Roark E. Brendan

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E. Brendan

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  • Article
    Corrigendum to “Insights into methane dynamics from analysis of authigenic carbonates and chemosynthetic mussels at newly-discovered Atlantic Margin seeps” [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 449 (2016) 332–344]
    (Elsevier, 2017-08-03) Prouty, Nancy G. ; Sahy, Diana ; Ruppel, Carolyn D. ; Roark, E. Brendan ; Condon, Daniel J. ; Brooke, Sandra ; Ross, Steve W. ; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.
  • Article
    Reproducibility of Ba/Ca variations recorded by northeast Pacific bamboo corals
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-09-13) Serrato Marks, Gabriela ; LaVigne, Michèle ; Hill, Tessa M. ; Sauthoff, Wilson ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Roark, E. Brendan ; Dunbar, Robert B. ; Horner, Tristan J.
    Trace elemental ratios preserved in the calcitic skeleton of bamboo corals have been shown to serve as archives of past ocean conditions. The concentration of dissolved barium (BaSW), a bioactive nutrientlike element, is linked to biogeochemical processes such as the cycling and export of nutrients. Recent work has calibrated bamboo coral Ba/Ca, a new BaSW proxy, using corals spanning the oxygen minimum zone beneath the California Current System. However, it was previously unclear whether Ba/Cacoral records were internally reproducible. Here we investigate the accuracy of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Ba/Cacoral analyses and test the internal reproducibility of Ba/Ca among replicate radial transects in the calcite of nine bamboo corals collected from the Gulf of Alaska (643–720 m) and the California margin (870–2054 m). Data from replicate Ba/Ca transects were aligned using visible growth bands to account for nonconcentric growth; smoothed data were reproducible within ~4% for eight corals (n = 3 radii/coral). This intracoral reproducibility further validates using bamboo coral Ba/Ca for BaSW reconstructions. Sections of the Ba/Ca records that were potentially influenced by noncarbonate bound Ba phases occurred in regions where elevated Mg/Ca or Pb/Ca and coincided with anomalous regions on photomicrographs. After removing these regions of the records, increased Ba/Cacoral variability was evident in corals between ~800 and 1500 m. These findings support additional proxy validation to understand BaSW variability on interannual timescales, which could lead to new insights into deep sea biogeochemistry over the past several centuries.
  • Article
    Heterotrophy of oceanic particulate organic matter elevates net ecosystem calcification
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-08-22) Kealoha, Andrea K. ; Shamberger, Kathryn E. F. ; Reid, Emma C. ; Davis, Kristen A. ; Lentz, Steven J. ; Brainard, Russell E. ; Oliver, Thomas A. ; Rappe, Michael S. ; Roark, E. Brendan ; Rii, Yoshimi M.
    Coral reef calcification is expected to decline due to climate change stressors such as ocean acidification and warming. Projections of future coral reef health are based on our understanding of the environmental drivers that affect calcification and dissolution. One such driver that may impact coral reef health is heterotrophy of oceanic‐sourced particulate organic matter, but its link to calcification has not been directly investigated in the field. In this study, we estimated net ecosystem calcification and oceanic particulate organic carbon (POCoc) uptake across the Kāne'ohe Bay barrier reef in Hawai'i. We show that higher rates of POCoc uptake correspond to greater net ecosystem calcification rates, even under low aragonite saturation states (Ωar). Hence, reductions in offshore productivity may negatively impact coral reefs by decreasing the food supply required to sustain calcification. Alternatively, coral reefs that receive ample inputs of POCoc may maintain higher calcification rates, despite a global decline in Ωar.
  • Article
    Exploration of the canyon-incised continental margin of the northeastern United States reveals dynamic habitats and diverse communities
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-10-28) Quattrini, Andrea M. ; Nizinski, Martha S. ; Chaytor, Jason D. ; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J. ; Roark, E. Brendan ; France, Scott C. ; Moore, Jon A. ; Heyl, Taylor ; Auster, Peter J. ; Kinlan, Brian ; Ruppel, Carolyn D. ; Elliott, Kelley P. ; Kennedy, Brian R. C. ; Lobecker, Elizabeth ; Skarke, Adam ; Shank, Timothy M.
    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration revealed the NEUS region to be both geologically dynamic and biologically diverse, further research into the abiotic conditions and the biotic interactions that influence species abundance and distribution is needed.
  • Article
    Insights into methane dynamics from analysis of authigenic carbonates and chemosynthetic mussels at newly-discovered Atlantic Margin seeps
    (Elsevier, 2016-06-03) Prouty, Nancy G. ; Sahy, Diana ; Ruppel, Carolyn D. ; Roark, E. Brendan ; Condon, Daniel J. ; Brooke, Sandra ; Ross, Steve W. ; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.
    The recent discovery of active methane venting along the US northern and mid-Atlantic margin represents a new source of global methane not previously accounted for in carbon budgets from this region. However, uncertainty remains as to the origin and history of methane seepage along this tectonically inactive passive margin. Here we present the first isotopic analyses of authigenic carbonates and methanotrophic deep-sea mussels, Bathymodiolus sp., and the first direct constraints on the timing of past methane emission, based on samples collected at the upper slope Baltimore Canyon (∼385 m water depth) and deepwater Norfolk (∼1600 m) seep fields within the area of newly-discovered venting. The authigenic carbonates at both sites were dominated by aragonite, with an average View the MathML sourceδC13 signature of −47‰−47‰, a value consistent with microbially driven anaerobic oxidation of methane-rich fluids occurring at or near the sediment–water interface. Authigenic carbonate U and Sr isotope data further support the inference of carbonate precipitation from seawater-derived fluids rather than from formation fluids from deep aquifers. Carbonate stable and radiocarbon (View the MathML sourceδC13 and View the MathML sourceΔC13) isotope values from living Bathymodiolus sp. specimens are lighter than those of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon, highlighting the influence of fossil carbon from methane on carbonate precipitation. U–Th dates on authigenic carbonates suggest seepage at Baltimore Canyon between 14.7±0.6 ka14.7±0.6 ka to 15.7±1.6 ka15.7±1.6 ka, and at the Norfolk seep field between 1.0±0.7 ka1.0±0.7 ka to 3.3±1.3 ka3.3±1.3 ka, providing constraint on the longevity of methane efflux at these sites. The age of the brecciated authigenic carbonates and the occurrence of pockmarks at the Baltimore Canyon upper slope could suggest a link between sediment delivery during Pleistocene sea-level lowstand, accumulation of pore fluid overpressure from sediment compaction, and release of overpressure through subsequent venting. Calculations show that the Baltimore Canyon site probably has not been within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the past 20 ka, meaning that in-situ release of methane from dissociating gas hydrate cannot be sustaining the seep. We cannot rule out updip migration of methane from dissociation of gas hydrate that occurs farther down the slope as a source of the venting at Baltimore Canyon, but consider that the history of rapid sediment accumulation and overpressure may play a more important role in methane emissions at this site.