Gulland Frances M.

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Frances M.

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  • Preprint
    Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003
    ( 2005) Stapleton, H. M. ; Dodder, N. G. ; Kucklick, J. R. ; Reddy, Christopher M. ; Schantz, M. M. ; Becker, P. R. ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Porter, B. J. ; Wise, S. A.
    Blubber samples from male California sea lions (Zalphophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003 were analyzed for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, three isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 14 methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (MeO-BDE) congeners. Total PBDEs ranged from 450 ng/g to 4740 ng/g wet mass and total HBCD ranged from <0.3 ng/g to 12 ng/g wet mass. The concentration of HBCD increased from 0.7 ng/g to12.0 ng/g wet mass in sea lion blubber between 1993 and 2003. However, no significant temporal trend was observed for any of the other brominated compounds over this ten year period. Only one of the 14 MeO-BDE congeners was detected in the blubber samples, 6-methoxy- 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE 47), and concentrations ranged from <0.2 ng/g to 12 ng/g wet mass. A bromo-, chloro- heterocyclic compound, 1,1’-dimethyl-tetrabromo-dichloro-2,2’-bipyrrole (DBP-Br4Cl2), previously reported in marine species along the Pacific coast, was also identified in the sea lion blubber. DBP-Br4Cl2 ranged from 44 ng/g wet mass to 660 ng/g wet mass and was present at concentrations rivaling the dominant PBDE congener, BDE 47 (2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether). Concentrations of DBP-Br4Cl2 were positively correlated with 6-MeO-BDE 47 (r= 0.7; p<0.05). Both of these compounds have been identified in marine algae and sponges, and studies suggest they are both produced from natural sources. This study demonstrates that brominated compounds from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources can accumulate to similar levels in marine mammals. In addition, HBCD concentrations appear to be increasing in California sea lion populations, whereas PBDE concentrations, between 1993 and 2003, were highly variable.
  • Article
    Criteria and case definitions for serious injury and death of pinnipeds and cetaceans caused by anthropogenic trauma
    (Inter-Research, 2013-04-11) Moore, Michael J. ; van der Hoop, Julie ; Barco, Susan G. ; Costidis, Alexander M. ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Jepson, Paul D. ; Moore, Kathleen M. T. ; Raverty, Stephen A. ; McLellan, William A.
    Post-mortem examination of dead and live stranded beach-cast pinnipeds and cetaceans for determination of a cause of death provides valuable information for the management, mitigation and prosecution of unintentional and sometimes malicious human impacts, such as vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement and gunshot. Delayed discovery, inaccessibility, logistics, human safety concerns, and weather make these events challenging. Over the past 3 decades, in response to public concern and federal and state or provincial regulations mandating such investigations to inform mitigation efforts, there has been an increasing effort to objectively and systematically investigate these strandings from a diagnostic and forensic perspective. This Theme Section provides basic investigative methods, and case definitions for each of the more commonly recognized case presentations of human interactions in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Wild animals are often adversely affected by factors such as parasitism, anthropogenic contaminants, biotoxins, subclinical microbial infections and competing habitat uses, such as prey depletion and elevated background and episodic noise. Understanding the potential contribution of these subclinical factors in predisposing or contributing to a particular case of trauma of human origin is hampered, especially where putrefaction is significant and resources as well as expertise are limited. These case criteria descriptions attempt to acknowledge those confounding factors to enable an appreciation of the significance of the observed human-derived trauma in that broader context where possible.
  • Article
    Sedation at sea of entangled North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) to enhance disentanglement
    (Public Library of Science, 2010-03-09) Moore, Michael J. ; Walsh, Michael ; Bailey, James ; Brunson, David ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Landry, Scott ; Mattila, David K. ; Mayo, Charles A. ; Slay, Christopher K. ; Smith, Jamison ; Rowles, Teresa K.
    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of fishing gear from right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) at sea that evade disentanglement boat approaches. Titrated intra muscular injections to achieve sedation were undertaken on two free swimming right whales. Following initial trials with beached whales, a sedation protocol was developed for right whales. Mass was estimated from sighting and necropsy data from comparable right whales. Midazolam (0.01 to 0.025 mg/kg) was first given alone or with meperidine (0.17 to 0.25 mg/kg) either once or four times over two hours to whale #1102 by cantilevered pole syringe. In the last attempt on whale #1102 there appeared to be a mild effect in 20–30 minutes, with duration of less than 2 hours that included exhalation before the blowhole fully cleared the water. Boat avoidance, used as a measure of sedation depth, was not reduced. A second severely entangled animal in 2009, whale #3311, received midazolam (0.03 mg/kg) followed by butorphanol (0.03 mg/kg) an hour later, delivered ballistically. Two months later it was then given midazolam (0.07 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.07 mg/kg) simultaneously. The next day both drugs at 0.1 mg/kg were given as a mixture in two darts 10 minutes apart. The first attempt on whale #3311 showed increased swimming speed and boat avoidance was observed after a further 20 minutes. The second attempt on whale #3311 showed respiration increasing mildly in frequency and decreasing in strength. The third attempt on whale #3311 gave a statistically significant increase in respiratory frequency an hour after injection, with increased swimming speed and marked reduction of boat evasion that enabled decisive cuts to entangling gear. We conclude that butorphanol and midazolam delivered ballistically in appropriate dosages and combinations may have merit in future refractory free swimming entangled right whale cases until other entanglement solutions are developed.
  • Preprint
    Rehabilitation and release of marine mammals in the United States : risks and benefits
    ( 2007-04) Moore, Michael J. ; Early, Greg A. ; Touhey, Kathleen M. ; Barco, Susan G. ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Wells, Randall S.
    Rehabilitation of stranded marine mammals elicits polarized attitudes: initially done alongside display collections, but release of rehabilitated animals has become more common. Justifications include animal welfare, management of beach use conflict, research, conservation, and public education. Rehabilitation cost and risks have been identified which vary in degree supported by data rather than perception. These include conflict with fisheries for resources, ignorance of recipient population ecology, poor understanding of long term survival, support of the genetically not-so-fit, introduction of novel or antibiotic resistant pathogens, harm to human health and cost. Thus facilities must balance their welfare appeal against public education, habitat restoration, human impact reduction, and other conservation activities. Benefits to rehabilitating marine mammals are the opportunity to support the welfare of disabled animals and to publish good science and so advance our understanding of wild populations. In specific cases, the status of a population may make conservation the main reason for rehabilitation. These three reasons for rehabilitation lead to contrasting, and sometimes conflicting, management needs. We therefore outline a decision tree for rehabilitation managers using criteria for each management decision, based on welfare, logistics, conservation, research and funding to define limits on the number of animals released to the wild.
  • Working Paper
    Review of recent research on Southern Resident Killer Whales to detect evidence of poor body condition in the population
    (Independent Science Panel, 2017-03-07) Matkin, Craig O. ; Moore, Michael J. ; Gulland, Frances M.
    This review was commissioned by the SeaDoc Society in light of major concern for the population trajectory of the SRKW population. The review focuses on identifying evidence for poor body condition in the SRKW population from information presented in Seattle, March 6 2017 (see Appendix 1 Agenda). Body condition can be influenced by food availability (quantity and quality), energy balance, disease, toxin exposure, physiological status, genetics and stress from noise and vessel traffic, amongst other factors, although food availability is the most common cause in wild mammalian populations. For SRKW, food availability to individuals is determined by both prey availability and time to find, catch, share and consume prey. Anthropogenic disturbance will reduce food consumption and thus influence body condition. The small population size and complex social structure of SRKW complicate detection of associations between measures of body condition and population dynamics. Stochastic events can skew population-wide trends substantially. Therefore, individual cases must be considered rather than analyses of trends and correlations on limited-sample-sizes. The small sample size problem hinders many analyses of this population's ecology. A recent shift in distribution of Northern Resident Killer Whales (NRKW) into offshore SRKW range complicates choice of a control population. NRKW could compete for space and prey, and may be influenced by environmental variables that influence SRKW. Thus when using a case control approach, and comparing parameters between SRKW and a reference population, care should be taken when using the NRKW, and another population should be used such as the southern Alaskan residents.