Caruso Michael J.

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Michael J.

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  • Technical Report
    Satellite data processing system (SDPS) users manual V1.0
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1989-05) Caruso, Michael J. ; Dunn, Christopher V. R.
    SDPS is a menu driven interactive program designed to facilitate the display and output of image and line-based data sets common to telemetry, modeling and remote sensing. This program can be used to display up to four separate raster images and overlay line-based data such as coastlines, ship tracks and velocity vectors. The program uses multiple windows to communicate information with the user. At any given time, the program may have up to four image display windows as well as auxiliary windows containing information about each image displayed. SDPS is not a commercial program. It does not contain complete type checking or error diagnostics which may allow the program to crash. Known anomalies will be mentioned in the appropriate section as notes or cautions.
  • Technical Report
    Evaluation of NSCAT scatterometer winds using equatorial Pacific buoy observations
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1999-07) Caruso, Michael J. ; Dickinson, Suzanne ; Kelly, Kathryn A. ; Spillane, Mick ; Mangum, Linda J. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Stratton, Linda D.
    As part of the calibration/validation effort for NASA's Scatterometer (NSCAT) we compare the satellite data to winds measured at the sea surface with an array of buoys moored in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The NSCAT data record runs from September, 1996 through the end of June, 1997. The raw NSCAT data, radar backscatter, is converted to wind vectors at 10 meters above the surface assuming a neutrally stratified atmosphere, using the NSCAT-1 and NSCAT-2 model functions. The surface winds were measured directly by the TAO (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean) buoy array which spans the width of the equatorial Pacific within about 8° of the equator. The buoy program and data archive are maintained by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in collaboration with institutions in Japan, France and Taiwan. We also use data from two buoys maintained by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution located along 125°W. Since the buoy winds are measured at various heights above the surface, they are adjusted for both height and atmospheric surface layer stratification before comparisons are made to the NSCAT data. Co-location requirements include measurements within 100 km and 60 minutes of each other. There was a total of 5580 comparisons for the NSCAT-1 model function and 6364 comparisons for the NSCAT-2 model function. The NSCAT wind speeds, using the NSCAT-1 model function, are lower than the buoy wind speeds by about 0.54 ms-1 and have a 9.8° directional bias. The NSCAT-2 winds speeds were lower than the TAO buoy winds by only 0.08 ms-1, but still have the same 9.8° directional bias. The wind retrieval algorithm selects the vector closest to the buoy approximately 88% of the time. However, in the relatively low wind speed regime of the TAO array, approximately 4% of the wind vectors are more than 120° from the buoy wind.
  • Technical Report
    The 1995 Georges Bank Stratification Study and moored array measurements
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-08) Alessi, Carol A. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Churchill, James H. ; Irish, James D. ; Lentz, Steven J. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Werner, R. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Williams, William J. ; Manning, James P. ; Smith, P.
    The 1995 Geoges Bank Stratification Study (GBSS) was the first intensive process study conducted as part of the U.S. GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank field program. The GBSS was designed to investigate the physical processes which control the seasonal development of stratification along the southern flank of Georges Bank during spring and summer. Past work suggested that during this period, larval cod and haddock tended to aggregate to the thermocline on the southern flank where higher concentrations of their copepod prey were found. A moored array was deployed as part of GBSS to observe the onset and evolution of sesonal stratification over the southern flank with sufficient vertical and horizontal resolution that key physical processes could be identified and quantified. Moored current, temperature, and conductivity (salinity) measurements were made at three sites along the southern flank, one on the crest, and one on the northeast peak of the bank. Moored surface meteorological measurements were also made at one southern flank site to determine the surface wind stress and heat and moisture fluxes. The oceanographic and meteorological data collected with the GBSS array during January-August 1995 are presented in this report. Meteorological data collected on National Data Buoy Center environmental buoys 44011 (Georges Bank), 44008 (Nantucket Shoals), and 44005 (Gulf of Maine) are included in this report for completeness and comparison with the GBSS southern flank meteorological measurements.
  • Technical Report
    Monthly atmospheric and oceanographic surface fields for the western North Atlantic : December, 1986-April, 1989
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995-04) Caruso, Michael J. ; Singh, Sandipa ; Kelly, Kathryn A. ; Qiu, Bo
    Monthly atmospheric and oceanographic variables for the western North Atlantic Ocean from various sources are presented as contour or vector maps. These fields were assembled for a study of the upper ocean heat budget. Atmospheric fields include the net surface heat fluxes and wind stress derived from the 1000 mb winds from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Oceanographic fields include the sea surface height from the Geosat radar altimeter and sea surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). An additional estimate of net surface heat flux is shown; this estimate was derived by assimilating winds, currents and ocean temperatures into a mixed layer model. The maps show a complex interplay of fluctuations in the winds and heat fluxes, and in the structure and temperature gradients of the Gulf Stream system. Some comments are offered on a comparison of the two heat flux estimates.
  • Technical Report
    Biweekly maps of wind stress for the North Pacific from the ERS-1 scatterometer, 1992-1995
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1997-11) Caruso, Michael J. ; Kelly, Kathryn A.
    The ERS-1 scatterometer is the first operational satellite scatterometer in more than a decade. This report describes a technique developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution to process and analyze the data. Four years of data (January 1992-December 1995) was analyzed in the North Pacific ocean. Gridded 0.5° x 0.5° wind, wind stress and wind stress curl fields were generated for the North Pacific Ocean on times scale of one week to one month. This data set was compared with in-situ measurements from buoys and coastal weather stations and numerical models. The results show good agreement with models and in-situ measurements. Biweekly maps were chosen after examining error/temporal resolution tradeoff curve.
  • Preprint
    Long-term moored array measurements of currents and hydrography over Georges Bank : 1994–1999
    ( 2009-06-24) Brink, Kenneth H. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Irish, James D. ; Caruso, Michael J.
    In conjunction with the GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics) program, measurements of moored currents, temperature and salinity were made during 1994-1999 at locations in 76 m of water along the Southern Flank of Georges Bank and at the Northeastern Peak. The measurements concentrate on the biologically crucial winter and spring periods, and coverage during the fall is usually poorer. Current time series were completely dominated by the semidiurnal M2 tidal component, while other tidal species (including the diurnal K1 component) were also important. There was a substantial wind-driven component of the flow, which was linked, especially during the summer, to regional–scale response patterns. The current response at the Northeast Peak was especially strong in the 3-4 day period band, and this response is shown to be related to an amplifying topographic wave propagating eastward along the northern flank. Monthly mean flows on the southern flank are southwestward throughout the year, but strongest in the summertime. The observed tendency for summertime maximum along-bank flow to occur at depth is rationalized in terms of density gradients associated with a near-surface freshwater tongue wrapping around the Bank. Temperature and salinity time series demonstrate the presence, altogether about 25% of the time, of a number of intruding water masses. These intrusions could last anywhere from a couple days up to about a month. The sources of these intrusions can be broadly classified as the Scotian Shelf (especially during the winter), the Western Gulf of Maine (especially during the summer), and the deeper ocean south of Georges Bank (throughout the year). On longer time scales, the temperature variability is dominated by seasonal temperature changes. During the spring and summer, these changes are balanced by local heating or cooling, but wintertime cooling involves advective lateral transports as well. Salinity variations have weak, if any, seasonal variability, but are dominated by interannual changes that are related to regional- or basin-scale changes. All considered, Georges Bank temperature and salinity characteristics are found to be highly dependent on the surrounding waters, but many questions remain, especially in terms of whether intrusive events leave a sustained impact on Bank waters.
  • Technical Report
    Altimeter analysis of ocean currents
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1994-07) Singh, Sandipa ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Kelly, Kathryn A.
    Altimeter data from satellites are being used in an ongoing effort to obtain data sets with temporal as well as global coverage. This report describes the algorithms formulated and the programs written for the use of altimeter data from the European Space Agency (ESA) European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, for a repeat track analysis of ocean currents. It also presents some results from the California Current region.
  • Technical Report
    Altimeter processing tools for analyzing mesoscale ocean features
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-09) Caruso, Michael J. ; Sirkes, Ziv ; Flament, Pierre J. ; Baker, M. K.
    Satellite altimeters provide many opportunities for oceanographers to supplement their research with a valuable new data set. The recent GEOSAT exact repeat mission is the first of several altimeter missions proposed during the next decade. To utilize this new data, a software package was developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the University of Hawaii to facilitate the extraction of useful information from the NODC distributed GEOSAT data tapes. This software package was written with portability and modularity in mind. It should be possible to use this package with little or no modifications on data from future altimeters. The code was written in C and tested on Sun workstations and is oriented toward UNIX operating systems. However, since standard code was used, the programs should port easily to other computer systems. The modularity of the code should enable users to create additional programs. Additional programs designed to handle collocated water vapor corrections are also included for comparison.
  • Article
    A large-amplitude meander of the shelfbreak front during summer south of New England : observations from the Shelfbreak PRIMER experiment
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-04) Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Brink, Kenneth H. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Lynch, James F. ; Chiu, Ching-Sang
    In order to examine spatial and temporal variability of the shelfbreak front during peak stratification, repeated surveys using a towed undulating vehicle (SeaSoar) are used to describe the evolution of shelfbreak frontal structure during 26 July to 1 August 1996 south of New England. Spatial correlation (e-folding) scales for the upper 60 m of the water column were generally between 8 and 15 km for temperature, salinity, and velocity. Temporal correlation scales were about 1 day. The frontal variability was dominated by the passage of a westward propagating meander that had a wavelength of 40 km, a propagation speed of 0.11 m s−1, and an amplitude of 15 km (30 km from crest to trough). Along-front geostrophic velocities (referenced to a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profilers) were as large as 0.45 m s−1, although subject to significant along-front variations. The relative vorticity within the jet was large, with a maximum 0.6 of the local value of the Coriolis parameter. Seaward of the front, a small detached eddy consisting of shelf water was present with a diameter of approximately 15 km. Ageostrophic contributions to the velocity field are estimated to be as large as 0.3 m s−1 in regions of sharp curvature within the meander. These observations strongly suggest that during at least some time periods, shelfbreak exchange is nonlinear (large Rossby number) and dominated by features on a horizontal scale of order 10 km.
  • Technical Report
    Southern Ocean GLOBEC moored array and automated weather station data report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2005-06) Moffat, Carlos F. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Hyatt, Jason
    As part of the U.S. Southern Ocean GLOBEC program, moored time series measurements of temperature, conductivity (salinity), pressure, velocity, and acoustic backscatter were made from March 2001 to March 2003 in and near Marguerite Bay, located on the Antarctic Peninsula western shelf. To monitor surface forcing during the moored array observations, two automatic weather stations (AWSs) were deployed on islands in Marguerite Bay and time series of wind, air temperature, pressure, and relative humidity were collected from May 2001 through March 2003. This report describes the individual moorings, their locations and local bathymetry, the instrumentation used and measurement depths, calibration and data processing steps taken to produce final time series, and basic plots of the final time series. The AWS data acquisition and processing are also described and basic plots of the final meteorological time series presented. Directions are given about how to access the raw and processed moored and AWS data via the SO GLOBEC website (
  • Article
    Significant internal waves and internal tides measured northeast of Taiwan
    (Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2013-01-01) Duda, Timothy F. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Graber, Hans C. ; Yang, Yiing-Jang ; Jan, Sen
    Internal gravity waves in an area northeast of Taiwan are characterized using data from multiple sensor types. The data set includes intermittent information collected from a ship and short time series from moorings. Modeled nonlinear waves are fitted to observed nonlinear waves to provide self-consistent estimates of multiple wave parameters. A nonlinear internal wave of over 50 m amplitude, observed in deep water, is examined in detail. This wave was moving northward from the southern Okinawa Trough toward the continental shelf, and presumably formed from internal tides propagating northward from the Ilan Ridge area. A possible scenario for the formation of this wave from the internal tide is compared to related behavior south of Taiwan. On the outer continental shelf, a few large internal waves with maximum displacement greater than one-quarter of the water depth were measured with moorings. Sensors aboard ship and satellite recorded waves in this area traveling in many directions. Two possible causes (not mutually exclusive) for the multiple wave directions are scattering of nonlinear internal waves arriving from the south, and variable local generation of nonlinear gravity waves by the strong tidal and internal tidal currents. Internal tides on the shelf are relatively strong, among the strongest measured, having about 10 times greater kinetic energy density than numerous low-energy sites, which is consistent with the strong barotropic tides of the area. The ratio of diurnal baroclinic to barotropic kinetic energy found in this area is unusually high.
  • Article
    Northern Arabian Sea Circulation-Autonomous Research (NASCar) : a research initiative based on autonomous sensors
    (Oceanography Society, 2017-06) Centurioni, Luca R. ; Hormann, Verena ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Arzeno, Isabella B. ; Beal, Lisa M. ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Conry, Patrick ; Echols, Rosalind ; Fernando, Harindra J. S. ; Giddings, Sarah N. ; Gordon, Arnold L. ; Graber, Hans C. ; Harcourt, Ramsey R. ; Jayne, Steven R. ; Jensen, Tommy G. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J. ; L’Hegaret, Pierre ; Lucas, Andrew J. ; Mahadevan, Amala ; McClean, Julie L. ; Pawlak, Geno ; Rainville, Luc ; Riser, Stephen C. ; Seo, Hyodae ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Skyllingstad, Eric D. ; Sprintall, Janet ; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu ; Terrill, Eric ; Todd, Robert E. ; Trott, Corinne ; Ulloa, Hugo N. ; Wang, He
    The Arabian Sea circulation is forced by strong monsoonal winds and is characterized by vigorous seasonally reversing currents, extreme differences in sea surface salinity, localized substantial upwelling, and widespread submesoscale thermohaline structures. Its complicated sea surface temperature patterns are important for the onset and evolution of the Asian monsoon. This article describes a program that aims to elucidate the role of upper-ocean processes and atmospheric feedbacks in setting the sea surface temperature properties of the region. The wide range of spatial and temporal scales and the difficulty of accessing much of the region with ships due to piracy motivated a novel approach based on state-of-the-art autonomous ocean sensors and platforms. The extensive data set that is being collected, combined with numerical models and remote sensing data, confirms the role of planetary waves in the reversal of the Somali Current system. These data also document the fast response of the upper equatorial ocean to monsoon winds through changes in temperature and salinity and the connectivity of the surface currents across the northern Indian Ocean. New observations of thermohaline interleaving structures and mixing in setting the surface temperature properties of the northern Arabian Sea are also discussed.