Barbraud Christophe

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  • Article
    The call of the emperor penguin: legal responses to species threatened by climate change
    (Wiley, 2021-08-03) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Che-Castaldo, Judy ; Wolf, Shaye ; Holland, Marika M. ; Labrousse, Sara ; LaRue, Michelle ; Wienecke, Barbara ; Fretwell, Peter T. ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Greenwald, Noah ; Stroeve, Julienne ; Trathan, Phil N.
    Species extinction risk is accelerating due to anthropogenic climate change, making it urgent to protect vulnerable species through legal frameworks in order to facilitate conservation actions that help mitigate risk. Here, we discuss fundamental concepts for assessing climate change risks to species using the example of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), currently being considered for protection under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). This species forms colonies on Antarctic sea ice, which is projected to significantly decline due to ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We project the dynamics of all known emperor penguin colonies under different GHG emission scenarios using a climate-dependent meta-population model including the effects of extreme climate events based on the observational satellite record of colonies. Assessments for listing species under the ESA require information about how species resiliency, redundancy and representation (3Rs) will be affected by threats within the foreseeable future. Our results show that if sea ice declines at the rate projected by climate models under current energy system trends and policies, the 3Rs would be dramatically reduced and almost all colonies would become quasi-extinct by 2100. We conclude that the species should be listed as threatened under the ESA.
  • Preprint
    Effect of extreme sea surface temperature events on the demography of an age-structured albatross population
    ( 2017-02) Pardo, Deborah ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Barbraud, Christophe
    Climate changes include concurrent changes in environmental mean, variance and extremes, and it is challenging to understand their respective impact on wild populations, especially when contrasted age-dependent responses to climate occur. We assessed how changes in mean and standard deviation of sea surface temperature (SST), frequency and magnitude of warm SST extreme climatic events (ECE) influenced the stochastic population growth rate log(λs) and age structure of a black-browed albatross population. For changes in SST around historical levels observed since 1982, changes in standard deviation had a larger (threefold) and negative impact on log(λs) compared to changes in mean. By contrast, the mean had a positive impact on log(λs). The historical SST mean was lower than the optimal SST value for which log(λs) was maximized. Thus, a larger environmental mean increased the occurrence of SST close to this optimum that buffered the negative effect of ECE. This ‘climate safety margin’ (i.e. difference between optimal and historical climatic conditions) and the specific shape of the population growth rate response to climate for a species determine how ECE affect the population. For a wider range in SST, both the mean and standard deviation had negative impact on log(λs), with changes in the mean having a greater effect than the standard deviation. Furthermore, around SST historical levels increases in either mean or standard deviation of the SST distribution led to a younger population, with potentially important conservation implications for black-browed albatrosses.
  • Preprint
    Interacting effects of unobserved heterogeneity and individual stochasticity in the life-history of the Southern fulmar
    ( 2017-09-19) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Aubry, Lise M. ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Caswell, Hal
    Individuals are heterogeneous in many ways. Some of these differences are incorporated as individual states (e.g., age, size, breeding status) in population models. However, substantial amounts of heterogeneity may remain unaccounted for, due to genetic, maternal, or environmental factors. Such unobserved heterogeneity (UH) affects the behavior of heterogeneous cohorts via intra-cohort selection and contributes to inter-individual variance in demographic outcomes such as longevity and lifetime reproduction. Variance is also produced by individual stochasticity, due to random events in the life cycle of wild organisms, yet no study thus far has attempted to decompose the variance in demographic outcomes into contributions from unobserved heterogeneity and individual stochasticity for an animal population in the wild. We developed a stage-classified matrix population model for the Southern fulmar breeding on Ile des Pétrels, Antarctica. We applied multi-event, multi-state markrecapture methods to estimate a finite mixture model accounting for UH in all vital rates and Markov chain methods to calculate demographic outcomes. Finally, we partitioned the variance in demographic outcomes into contributions from unobserved heterogeneity and individual stochasticity. We identify three UH groups, differing substantially in longevity, lifetime reproductive output, age at first reproduction, and in the proportion of the life spent in each reproductive state. 14% of individuals at fledging have a delayed but high probability of recruitment and extended reproductive lifespan. 67% of individuals are less likely to reach adulthood, recruit late and skip breeding often but have the highest adult survival rate. 19% of individuals recruit early and attempt to breed often. They are likely to raise their offspring successfully, but experience a relatively short lifespan. Unobserved heterogeneity only explains a small fraction of the variances in longevity (5.9%), age at first reproduction (3.7%) and lifetime reproduction (22%). UH can affect the entire life cycle, including survival, development, and reproductive rates, with consequences over the lifetime of individuals and impacts on cohort dynamics. The respective role of unobserved heterogeneity versus individual stochasticity varies greatly among demographic outcomes. We discuss the implication of our finding for the gradient of life-history strategies observed among species and argue that individual differences should always be accounted for in demographic studies of wild populations.
  • Article
    The emperor penguin - vulnerable to projected rates of warming and sea ice loss
    (Elsevier, 2019-10-08) Trathan, Phil N. ; Wienecke, Barbara ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Kooyman, Gerald L. ; Le Bohec, Céline ; Ainley, David G. ; Ancel, André ; Zitterbart, Daniel ; Chown, Steven L. ; LaRue, Michelle ; Cristofari, Robin ; Younger, Jane ; Clucas, Gemma V. ; Bost, Charles-Andre ; Brown, Jennifer A. ; Gillett, Harriet J. ; Fretwell, Peter T.
    We argue the need to improve climate change forecasting for ecology, and importantly, how to relate long-term projections to conservation. As an example, we discuss the need for effective management of one species, the emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri. This species is unique amongst birds in that its breeding habit is critically dependent upon seasonal fast ice. Here, we review its vulnerability to ongoing and projected climate change, given that sea ice is susceptible to changes in winds and temperatures. We consider published projections of future emperor penguin population status in response to changing environments. Furthermore, we evaluate the current IUCN Red List status for the species, and recommend that its status be changed to Vulnerable, based on different modelling projections of population decrease of ≥50% over the current century, and the specific traits of the species. We conclude that current conservation measures are inadequate to protect the species under future projected scenarios. Only a reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will reduce threats to the emperor penguin from altered wind regimes, rising temperatures and melting sea ice; until such time, other conservation actions are necessary, including increased spatial protection at breeding sites and foraging locations. The designation of large-scale marine spatial protection across its range would benefit the species, particularly in areas that have a high probability of becoming future climate change refugia. We also recommend that the emperor penguin is listed by the Antarctic Treaty as an Antarctic Specially Protected Species, with development of a species Action Plan.
  • Article
    Temporal correlations among demographic parameters are ubiquitous but highly variable across species.
    (Wiley, 2022-05-24) Fay, Remi ; Hamel, Sandra ; van de Pol, Martijn ; Gaillard, Jean-Michel ; Yoccoz, Nigel G. ; Acker, Paul ; Authier, Matthieu ; Larue, Benjamin ; Le Coeur, Christie ; Macdonald, Kaitlin R. ; Nicol-Harper, Alex ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Bonenfant, Christophe ; Van Vuren, Dirk H. ; Cam, Emmanuelle ; Delord, Karine ; Gamelon, Marlène ; Moiron, Maria ; Pelletier, Fanie ; Rotella, Jay J. ; Teplitsky, Celine ; Visser, Marcel E. ; Wells, Caitlin P. ; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T. ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Saether, Bernt-Erik
    Temporal correlations among demographic parameters can strongly influence population dynamics. Our empirical knowledge, however, is very limited regarding the direction and the magnitude of these correlations and how they vary among demographic parameters and species’ life histories. Here, we use long-term demographic data from 15 bird and mammal species with contrasting pace of life to quantify correlation patterns among five key demographic parameters: juvenile and adult survival, reproductive probability, reproductive success and productivity. Correlations among demographic parameters were ubiquitous, more frequently positive than negative, but strongly differed across species. Correlations did not markedly change along the slow-fast continuum of life histories, suggesting that they were more strongly driven by ecological than evolutionary factors. As positive temporal demographic correlations decrease the mean of the long-run population growth rate, the common practice of ignoring temporal correlations in population models could lead to the underestimation of extinction risks in most species.
  • Article
    Dynamic fine-scale sea icescape shapes adult emperor penguin foraging habitat in east Antarctica
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-09-16) Labrousse, Sara ; Fraser, Alexander D. ; Sumner, Michael ; Tamura, Takeshi ; Pinaud, David ; Wienecke, Barbara ; Kirkwood, Roger ; Ropert-Coudert, Yan ; Reisinger, Ryan ; Jonsen, Ian ; Porter‐Smith, Rick ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Bost, Charles-Andre ; Ji, Rubao ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie
    The emperor penguin, an iconic species threatened by projected sea ice loss in Antarctica, has long been considered to forage at the fast ice edge, presumably relying on large/yearly persistent polynyas as their main foraging habitat during the breeding season. Using newly developed fine‐scale sea icescape data and historical penguin tracking data, this study for the first time suggests the importance of less recognized small openings, including cracks, flaw leads and ephemeral short‐term polynyas, as foraging habitats for emperor penguins. The tracking data retrieved from 47 emperor penguins in two different colonies in East Antarctica suggest that those penguins spent 23% of their time in ephemeral polynyas and did not use the large/yearly persistent, well‐studied polynyas, even if they occur much more regularly with predictable locations. These findings challenge our previous understanding of emperor penguin breeding habitats, highlighting the need for incorporating fine‐scale seascape features when assessing the population persistence in a rapidly changing polar environment.
  • Article
    Effects of climate change and fisheries bycatch on Southern Ocean seabirds : a review
    (Inter-Research, 2012-05-21) Barbraud, Christophe ; Rolland, Virginie ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Nevoux, Marie ; Delord, Karine ; Weimerskirch, Henri
    Over the last century, major climate changes and intense human exploitation of natural living resources have occurred in the Southern Ocean, potentially affecting its ecosystems up to top marine predators. Fisheries may also directly affect seabirds through bycatch and additional food resources provided by discards. The past 20 yr of research has seen an increasing number of studies investigating the effects of climate change and fisheries activities on Southern Ocean seabirds. Here, we review these studies in order to identify patterns in changes in distribution, phenology, demography and population dynamics in response to changes in climate and fisheries bycatch. Shifts in distribution and breeding phenology were documented in parallel to increases in sea-surface temperatures and changes in sea-ice cover. Above all warm sea-surface temperatures negatively affected demographic parameters, although exceptions were found. Relationships suggest non-linear effects of sea-ice cover on demographic parameters and population dynamics, with optimum sea-ice cover conditions appearing to be the rule. Fishing efforts were mainly negatively related to survival rates, and only for a few species positively related to breeding success. A handful of studies found that chronic mortality of immature birds due to fisheries negatively affected populations. Climate factors and fisheries bycatch may simultaneously affect demographic parameters in a complex way, which can be integrated in population models to project population trajectories under future climate or fisheries scenarios. Needed are studies that integrate other environmental factors, trophic levels, foraging behaviour, climate−fisheries interactions, and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity, such as some pioneering studies conducted elsewhere.
  • Article
    Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio : a periodic two‐sex model approach
    (University of Chicago Press, 2010-04-21) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Caswell, Hal ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri
    We present a new approach to modeling two‐sex populations, using periodic, nonlinear two‐sex matrix models. The models project the population growth rate, the population structure, and any ratio of interest (e.g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events. A periodic product of the seasonal matrices describes annual population dynamics. The model is nonlinear because mating probability depends on the structure of the population. To study how the vital rates influence population growth rate, population structure, and operational sex ratio, we used sensitivity analysis of frequency‐dependent nonlinear models. In nonlinear two‐sex models the vital rates affect growth rate directly and also indirectly through effects on the population structure. The indirect effects can sometimes overwhelm the direct effects and are revealed only by nonlinear analysis. We find that the sensitivity of the population growth rate to female survival is negative for the emperor penguin, a species with highly seasonal breeding behavior. This result could not occur in linear models because changes in population structure have no effect on per capita reproduction. Our approach is applicable to ecological and evolutionary studies of any species in which males and females interact in a seasonal environment.
  • Article
    When the going gets tough, the tough get going: effect of extreme climate on an Antarctic seabird’s life history
    (Wiley, 2022-08-18) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Aubry, Lise M. ; van Daalen, Silke F. ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Caswell, Hal
    Individuals differ in many ways. Most produce few offspring; a handful produce many. Some die early; others live to old age. It is tempting to attribute these differences in outcomes to differences in individual traits, and thus in the demographic rates experienced. However, there is more to individual variation than meets the eye of the biologist. Even among individuals sharing identical traits, life history outcomes (life expectancy and lifetime reproduction) will vary due to individual stochasticity, that is to chance. Quantifying the contributions of heterogeneity and chance is essential to understand natural variability. Interindividual differences vary across environmental conditions, hence heterogeneity and stochasticity depend on environmental conditions. We show that favourable conditions increase the contributions of individual stochasticity, and reduce the contributions of heterogeneity, to variance in demographic outcomes in a seabird population. The opposite is true under poor conditions. This result has important consequence for understanding the ecology and evolution of life history strategies.
  • Article
    Causes and consequences of pair‐bond disruption in a sex‐skewed population of a long‐lived monogamous seabird
    (Ecological Society of America, 2022-04-01) Sun, Ruijiao ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Delord, Karine ; Patrick, Samantha C. ; Caswell, Hal ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie
    Many animals form long-term monogamous pair bonds, and the disruption of a pair bond (through either divorce or widowhood) can have significant consequences for individual vital rates (survival, breeding, and breeding success probabilities) and life-history outcomes (lifetime reproductive success [LRS], life expectancy). Here, we investigated the causes and consequences of pair-bond disruption in wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). State-of-the-art statistical and mathematical approaches were developed to estimate divorce and widowhood rates and their impacts on vital rates and life-history outcomes. In this population, females incur a higher mortality rate due to incidental fishery bycatch, so the population is male-skewed. Therefore, we first posited that males would show higher widowhood rates negatively correlated with fishing effort and females would have higher divorce rates because they have more mating opportunities. Furthermore, we expected that divorce could be an adaptive strategy, whereby individuals improved breeding success by breeding with a new partner of better quality. Finally, we posited that pair-bond disruptions could reduce survival and breeding probabilities owing to the cost of remating processes, with important consequences for life-history outcomes. As expected, we showed that males had higher widowhood rates than females and females had higher divorce rates in this male-skewed population. However, no correlation was found between fishing effort and male widowhood. Secondly, contrary to our expectation, we found that divorce was likely nonadaptive in this population. We propose that divorce in this population is caused by an intruder who outcompetes the original partner in line with the so-called forced divorce hypothesis. Furthermore, we found a 16.7% and 18.0% reduction in LRS only for divorced and widowed males, respectively, owing to missing breeding seasons after a pair-bond disruption. Finally, we found that divorced individuals were more likely to divorce again, but whether this is related to specific individual characteristics remains an important area of investigation.
  • Article
    Mapping and assessing variability in the Antarctic marginal ice zone, pack ice and coastal polynyas in two sea ice algorithms with implications on breeding success of snow petrels
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-08-22) Stroeve, Julienne ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Campbell, G. Garrett ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Delord, Karine
    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore, mapping their spatial extent as well as seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biologically active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas in the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent record for assessing the proportion of the sea ice cover that is covered by each of these ice categories. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depend strongly on which sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap, and applies the same thresholds to the sea ice concentrations to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal that the seasonal cycle in the MIZ and pack ice is generally similar between both algorithms, yet the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Trends also differ, with the Bootstrap algorithm suggesting statistically significant trends towards increased pack ice area and no statistically significant trends in the MIZ. The NASA Team algorithm on the other hand indicates statistically significant positive trends in the MIZ during spring. Potential coastal polynya area and amount of broken ice within the consolidated ice pack are also larger in the NASA Team algorithm. The timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.
  • Article
    Climate change and functional traits affect population dynamics of a long‐lived seabird
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-06-17) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Desprez, Marine ; Fay, Remi ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Delord, Karine ; Caswell, Hal
    Recent studies unravelled the effect of climate changes on populations through their impact on functional traits and demographic rates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but such understanding in marine ecosystems remains incomplete. Here, we evaluate the impact of the combined effects of climate and functional traits on population dynamics of a long‐lived migratory seabird breeding in the southern ocean: the black‐browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA). We address the following prospective question: “Of all the changes in the climate and functional traits, which would produce the biggest impact on the BBA population growth rate?” We develop a structured matrix population model that includes the effect of climate and functional traits on the complete BBA life cycle. A detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted to understand the main pathway by which climate and functional trait changes affect the population growth rate. The population growth rate of BBA is driven by the combined effects of climate over various seasons and multiple functional traits with carry‐over effects across seasons on demographic processes. Changes in sea surface temperature (SST) during late winter cause the biggest changes in the population growth rate, through their effect on juvenile survival. Adults appeared to respond to changes in winter climate conditions by adapting their migratory schedule rather than by modifying their at‐sea foraging activity. However, the sensitivity of the population growth rate to SST affecting BBA migratory schedule is small. BBA foraging activity during the pre‐breeding period has the biggest impact on population growth rate among functional traits. Finally, changes in SST during the breeding season have little effect on the population growth rate. These results highlight the importance of early life histories and carry‐over effects of climate and functional traits on demographic rates across multiple seasons in population response to climate change. Robust conclusions about the roles of various phases of the life cycle and functional traits in population response to climate change rely on an understanding of the relationships of traits to demographic rates across the complete life cycle.
  • Article
    Demographic and population responses of an apex predator to climate and its prey: A long-term study of South Polar Skuas
    (Ecological Society of America, 2019-07-22) Pacoureau, Nathan ; Delord, Karine ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Barbraud, Christophe
    Ecologists widely acknowledge that a complex interplay of endogenous (density‐dependent) and exogenous (density‐independent) factors impact demographic processes. Individuals respond differently to those forces, ultimately shaping the dynamics of wild populations. Most comprehensive studies disentangling simultaneously the effects of density dependence, climate, and prey abundance while taking into account age structure were conducted in terrestrial ecosystems. However, studies on marine populations are lacking. Here we provide insight into the mechanisms affecting four vital rates of an apex Antarctic marine predator population, the South Polar Skua Catharacta maccormicki, by combining a nearly half‐century longitudinal time series of individual life histories and abundance data, with climatic and prey abundance covariates. Using multistate capture–mark–recapture models, we estimated age classes effects on survival, breeding, successful breeding with one or two chicks and successful breeding with two chicks probabilities, and assessed the different effects of population size, climate, and prey abundance on each age‐specific demographic parameter. We found evidence for strong age effects in the four vital rates studied. Vital rates at younger ages were lower than those of older age classes for all parameters. Results clearly evidenced direct and indirect influences of local climate (summer sea ice concentration), of available prey resources (penguins), and of intrinsic factors (size of the breeding population). More covariate effects were found on reproductive rates than on survival, and younger age classes were more sensitive than the older ones. Results from a deterministic age‐structured density‐dependent matrix population model indicated greater effects of prey abundance and sea ice concentration on the total population size than on the breeding population size. Both total population size and the number of breeders were strongly affected by low values of sea ice concentration. Overall, our results highlight the greater sensitivity of reproductive traits and of younger age classes to prey abundance, climate variability, and density dependence in a marine apex predator, with important consequences on the total population size but with limited effects on the breeding population size. We discuss the mechanisms by which climate variability, prey abundance, and population size may affect differentially age‐specific vital rates, and the potential population consequences of future environmental changes.
  • Preprint
    Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population : analysis of coupled demographic and climate models
    ( 2012-06-21) Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Holland, Marika M. ; Stroeve, Julienne ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; Serreze, Mark ; Caswell, Hal
    Sea ice conditions in the Antarctic affect the life cycle of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). We present a population projection for the emperor penguin population of Terre Adelie, Antarctica, by linking demographic models (stage-structured, seasonal, nonlinear, two-sex matrix population models) to sea ice forecasts from an ensemble of IPCC climate models. Based on maximum likelihood capture-mark-recapture analysis, we find that seasonal sea ice concentration anomalies (SICa) affect adult survival and breeding success. Demographic models show that both deterministic and stochastic population growth rates are maximized at intermediate values of annual SICa, because neither the complete absence of sea ice, nor heavy and persistent sea ice, would provide satisfactory conditions for the emperor penguin. We show that under some conditions the stochastic growth rate is positively affected by the variance in SICa. We identify an ensemble of 5 general circulation climate models whose output closely matches the historical record of sea ice concentration in Terre Adelie. The output of this ensemble is used to produce stochastic forecasts of SICa, which in turn drive the population model. Uncertainty is included by incorporating multiple climate models and by a parametric bootstrap procedure that includes parameter uncertainty due to both model selection and estimation error. The median of these simulations predicts a decline of the Terre Adelie emperor penguin population of 81% by the year 2100. We find a 43% chance of an even greater decline, of 90% or more. The uncertainty in population projections reflects large differences among climate models in their forecasts of future sea ice conditions. One such model predicts population increases over much of the century, but overall, the ensemble of models predicts that population declines are far more likely than population increases. We conclude that climate change is a significant risk for the emperor penguin. Our analytical approach, in which demographic models are linked to IPCC climate models, is powerful and generally applicable to other species and systems.
  • Article
    Circumpolar analysis of the Adélie Penguin reveals the importance of environmental variability in phenological mismatch
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-03-20) Youngflesh, Casey ; Jenouvrier, Stephanie ; Li, Yun ; Ji, Rubio ; Ainley, David G. ; Ballard, Grant ; Barbraud, Christophe ; Delord, Karine ; Dugger, Katie M. ; Emmerson, Louise M. ; Fraser, William R. ; Hinke, Jefferson T. ; Lyver, Philip O'B. ; Olmastroni, Silvia ; Southwell, Colin J. ; Trivelpiece, Susan G. ; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z. ; Lynch, Heather J.
    Evidence of climate-change-driven shifts in plant and animal phenology have raised concerns that certain trophic interactions may be increasingly mismatched in time, resulting in declines in reproductive success. Given the constraints imposed by extreme seasonality at high latitudes and the rapid shifts in phenology seen in the Arctic, we would also expect Antarctic species to be highly vulnerable to climate-change-driven phenological mismatches with their environment. However, few studies have assessed the impacts of phenological change in Antarctica. Using the largest database of phytoplankton phenology, sea-ice phenology, and Adélie Penguin breeding phenology and breeding success assembled to date, we find that, while a temporal match between Penguin breeding phenology and optimal environmental conditions sets an upper limit on breeding success, only a weak relationship to the mean exists. Despite previous work suggesting that divergent trends in Adélie Penguin breeding phenology are apparent across the Antarctic continent, we find no such trends. Furthermore, we find no trend in the magnitude of phenological mismatch, suggesting that mismatch is driven by interannual variability in environmental conditions rather than climate-change-driven trends, as observed in other systems. We propose several criteria necessary for a species to experience a strong climate-change-driven phenological mismatch, of which several may be violated by this system.