis of the lateral distance between the NVZ and CAMH boundaries. Lava dip angles average ∼14° toward the ridge axis, which agrees well with previous observations and offers a new method for estimating lava dip angles along fast spreading ridges where volcanic sequences are not exposed.
  • Article
    Geological and thermal control of the hydrothermal system in northern Yellowstone Lake: inferences from high-resolution magnetic surveys
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-07-27) Bouligand, Claire ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Finn, Carol A. ; Morgan, Lisa A. ; Shanks, Wayne C. Pat, III ; Sohn, Robert A.
    A multiscale magnetic survey of the northern basin of Yellowstone Lake was undertaken in 2016 as part of the Hydrothermal Dynamics of Yellowstone Lake Project (HD‐YLAKE)—a broad research effort to characterize the cause‐and‐effect relationships between geologic and environmental processes and hydrothermal activity on the lake floor. The magnetic survey includes lake surface, regional aeromagnetic, and near‐bottom autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) data. The study reveals a strong contrast between the northeastern lake basin, characterized by a regional magnetic low punctuated by stronger local magnetic lows, many of which host hydrothermal vent activity, and the northwestern lake basin with higher‐amplitude magnetic anomalies and no obvious hydrothermal activity or punctuated magnetic lows. The boundary between these two regions is marked by a steep gradient in heat flow and magnetic values, likely reflecting a significant structure within the currently active ~20‐km‐long Eagle Bay‐Lake Hotel fault zone that may be related to the ~2.08‐Ma Huckleberry Ridge caldera rim. Modeling suggests that the broad northeastern magnetic low reflects both a shallower Curie isotherm and widespread hydrothermal activity that has demagnetized the rock. Along the western lake shoreline are sinuous‐shaped, high‐amplitude magnetic anomaly highs, interpreted as lava flow fronts of upper units of the West Thumb rhyolite. The AUV magnetic survey shows decreased magnetization at the periphery of the active Deep Hole hydrothermal vent. We postulate that lower magnetization in the outer zone results from enhanced hydrothermal alteration of rhyolite by hydrothermal condensates while the vapor‐dominated center of the vent is less altered.
  • Article
    Rescue of long-tail data from the ocean bottom to the Moon : IEDA Data Rescue Mini-Awards
    (Elsevier, 2015-03-27) Hsu, Leslie ; Lehnert, Kerstin A. ; Goodwillie, Andrew ; Delano, John W. ; Gill, James B. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Ferrini, Vicki L. ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Arko, Robert A.
    Over the course of a scientific career, a large fraction of the data collected by scientific investigators turns into data at risk of becoming inaccessible to future science. Although a part of the investigators’ data is made available in manuscripts and databases, other data may remain unpublished, non-digital, on degrading or near obsolete digital media, or inadequately documented for reuse. In 2013, Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) provided data rescue mini-awards to three Earth science investigators. IEDA’s user communities in geochemistry, petrology, geochronology, and marine geophysics collect long-tail data, defined as data produced by individuals and small teams for specific projects, tending to be of small volume and initially for use only by these teams, thus being less likely to be easily transferred or reused. Long-tail data are at greater risk of omission from the scientific record. The awarded projects topics were (1) Geochemical and Geochronological data on volcanic rocks from the Fiji, Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, and Endeavor segments of the global mid-ocean ridge, (2) High-Resolution, Near-bottom Magnetic Field Data, and (3) Geochemistry of Lunar Glasses. IEDA worked closely with the awardees to create a plan for the data rescue, resulting in the registration of hundreds of samples and the entry of dozens of data and documentation files into IEDA data systems. The data were made openly accessible and citable by assigning persistent identifiers for samples and files. The mini-award program proved that a relatively small incentive combined with data facility guidance can motivate investigators to accomplish significant data rescue.
  • Article
    Mid-ocean ridge exploration with an autonomous underwater vehicle
    (Oceanography Society, 2007-12) Yoerger, Dana R. ; Bradley, Albert M. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; German, Christopher R. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Embley, Robert W.
    Human-occupied submersibles, towed vehicles, and tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) have traditionally been used to study the deep seafloor. In recent years, however, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have begun to replace these other vehicles for mapping and survey missions. AUVs complement the capabilities of these pre-existing systems, offering superior mapping capabilities, improved logistics, and better utilization of the surface support vessel by allowing other tasks such as submersible operations, ROV work, CTD stations, or multibeam surveys to be performed while the AUV does its work. AUVs are particularly well suited to systematic preplanned surveys using sonars, in situ chemical sensors, and cameras in the rugged deep-sea terrain that has been the focus of numerous scientific expeditions (e.g., those to mid-ocean ridges and ocean margin settings). The Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) is an example of an AUV that has been used for over 20 cruises sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration (OE), and international and private sources. This paper summarizes NOAA OE-sponsored cruises made to date using ABE.
  • Article
    Dynamic accretion beneath a slow-spreading ridge segment: IODP hole 1473A and the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-07) Dick, Henry J. B. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Blum, Peter ; Abe, Natsue ; Blackman, Donna K. ; Bowles, Julie A. ; Cheadle, Michael J. ; Cho, K. ; Ciazela, Jakub ; Deans, Jeremy ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Ferrando, Carlotta ; France, Lydéric ; Ghosh, Biswajit ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; John, Barbara E. ; Kendrick, Mark A. ; Koepke, Juergen ; Leong, James ; Liu, Chuanzhou ; Ma, Qiang ; Morishita, Tomoaki ; Morris, Antony ; Natland, James H. ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Pluemper, Oliver ; Sanfilippo, Alessio ; Sylvan, Jason B. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Tribuzio, Riccardo ; Viegas, G.
    809 deep IODP Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank, SWIR, is 2.2 km from 1,508‐m Hole 735B and 1.4 from 158‐m Hole 1105A. With mapping, it provides the first 3‐D view of the upper levels of a 660‐km2 lower crustal batholith. It is laterally and vertically zoned, representing a complex interplay of cyclic intrusion, and ongoing deformation, with kilometer‐scale upward and lateral migration of interstial melt. Transform wall dives over the gabbro‐peridotite contact found only evolved gabbro intruded directly into the mantle near the transform. There was no high‐level melt lens, rather the gabbros crystallized at depth, and then emplaced into the zone of diking by diapiric rise of a crystal mush followed by crystal‐plastic deformation and faulting. The residues to mass balance the crust to a parent melt composition lie at depth below the center of the massif—likely near the crust‐mantle boundary. Thus, basalts erupted to the seafloor from >1,550 mbsf. By contrast, the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge lower crust drilled at 23°N and at Atlantis Massif experienced little high‐temperature deformation and limited late‐stage melt transport. They contain primitive cumulates and represent direct intrusion, storage, and crystallization of parental MORB in thinner crust below the dike‐gabbro transition. The strong asymmetric spreading of the SWIR to the south was due to fault capture, with the northern rift valley wall faults cutoff by a detachment fault that extended across most of the zone of intrusion. This caused rapid migration of the plate boundary to the north, while the large majority of the lower crust to spread south unroofing Atlantis Bank and uplifting it into the rift mountains.
  • Article
    Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust (Hess Deep) using near-source vector magnetic data
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-16) Tominaga, Masako ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Morris, Antony ; Lissenberg, C. Johan ; Shillington, Donna J. ; Ferrini, Vicki L.
    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins. We conducted a high-resolution, near-bottom, vector magnetic survey of crust exposed in the Hess Deep “tectonic window” using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Isis during RRS James Cook cruise JC21 in 2008. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagating rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (2°15′N, 101°30′W). ROV Isis collected high-resolution bathymetry and near-bottom magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithostratigraphy and internal structure of a section of EPR lower crust and mantle exposed on the steep (~20°dipping) south facing slope just north of the Hess Deep nadir. Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile (VMP) approach of Tivey (1996) by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as “vector vertical magnetic profiling” approach. We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope. The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a “bench” and lobe-shaped steps, imaged by microbathymetry. The lower part of the slope is strongly magnetized, with a gradual reduction in amplitude from east to west across the slope. Surface morphology and recent drilling results indicate that the slope has been affected by mass wasting, but the observation of internally coherent magnetization distributions within the upper and lower slopes suggest that the disturbance is surficial. We attribute the spatial differences in magnetization distribution to the combination of changes in in situ lithology and depth to the source. These survey lines document the first magnetic profiles that capture the gabbro-ultramafic and possibly dike-gabbro boundaries in fast-spreading lower crust.
  • Preprint
    Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies at Lake Rotomahana: geological and hydrothermal implications
    ( 2015-03) Tontini, F. Caratori ; de Ronde, Cornel E. J. ; Scott, Bradley J. ; Soengkono, Supri ; Stagpoole, Vaughan ; Timm, Christian ; Tivey, Maurice A.
    We investigate the geological and hydrothermal setting at Lake Rotomahana, using recently collected potential-field data, integrated with pre-existing regional gravity and aeromagnetic compilations. The lake is located on the southwest margin of the Okataina Volcanic Center (Haroharo caldera) and had well-known, pre-1886 Tarawera eruption hydrothermal manifestations (the famous Pink and White Terraces). Its present physiography was set by the caldera collapse during the 1886 eruption, together with the appearance of surface activities at the Waimangu Valley. Gravity models suggest subsidence associated with the Haroharo caldera is wider than the previously mapped extent of the caldera margins. Magnetic anomalies closely correlate with heat-flux data and surface hydrothermal manifestations and indicate that the west and northwestern shore of Lake Rotomahana are characterized by a large, well-developed hydrothermal field. The field extends beyond the lake area with deep connections to the Waimangu area to the south. On the south, the contact between hydrothermally demagnetized and magnetized rocks strikes along a structural lineament with high heat-flux and bubble plumes which suggest hydrothermal activity occurring west of Patiti Island. The absence of a well-defined demagnetization anomaly at this location suggests a very young age for the underlying geothermal system which was likely generated by the 1886 Tarawera eruption. Locally confined intense magnetic anomalies on the north shore of Lake Rotomahana are interpreted as basalts dikes with high magnetization. Some appear to have been emplaced before the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A dike located in proximity of the southwest lake shore may be related to the structural lineament controlling the development of the Patiti geothermal system, and could have been originated from the 1886 Tarawera eruption.
  • Article
    A reduced crustal magnetization zone near the first observed active hydrothermal vent field on the Southwest Indian Ridge
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-09-21) Zhu, Jian ; Lin, Jian ; Chen, Yongshun J. ; Tao, Chunhui ; German, Christopher R. ; Yoerger, Dana R. ; Tivey, Maurice A.
    Inversion of near-bottom magnetic data reveals a well-defined low crustal magnetization zone (LMZ) near a local topographic high (37°47′S, 49°39′E) on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The magnetic data were collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE on board R/V DaYangYiHao in February-March 2007. The first active hydrothermal vent field observed on the SWIR is located in Area A within and adjacent to the LMZ at the local topographic high, implying that this LMZ may be the result of hydrothermal alteration of magnetic minerals. The maximum reduction in crustal magnetization is 3 A/M. The spatial extent of the LMZ is estimated to be at least 6.7 × 104 m2, which is larger than that of the LMZs at the TAG vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as the Relict Field, Bastille, Dante-Grotto, and New Field vent-sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdF). The calculated magnetic moment, i.e., the product of the spatial extent and amplitude of crustal magnetization reduction is at least −3 × 107 Am2 for the LMZ on the SWIR, while that for the TAG field on the MAR is −8 × 107 Am2 and that for the four individual vent fields on the JdF range from −5 × 107 to −3 × 107 Am2. Together these results indicate that crustal demagnetization is a common feature of basalt-hosted hydrothermal vent fields at mid-ocean ridges of all spreading rates. Furthermore, the crustal demagnetization of the Area A on the ultraslow-spreading SWIR is comparable in strength to that of the TAG area on the slow-spreading MAR.
  • Article
    Crustal magnetization and the subseafloor structure of the ASHES vent field, Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge : implications for the investigation of hydrothermal sites
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-24) Tontini, F. Caratori ; Crone, Timothy J. ; de Ronde, Cornel E. J. ; Fornari, Daniel J. ; Kinsey, James C. ; Mittelstaedt, Eric ; Tivey, Maurice A.
    High-resolution geophysical data have been collected using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry over the ASHES (Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emission Study) high-temperature (~348°C) vent field at Axial Seamount, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Multiple surveys were performed on a 3-D grid at different altitudes above the seafloor, providing an unprecedented view of magnetic data resolution as a function of altitude above the seafloor. Magnetic data derived near the seafloor show that the ASHES field is characterized by a zone of low magnetization, which can be explained by hydrothermal alteration of the host volcanic rocks. Surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity at the ASHES vent field are likely controlled by a combination of local faults and fractures and different lava morphologies near the seafloor. Three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic data provides evidence of a vertical, pipe-like upflow zone of the hydrothermal fluids with a vertical extent of ~100 m.
  • Article
    Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°50′N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-01-19) Ferrini, Vicki L. ; Fornari, Daniel J. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Kinsey, James C. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Soule, Samuel A. ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Whitcomb, Louis L. ; Yoerger, Dana R. ; Howland, Jonathan C.
    Recent advances in underwater vehicle navigation and sonar technology now permit detailed mapping of complex seafloor bathymetry found at mid-ocean ridge crests. Imagenex 881 (675 kHz) scanning sonar data collected during low-altitude (~5 m) surveys conducted with DSV Alvin were used to produce submeter resolution bathymetric maps of five hydrothermal vent areas at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) Ridge2000 Integrated Study Site (9°50′N, “bull's-eye”). Data were collected during 29 dives in 2004 and 2005 and were merged through a grid rectification technique to create high-resolution (0.5 m grid) composite maps. These are the first submeter bathymetric maps generated with a scanning sonar mounted on Alvin. The composite maps can be used to quantify the dimensions of meter-scale volcanic and hydrothermal features within the EPR axial summit trough (AST) including hydrothermal vent structures, lava pillars, collapse areas, the trough walls, and primary volcanic fissures. Existing Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) bathymetry data (675 kHz scanning sonar) collected at this site provide the broader geologic context necessary to interpret the meter-scale features resolved in the composite maps. The grid rectification technique we employed can be used to optimize vehicle time by permitting the creation of high-resolution bathymetry maps from data collected during multiple, coordinated, short-duration surveys after primary dive objectives are met. This method can also be used to colocate future near-bottom sonar data sets within the high-resolution composite maps, enabling quantification of bathymetric changes associated with active volcanic, hydrothermal and tectonic processes.
  • Article
    Waning magmatic activity along the Southern Explorer Ridge revealed through fault restoration of rift topography
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-05-29) Deschamps, Anne ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Chadwick, William W. ; Embley, Robert W.
    We combine high-resolution bathymetry acquired using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ABE with digital seafloor imagery collected using the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS across the axial valley of the Southern Explorer Ridge (SER) to infer the recent volcanic and tectonic processes. The SER is an intermediate spreading ridge located in the northeast Pacific. It hosts the Magic Mountain hydrothermal vent. We reconstruct the unfaulted seafloor terrain at SER based on calculations of the vertical displacement field and fault parameters. The vertical changes between the initial and the restored topographies reflect the integrated effects of volcanism and tectonism on relief-forming processes over the last 11,000–14,000 years. The restored topography indicates that the axial morphology evolved from a smooth constructional dome >500 m in diameter, to a fault-bounded graben, ~500 m wide and 30–70 m deep. This evolution has been accompanied by changes in eruptive rate, with deposition of voluminous lobate and sheet flows when the SER had a domed morphology, and limited-extent low-effusion rate pillow eruptions during graben development. Most of the faults shaping the present axial valley postdate the construction of the dome. Our study supports a model of cyclic volcanism at the SER with periods of effusive eruptions flooding the axial rift, centered on the broad plateau at the summit of the ridge, followed by a decrease in eruptive activity and a subsequent dominance of tectonic processes, with minor low-effusion rate eruptions confined to the axial graben. The asymmetric shape of the axial graben supports an increasing role of extensional processes, with a component of simple shear in the spreading processes.
  • Article
    The Cleft revealed: geologic, magnetic, and morphologic evidence for construction of upper oceanic crust along the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-04-12) Stakes, Debra S. ; Perfit, Michael R. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Caress, David W. ; Ramirez, Tony M. ; Maher, Norman
    The geology and structure of the Cleft Segment of the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) have been examined using high-resolution mapping systems, observations by remotely operated vehicle (ROV), ROV-mounted magnetometer, and the geochemical analysis of recovered lavas. Bathymetric mapping using multibeam (EM300) coupled with in situ observations that focused on near-axis and flank regions provides a detailed picture of 0 to 400 ka upper crust created at the southern terminus of the JdFR. A total of 53 rock cores and 276 precisely located rock or glass samples were collected during three cruises that included sixteen ROV dives. Our observations of the seafloor during these dives suggest that many of the unfaulted and extensive lava flows that comprise and/or cap the prominent ridges that flank the axial valley emanate from ridge parallel faults and fissures that formed in the highly tectonized zone that forms the walls of the axial valley. The geochemically evolved and heterogeneous nature of these near-axis and flank eruptions is consistent with an origin within the cooler distal edges of a crustal magma chamber or mush zone. In contrast, the most recent axial eruptions are more primitive (higher MgO), chemically homogeneous lobate, sheet, and massive flows that generate a distinct magnetic high over the axial valley. We suggest that the syntectonic capping volcanics observed off-axis were erupted from near-axis and flank fissures and created a thickened extrusive layer as suggested by the magnetic and seismic data. This model suggests that many of the lavas that comprise the elevated ridges that bound the axial valley of the Cleft Segment were erupted during the collapse of a magmatic cycle not during the robust phase that established a new magmatic cycle.
  • Article
    Segmentation and crustal structure of the western Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank, 25°25′–27°10′N and 0–29 m.y.
    (American Geophysical Union, 1997-05-10) Tucholke, Brian E. ; Lin, Jian ; Kleinrock, Martin C. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Reed, Thomas B. ; Goff, John A. ; Jaroslow, Gary E.
    We conducted a detailed geological-geophysical survey of the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 25°25′N and 27°10′N and from the ridge axis out to 29 Ma crust, acquiring Hydrosweep multibeam bathymetry, HAWAII MR1 sidescan-sonar imagery, gravity, magnetics, and single-channel seismic reflection profiles. The survey covered all or part of nine spreading segments bounded by mostly nontransform, right-stepping discontinuities which are subparallel to flow lines but which migrated independently of one another. Some discontinuities alternated between small right- and left-stepping offsets or exhibited zero offset for up to 3–4 m.y. Despite these changes, the spreading segments have been long-lived and extend 20 m.y. or more across isochrons. A large shift (∼9°) in relative plate motion about 24–22 Ma caused significant changes in segmentation pattern. The nature of this plate-boundary response, together with the persistence of segments through periods of zero offset at their bounding discontinuities, suggest that the position and longevity of segments are controlled primarily by the subaxial position of buoyant mantle diapirs or focused zones of rising melt. Within segments, there are distinct differences in seafloor depth, morphology, residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly, and apparent crustal thickness between inside-corner and outside-corner crust. This demands fundamentally asymmetric crustal accretion and extension across the ridge axis, which we attribute to low-angle, detachment faulting near segment ends. Cyclic variations in residual gravity over the crossisochron run of segments also suggest crustal-thickness changes of at least 1–2 km every 2–3 m.y. These are interpreted to be caused by episodes of magmatic versus relatively amagmatic extension, controlled by retention and quasiperiodic release of melt from the upwelling mantle. Detachment faulting appears to be especially effective in exhuming lower crust to upper mantle at inside corners during relatively amagmatic episodes, creating crustal domes analogous to “turtleback” metamorphic core complexes that are formed by low-angle, detachment faulting in subaerial extensional environments.
  • Article
    Investigation of a marine magnetic polarity reversal boundary in cross section at the northern boundary of the Kane Megamullion, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 23°40′N
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-05-12) Xu, Min ; Tivey, Maurice A.
    Near-bottom magnetic field measurements made by the submersible Nautile during the 1992 Kanaut Expedition define the cross-sectional geometry of magnetic polarity reversal boundaries and the vertical variation of crustal magnetization in lower oceanic crust exposed along the Kane Transform Fault (TF) at the northern boundary of the Kane Megamullion (KMM). The KMM exposes lower crust and upper mantle rocks on a low-angle normal fault that was active between 3.3 Ma and 2.1 Ma. The geometry of the polarity boundaries is estimated from an inversion of the submarine magnetic data for crustal magnetization. In general, the polarity boundaries dip away from the ridge axis along the Kane TF scarp, with a west dipping angle of ~45° in the shallow (<1 km) crust and <20° in the deeper crust. The existence of the magnetic polarity boundaries (e.g., C2r.2r/C2An.1n, ~2.581 Ma) indicates that the lower crustal gabbros and upper mantle serpentinized peridotites are able to record a coherent magnetic signal. Our results support the conclusion of Williams (2007) that the lower crust cools through the Curie temperature of magnetite to become magnetic, with the polarity boundaries representing both frozen isotherms and isochrons. We also test the effects of the rotation of this isotherm structure and/or footwall rotation and find that the magnetic polarity boundary geometry is not sensitive to these directional changes.
  • Working Paper
    Manus 2006 : hydrothermal systems in the Eastern Manus Basin: fluid chemistry and magnetic structure as guides to subseafloor processes
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2006) Tivey, Maurice A. ; Bach, Wolfgang ; Seewald, Jeffrey S. ; Tivey, Margaret K. ; Vanko, David A.
    The hydrothermal systems in the Manus Basin of Papua New Guinea (PNG) were comprehensively investigated through a combination of sampling and mapping using the Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason, the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) ABE (Autonomous Benthic Explorer) and ship-based CTD work and multi-beam bathymetric mapping using the RV Melville. The objectives of the cruise (July 21st to Sept. 1st, 2006) were to identify the tectonic/geologic settings of the vent systems, examine the interactions of seawater with felsic rocks that constitute the high silica end-member range of seafloor basement compositions, determine the extent of volatile magmatic inputs into these systems and to examine the evolution of hydrothermal activity through time. The first 10-day portion of the cruise was funded by Nautilus Minerals in a collaborative research effort to examine the Manus Spreading Center and the Vienna Woods basalt-hosted hydrothermal vent systems. The second 32-day portion of the cruise, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), focused on the felsic-hosted hydrothermal systems of the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea – Australia – Canada Manus) vents drilled by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) in 2000 and the nearby seafloor volcano vent systems of Desmos and SuSu Knolls. Nautilus Minerals generously funded the add-on use of ABE throughout the NSF program allowing for high resolution mapping to be completed on all the major vent sites within the eastern Manus Basin. A total of 30 ROV dives (497 operational hours) were completed collecting 198 vent sulfides, 83 altered substrate and 43 fresh lava samples along with 104 black, gray and clear fluid samples using gastight and major samplers. ABE successfully completed 14 high resolution bathymetric, CTD and magnetic field mapping dives covering a total of 364 line km of seafloor. We located and mapped in detail the Vienna Woods and nearby Tufar-2 and -3 vent areas on Manus Spreading Center documenting the strong tectonic control on the distribution of the vent systems and the presence of reduced magnetization i.e. “magnetic burnholes”, that help define the lateral extent of the vent fields. The Vienna Woods vent systems (273°-285°C) form treetrunk- like chimneys 5-15 m tall, that emit black to gray fluids with pH and compositions similar to other documented midocean ridge (MOR) systems like the East Pacific Rise. At PACMANUS, high-resolution mapping by ABE reveals a distinctive seafloor morphology associated with dacitic lava flows along with discrete magnetic burnholes associated with the active venting systems of Roman Ruins, Satanic Mills, Snowcap, Tsukushi and a new vigorous vent system discovered southeast of the Satanic Mills area named Fenway. Another vent field in its waning stages was also discovered ~8 km northeast of PACMANUS on the Northeast Pual Ridge. At PACMANUS, the 40 m diameter Fenway mound hosts outcrops of massive anhydrite on the seafloor beneath the sulfide chimneys, a rare occurrence as anhydrite is unstable at ambient seafloor conditions. Fenway is also boiling (356°C, 172 bar) with two-phase fluid producing a ”flashing” phenomenon when the Jason lights illuminated the vent orifices. The five PACMANUS vents (271° – 356°C) have ubiquitous low pH (2.3 to 2.8) relative to Vienna Woods and typical MOR fluids, presumably reflecting water-rock reaction with the felsic hosted lava, input of magmatic volatiles and the subsurface deposition of metal sulfides. We investigated two strongly magmatically influenced vent systems associated with seafloor volcanoes. Desmos is a breached caldera with white smokers (70°-115°C) that are highly acidic (pH 1 – 1.5) and sulfur lava flows. SuSu Knolls and the adjacent Suzette mound (Solwara-1 of Nautilus Minerals) were mapped in detail and sampled intensively. Hydrothermal activity at SuSu Knolls showed a remarkable range from boiling black smokers to white sulfur-rich fluids, native sulfur flows and massive anhydrite outcrops. Vent fluids from North Su (48° – 325°C) are 2 characterized by a measured pH of 0.87, more than an order of magnitude more acidic than any deep-sea vent fluid sampled to date. Many of the low pH fluids sampled at North Su and Desmos were actively precipitating native sulfur creating thick plumes of dense white smoke. In general, sampled fluids show a considerable range in pH and gas contents, sometimes within individual hydrothermal fields. The pronounced variability of fluid chemistry within 10’s to 100’s of m at North Su is probably unparalleled in systems studied to date. The most plausible explanation for the observed variability is that different fluid-rock reaction pathways are expressed in regimes of variable magmatic volatile input and extent of subsurface cooling. This hypothesis is supported by the distribution of alteration types at the seafloor, where the occurrence of advanced argillic alteration - that relates to interactions with acid-sulfate waters such as sampled at Desmos and North Su – is patchy and spatially confined to patches of active (Desmos, North Su) and past (Snowcap) venting of such fluids. In relationship to the ODP drilling results at PACMANUS we identified and sampled examples of advanced argillic rock alteration similar to that seen in the drill core. Good examples came from Snowcap and from the North Su pillar. We sampled highly clay-altered basement from just underneath extinct chimney complexes at two locations in the Satanic Mills hydrothermal field. Both samples have dense networks of sulfide veins and may represent the stockwork or feeder zone through which hydrothermal fluids rise up to the seafloor. These samples, in addition to the other altered rock types recovered, will provide useful stepping stones in bridging the knowledge gap between the extensive surface sampling now accomplished and the basement rocks recovered by ODP, where coring was almost nil shallower than 40 m subseafloor depth. Overall, the quality and quantity of solid and fluid samples that can be put in a direct geochemical context is remarkably high. This unique dataset encompasses a broad range of geological environments that includes hydrothermal activity in basalt-hosted oceanic style spreading centers to hydrothermal systems associated with arc-style volcanism. For the first time, alteration assemblages that are commonly observed in drillcore and outcrop on land have been observed in the aqueous environment responsible for their formation.
  • Preprint
    Geologic setting of PACManus hydrothermal vent fields – High-resolution mapping and in situ observations
    ( 2014-05) Thal, Janis ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Yoerger, Dana R. ; Jons, Niels ; Bach, Wolfgang
    This study presents a systematic analysis and interpretation of autonomous underwater vehicle-based microbathymetry combined with remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video recordings, rock analyses and temperature measurements within the PACManus hydrothermal area located on Pual Ridge in the Bismarck Sea of eastern Manus Basin. The data obtained during research cruise Magellan-06 and So-216 provides a framework for understanding the relationship between the volcanism, tectonism and hydrothermal activity. PACManus is a submarine felsic vocanically-hosted hydrothermal area that hosts multiple vent fields located within several hundred meters of one another but with different fluid chemistries, vent temperatures and morphologies. The total area of hydrothermal activity is estimated to be 20,279 m2. The microbathymetry maps combined with the ROV video observations allow for precise high-resolution mapping estimates of the areal extents of hydrothermal activity. We find the distribution of hydrothermal fields in the PACManus area is primarily controlled by volcanic features that include lava domes, thick and massive blocky lava flows, breccias and feeder dykes. Spatial variation in the permeability of local volcanic facies appears to control the distribution of venting within a field. We define a three-stage chronological sequence for the volcanic evolution of the PACManus based on lava flow morphology, sediment cover and lava SiO2 concentration. In Stage-1, sparsely to moderately porphyritic dacite lavas (68 - 69.8 wt. % SiO2) erupted to form domes or cryptodomes. In Stage-2, aphyric lava with slightly lower SiO2 concentrations (67.2 – 67.9 wt. % SiO2) formed jumbled and pillowed lava flows. In the most recent phase Stage-3, massive blocky lavas with 69 to 72.5 wt. % SiO2 were erupted through multiple vents constructing a volcanic ridge identified as the PACManus neovolcanic zone. The transition between these stages may be gradual and related to progressive heating of a silicic magma following a recharge event of hot, mantle-derived melts.
  • Article
    Magnetization of 0–29 Ma ocean crust on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 25°30′ to 27°10′N
    (American Geophysical Union, 1998-08-10) Tivey, Maurice A. ; Tucholke, Brian E.
    A sea-surface magnetic survey over the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 0 to 29 Ma crust encompasses several spreading segments and documents the evolution of crustal magnetization in slowly accreted crust. We find that magnetization decays rapidly within the first few million years, although the filtering effect of water depth on the sea-surface data and the slow spreading rate (<13 km/m.y.) preclude us from resolving this decay rate. A distinctly asymmetric, along-axis pattern of crustal magnetization is rapidly attenuated off-axis, suggesting that magnetization dominated by extrusive lavas on-axis is reduced off-axis to a background value. Off-axis, we find a statistically significant correlation between crustal magnetization and apparent crustal thickness with thin crust tending to be more positively magnetized than thicker crust, indicative of induced magnetization in thin inside corner (IC) crust. In general, we find that off-axis segment ends show an induced magnetization component regardless of polarity and that IC segment ends tend to have slightly more induced component compared with outside corner (OC) segment ends, possibly due to serpentinized uppermost mantle at IC ends. We find that remanent magnetization is also reduced at segment ends, but there is no correlation with inside or outside corner crust, even though they have very different crustal thicknesses. This indicates that remanent magnetization off-axis is independent of crustal thickness, bulk composition, and the presence or absence of extrusives. Remanence reduction at segment ends is thought to be primarily due to alteration of lower crust in OC crust and a combination of crustal thinning and alteration in IC crust. From all these observations, we infer that the remanent magnetization of extrusive crust is strongly attenuated off-axis, and that magnetization of the lower crust may be the dominant source for off-axis magnetic anomalies.
  • Article
    The magnetization of an underwater caldera: a time‐lapse magnetic anomaly study of axial seamount
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-09-03) Fluegel, Bailey ; Tivey, Maurice ; Biasi, Joseph ; Chadwick, William W. ; Nooner, Scott L.
    Axial Seamount in the northeast Pacific erupted in 2015, 2011, and 1998. Although monitored by the Regional Cabled Array of the Ocean Observatory Initiative, few magnetic surveys have been conducted over the region. This study uses high‐resolution magnetic data over the seamount collected by autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry during three years (2015, 2017, and 2020). The goal is to investigate whether there are temporal changes in the near‐surface magnetic field observable over the time scale of one volcanic cycle. We compare magnetic maps from repeated tracklines from each year. We find maps of the yearly difference in magnetization show coherent patterns that are not random. The central region of the caldera has become more magnetic during recent years, suggesting cooling of the surficial lava flows since 2015. Sentry data are more sensitive to shallow crustal structure compared to sea surface data which show longer wavelength anomalies extending deeper into the crust.Plain Language SummaryAxial Seamount is an active underwater volcano located off the coast of Oregon that has recently erupted in 2015, 2011, and 1998. Though Axial is monitored by many seafloor instruments, the magnetism of the region and how it changes with time has not been studied. However, we believe studying the magnetics of Axial can provide powerful insights into the internal structure of the volcano. Specifically, volcanic rocks contain magnetic minerals called magnetite. Above a certain temperature, called the Curie temperature, these minerals become non‐magnetic. Thus, magnetism may be able to detect changes in the high temperature areas of the volcano between eruptions, such as the magma chamber or young lava flows. Here, we perform the first study analyzing three separate years of high‐resolution magnetic data collected using an autonomous underwater vehicle over Axial seamount. We create magnetic maps using repeated vehicle tracklines to highlight differences between each year and compare our findings with broader surveys of the region. Our results indicate the central region of Axial has become more magnetic during recent years, suggesting cooling of the lavas erupted in 2015 and their associated subsurface feeder zones.Key PointsRepeat magnetic surveys at active submarine volcanos image temporal change in thermal structure related to geologic and volcanic processesHigh resolution magnetic data can be used for low‐cost volcano monitoring in the marine environment over relevant timescales
  • Article
    Magnetic mineral populations in lower oceanic crustal gabbros (Atlantis Bank, SW Indian Ridge): implications for marine magnetic anomalies
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-02-28) Bowles, Julie A. ; Morris, Antony ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Lascu, Ioan
    To learn more about magnetic properties of the lower ocean crust and its contributions to marine magnetic anomalies, gabbro samples were collected from International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Detailed magnetic property work links certain magnetic behaviors and domain states to specific magnetic mineral populations. Measurements on whole rocks and mineral separates included magnetic hysteresis, first‐order reversal curves, low‐temperature remanence measurements, thermomagnetic analysis, and magnetic force microscopy. Characteristics of the thermomagnetic data indicate that the upper ~500 m of the hole has undergone hydrothermal alteration. The thermomagnetic and natural remanent magnetization data are consistent with earlier observations from Hole 735B that show remanence arises from low‐Ti magnetite and that natural remanent magnetizations are up to 25 A m−1 in evolved Fe‐Ti oxide gabbros, but are mostly <1 A m−1. Magnetite is present in at least three forms. Primary magnetite is associated with coarse‐grained oxides that are more frequent in the upper part of the hole. This magnetic population is linked to dominantly “pseudo‐single‐domain” behavior that arises from fine‐scale lamellar intergrowths within the large oxides. Deeper in the hole the magnetic signal is more commonly dominated by an interacting single‐domain assemblage most likely found along crystal discontinuities in olivine and/or pyroxene. A third contribution is from noninteracting single‐domain inclusions within plagioclase. Because the concentration of the highly magnetic, oxide‐rich gabbros is greatest toward the surface, the signal from coarse oxides will likely dominate the near‐bottom magnetic anomaly signal at Atlantis Bank.
  • Preprint
    Magnetic exploration of a low-temperature ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal site (Lost City, 30°N, MAR)
    ( 2016-12) Szitkar, Florent ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Karson, Jeffrey A. ; Fruh-Green, Gretchen L. ; Denny, Alden R.
    A 2003 high-resolution magnetic survey conducted by the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ABE over the low-temperature, ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal field Lost City reveals a weak positive magnetic anomaly. This observation is in direct contrast to recent observations of strong positive magnetic anomalies documented over the high-temperature ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vents fields Rainbow and Ashadze, which indicates that temperature may control the production of magnetization at these sites. The Lost City survey provides a unique opportunity to study a field that is, to date, one of a kind, and is an end member of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. Our results highlight the key contribution of temperature on magnetite production resulting from serpentinization reactions. Whereas high temperature promotes significant production and partitioning of iron into magnetite, low temperature favors iron partitioning into various alteration phases, resulting in a magnetite-poor rock. Moreover, the distribution of magnetic anomalies confirms results of a previous geological survey indicating the progressive migration of hydrothermal activity upslope. These discoveries contribute to the results of 25 years of magnetic exploration of a wide range of hydrothermal sites, from low- to high-temperature and from basalt- to ultramafic-hosted, and thereby validate using high-resolution magnetics as a crucial parameter for locating and characterizing hydrothermal sites hosting unique chemosynthetic-based ecosystems and potentially mineral-rich deposits.