Mazloff Matthew R.

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Matthew R.

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  • Article
    Towards an end-to-end analysis and prediction system for weather, climate, and marine applications in the Red Sea
    (American Meteorological Society, 2021-01-01) Hoteit, Ibrahim ; Abualnaja, Yasser ; Afzal, Shehzad ; Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa ; Akylas, Triantaphyllos ; Antony, Charls ; Dawson, Clint N. ; Asfahani, Khaled ; Brewin, Robert J. W. ; Cavaleri, Luigi ; Cerovecki, Ivana ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Desamsetti, Srinivas ; Attada, Raju ; Dasari, Hari ; Sanchez-Garrido, Jose ; Genevier, Lily ; El Gharamti, Mohamad ; Gittings, John A. ; Gokul, Elamurugu ; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh ; Guo, Daquan ; Hadri, Bilel ; Hadwiger, Markus ; Hammoud, Mohammed Abed ; Hendershott, Myrl ; Hittawe, Mohamad ; Karumuri, Ashok ; Knio, Omar ; Kohl, Armin ; Kortas, Samuel ; Krokos, George ; Kunchala, Ravi ; Issa, Leila ; Lakkis, Issam ; Langodan, Sabique ; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J. ; Luong, Thang ; Ma, Jingyi ; Le Maitre, Olivier ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; El Mohtar, Samah ; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P. ; Platt, Trevor ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Raboudi, Naila ; Racault, Marie-Fanny ; Raitsos, Dionysios E. ; Razak, Shanas ; Sanikommu, Sivareddy ; Sathyendranath, Shubha ; Sofianos, Sarantis S. ; Subramanian, Aneesh C. ; Sun, Rui ; Titi, Edriss ; Toye, Habib ; Triantafyllou, George ; Tsiaras, Kostas ; Vasou, Panagiotis ; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu ; Wang, Yixin ; Yao, Fengchao ; Zhan, Peng ; Zodiatis, George
    The Red Sea, home to the second-longest coral reef system in the world, is a vital resource for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea provides 90% of the Kingdom’s potable water by desalinization, supporting tourism, shipping, aquaculture, and fishing industries, which together contribute about 10%–20% of the country’s GDP. All these activities, and those elsewhere in the Red Sea region, critically depend on oceanic and atmospheric conditions. At a time of mega-development projects along the Red Sea coast, and global warming, authorities are working on optimizing the harnessing of environmental resources, including renewable energy and rainwater harvesting. All these require high-resolution weather and climate information. Toward this end, we have undertaken a multipronged research and development activity in which we are developing an integrated data-driven regional coupled modeling system. The telescopically nested components include 5-km- to 600-m-resolution atmospheric models to address weather and climate challenges, 4-km- to 50-m-resolution ocean models with regional and coastal configurations to simulate and predict the general and mesoscale circulation, 4-km- to 100-m-resolution ecosystem models to simulate the biogeochemistry, and 1-km- to 50-m-resolution wave models. In addition, a complementary probabilistic transport modeling system predicts dispersion of contaminant plumes, oil spill, and marine ecosystem connectivity. Advanced ensemble data assimilation capabilities have also been implemented for accurate forecasting. Resulting achievements include significant advancement in our understanding of the regional circulation and its connection to the global climate, development, and validation of long-term Red Sea regional atmospheric–oceanic–wave reanalyses and forecasting capacities. These products are being extensively used by academia, government, and industry in various weather and marine studies and operations, environmental policies, renewable energy applications, impact assessment, flood forecasting, and more.
  • Article
    Thermohaline structure in the California Current System : observations and modeling of spice variance
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-02-03) Todd, Robert E. ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Davis, Russ E.
    Upper ocean thermohaline structure in the California Current System is investigated using sustained observations from autonomous underwater gliders and a numerical state estimate. Both observations and the state estimate show layers distinguished by the temperature and salinity variability along isopycnals (i.e., spice variance). Mesoscale and submesoscale spice variance is largest in the remnant mixed layer, decreases to a minimum below the pycnocline near 26.3 kg m−3, and then increases again near 26.6 kg m−3. Layers of high (low) meso- and submesoscale spice variance are found on isopycnals where large-scale spice gradients are large (small), consistent with stirring of large-scale gradients to produce smaller scale thermohaline structure. Passive tracer adjoint calculations in the state estimate are used to investigate possible mechanisms for the formation of the layers of spice variance. Layers of high spice variance are found to have distinct origins and to be associated with named water masses; high spice variance water in the remnant mixed layer has northerly origin and is identified as Pacific Subarctic water, while the water in the deeper high spice variance layer has southerly origin and is identified as Equatorial Pacific water. The layer of low spice variance near 26.3 kg m−3 lies between the named water masses and does not have a clear origin. Both effective horizontal diffusivity, κh, and effective diapycnal diffusivity, κv, are elevated relative to the diffusion coefficients set in the numerical simulation, but changes in κh and κv with depth are not sufficient to explain the observed layering of thermohaline structure.
  • Article
    Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-08) Newman, Louise ; Heil, Petra ; Trebilco, Rowan ; Katsumata, Katsuro ; Constable, Andrew ; van Wijk, Esmee ; Assmann, Karen ; Beja, Joana ; Bricher, Phillippa ; Coleman, Richard ; Costa, Daniel P. ; Diggs, Stephen ; Farneti, Riccardo ; Fawcett, Sarah E. ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Hendry, Katharine R. ; Henley, Sian ; Hofmann, Eileen E. ; Maksym, Ted ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Meijers, Andrew J. S. ; Meredith, Michael M. ; Moreau, Sebastien ; Ozsoy, Burcu ; Robertson, Robin ; Schloss, Irene ; Schofield, Oscar M. E. ; Shi, Jiuxin ; Sikes, Elisabeth L. ; Smith, Inga J. ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Wahlin, Anna ; Williams, Guy ; Williams, Michael J. M. ; Herraiz-Borreguero, Laura ; Kern, Stefan ; Lieser, Jan ; Massom, Robert A. ; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica ; Miloslavich, Patricia ; Spreen, Gunnar
    The Southern Ocean is disproportionately important in its effect on the Earth system, impacting climatic, biogeochemical, and ecological systems, which makes recent observed changes to this system cause for global concern. The enhanced understanding and improvements in predictive skill needed for understanding and projecting future states of the Southern Ocean require sustained observations. Over the last decade, the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has established networks for enhancing regional coordination and research community groups to advance development of observing system capabilities. These networks support delivery of the SOOS 20-year vision, which is to develop a circumpolar system that ensures time series of key variables, and delivers the greatest impact from data to all key end-users. Although the Southern Ocean remains one of the least-observed ocean regions, enhanced international coordination and advances in autonomous platforms have resulted in progress toward sustained observations of this region. Since 2009, the Southern Ocean community has deployed over 5700 observational platforms south of 40°S. Large-scale, multi-year or sustained, multidisciplinary efforts have been supported and are now delivering observations of essential variables at space and time scales that enable assessment of changes being observed in Southern Ocean systems. The improved observational coverage, however, is predominantly for the open ocean, encompasses the summer, consists of primarily physical oceanographic variables, and covers surface to 2000 m. Significant gaps remain in observations of the ice-impacted ocean, the sea ice, depths >2000 m, the air-ocean-ice interface, biogeochemical and biological variables, and for seasons other than summer. Addressing these data gaps in a sustained way requires parallel advances in coordination networks, cyberinfrastructure and data management tools, observational platform and sensor technology, two-way platform interrogation and data-transmission technologies, modeling frameworks, intercalibration experiments, and development of internationally agreed sampling standards and requirements of key variables. This paper presents a community statement on the major scientific and observational progress of the last decade, and importantly, an assessment of key priorities for the coming decade, toward achieving the SOOS vision and delivering essential data to all end-users.
  • Article
    The role of air-sea interactions in atmospheric rivers: Case studies using the SKRIPS regional coupled model
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-02-12) Sun, Rui ; Subramanian, Aneesh C. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Miller, Arthur J. ; Ralph, F. Martin
    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a key role in California's water supply and are responsible for most of the extreme precipitation and major flooding along the west coast of North America. Given the high societal impact, it is critical to improve our understanding and prediction of ARs. This study uses a regional coupled ocean–atmosphere modeling system to make hindcasts of ARs up to 14 days. Two groups of coupled runs are highlighted in the comparison: (1) ARs occurring during times with strong sea surface temperature (SST) cooling and (2) ARs occurring during times with weak SST cooling. During the events with strong SST cooling, the coupled model simulates strong upward air–sea heat fluxes associated with ARs; on the other hand, when the SST cooling is weak, the coupled model simulates downward air–sea heat fluxes in the AR region. Validation data shows that the coupled model skillfully reproduces the evolving SST, as well as the surface turbulent heat transfers between the ocean and atmosphere. The roles of air–sea interactions in AR events are investigated by comparing coupled model hindcasts to hindcasts made using persistent SST. To evaluate the influence of the ocean on ARs we analyze two representative variables of AR intensity, the vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and integrated vapor transport (IVT). During strong SST cooling AR events the simulated IWV is improved by about 12% in the coupled run at lead times greater than one week. For IVT, which is about twice more variable, the improvement in the coupled run is about 5%.
  • Article
    Impacts of ocean currents on the South Indian Ocean extratropical storm track through the relative wind effect
    (American Meteorological Society, 2021-10-21) Seo, Hyodae ; Song, Hajoon ; O’Neill, Larry W. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D.
    This study examines the role of the relative wind (RW) effect (wind relative to ocean current) in the regional ocean circulation and extratropical storm track in the south Indian Ocean. Comparison of two high-resolution regional coupled model simulations with and without the RW effect reveals that the most conspicuous ocean circulation response is the significant weakening of the overly energetic anticyclonic standing eddy off Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a biased feature ascribed to upstream retroflection of the Agulhas Current (AC). This opens a pathway through which the AC transports the warm and salty water mass from the subtropics, yielding marked increases in sea surface temperature (SST), upward turbulent heat flux (THF), and meridional SST gradient in the Agulhas retroflection region. These thermodynamic and dynamic changes are accompanied by the robust strengthening of the local low-tropospheric baroclinicity and the baroclinic wave activity in the atmosphere. Examination of the composite life cycle of synoptic-scale storms subjected to the high-THF events indicates a robust strengthening of the extratropical storms far downstream. Energetics calculations for the atmosphere suggest that the baroclinic energy conversion from the basic flow is the chief source of increased eddy available potential energy, which is subsequently converted to eddy kinetic energy, providing for the growth of transient baroclinic waves. Overall, the results suggest that the mechanical and thermal air–sea interactions are inherently and inextricably linked together to substantially influence the extratropical storm tracks in the south Indian Ocean.
  • Article
    Author Correction : Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-01-15) Tamsitt, Veronica ; Drake, Henri F. ; Morrison, Adele K. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Dufour, Carolina O. ; Gray, Alison R. ; Griffies, Stephen M. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Wang, Jinbo ; Weijer, Wilbert
    Correction to: Nature Communications 8:172; Article published online: 2 August 2017
  • Article
    Putting it all together: Adding value to the global ocean and climate observing systems with complete self-consistent ocean state and parameter estimates.
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-03-04) Heimbach, Patrick ; Fukumori, Ichiro ; Hill, Christopher N. ; Ponte, Rui M. ; Stammer, Detlef ; Wunsch, Carl ; Campin, Jean-Michel ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Fenty, Ian ; Forget, Gael ; Kohl, Armin ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Menemenlis, Dimitris ; Nguyen, An T. ; Piecuch, Christopher G. ; Trossman, David S. ; Verdy, Ariane ; Wang, Ou ; Zhang, Hong
    In 1999, the consortium on Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) set out to synthesize the hydrographic data collected by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the satellite sea surface height measurements into a complete and coherent description of the ocean, afforded by an ocean general circulation model. Twenty years later, the versatility of ECCO's estimation framework enables the production of global and regional ocean and sea-ice state estimates, that incorporate not only the initial suite of data and its successors, but nearly all data streams available today. New observations include measurements from Argo floats, marine mammal-based hydrography, satellite retrievals of ocean bottom pressure and sea surface salinity, as well as ice-tethered profiled data in polar regions. The framework also produces improved estimates of uncertain inputs, including initial conditions, surface atmospheric state variables, and mixing parameters. The freely available state estimates and related efforts are property-conserving, allowing closed budget calculations that are a requisite to detect, quantify, and understand the evolution of climate-relevant signals, as mandated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) protocol. The solutions can be reproduced by users through provision of the underlying modeling and assimilation machinery. Regional efforts have spun off that offer increased spatial resolution to better resolve relevant processes. Emerging foci of ECCO are on a global sea level changes, in particular contributions from polar ice sheets, and the increased use of biogeochemical and ecosystem data to constrain global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Challenges in the coming decade include provision of uncertainties, informing observing system design, globally increased resolution, and moving toward a coupled Earth system estimation with consistent momentum, heat and freshwater fluxes between the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere and land.
  • Article
    Constraining Southern Ocean air-sea-ice fluxes through enhanced observations
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-31) Swart, Sebastiaan ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Delille, Bruno ; Josey, Simon A. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Newman, Louise ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Thomson, James M. ; Ward, Brian ; du Plessis, Marcel ; Kent, Elizabeth ; Girton, James B. ; Gregor, Luke ; Heil, Petra ; Hyder, Patrick ; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi ; de Souza, Ronald Buss ; Tamsitt, Veronica ; Weller, Robert A. ; Zappa, Christopher J.
    Air-sea and air-sea-ice fluxes in the Southern Ocean play a critical role in global climate through their impact on the overturning circulation and oceanic heat and carbon uptake. The challenging conditions in the Southern Ocean have led to sparse spatial and temporal coverage of observations. This has led to a “knowledge gap” that increases uncertainty in atmosphere and ocean dynamics and boundary-layer thermodynamic processes, impeding improvements in weather and climate models. Improvements will require both process-based research to understand the mechanisms governing air-sea exchange and a significant expansion of the observing system. This will improve flux parameterizations and reduce uncertainty associated with bulk formulae and satellite observations. Improved estimates spanning the full Southern Ocean will need to take advantage of ships, surface moorings, and the growing capabilities of autonomous platforms with robust and miniaturized sensors. A key challenge is to identify observing system sampling requirements. This requires models, Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), and assessments of the specific spatial-temporal accuracy and resolution required for priority science and assessment of observational uncertainties of the mean state and direct flux measurements. Year-round, high-quality, quasi-continuous in situ flux measurements and observations of extreme events are needed to validate, improve and characterize uncertainties in blended reanalysis products and satellite data as well as to improve parameterizations. Building a robust observing system will require community consensus on observational methodologies, observational priorities, and effective strategies for data management and discovery.
  • Article
    Polar ocean observations: A critical gap in the observing system and its effect on environmental predictions from hours to a season
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-06) Smith, Gregory C. ; Allard, Richard ; Babin, Marcel ; Bertino, Laurent ; Chevallier, Matthieu ; Corlett, Gary ; Crout, Julia ; Davidson, Fraser J. M. ; Delille, Bruno ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Hebert, David ; Hyder, Patrick ; Intrieri, Janet ; Lagunas, José ; Larnicol, Gilles ; Kaminski, Thomas ; Kater, Belinda ; Kauker, Frank ; Marec, Claudie ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Metzger, E. Joseph ; Mordy, Calvin W. ; O’Carroll, Anne ; Olsen, Steffen M. ; Phelps, Michael W. ; Posey, Pamela ; Prandi, Pierre ; Rehm, Eric ; Reid, Philip C. ; Rigor, Ignatius ; Sandven, Stein ; Shupe, Matthew ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Smedstad, Ole Martin ; Solomon, Amy ; Storto, Andrea ; Thibaut, Pierre ; Toole, John M. ; Wood, Kevin R. ; Xie, Jiping ; Yang, Qinghua ; WWRP PPP Steering Group
    There is a growing need for operational oceanographic predictions in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. In the former, this is driven by a declining ice cover accompanied by an increase in maritime traffic and exploitation of marine resources. Oceanographic predictions in the Antarctic are also important, both to support Antarctic operations and also to help elucidate processes governing sea ice and ice shelf stability. However, a significant gap exists in the ocean observing system in polar regions, compared to most areas of the global ocean, hindering the reliability of ocean and sea ice forecasts. This gap can also be seen from the spread in ocean and sea ice reanalyses for polar regions which provide an estimate of their uncertainty. The reduced reliability of polar predictions may affect the quality of various applications including search and rescue, coupling with numerical weather and seasonal predictions, historical reconstructions (reanalysis), aquaculture and environmental management including environmental emergency response. Here, we outline the status of existing near-real time ocean observational efforts in polar regions, discuss gaps, and explore perspectives for the future. Specific recommendations include a renewed call for open access to data, especially real-time data, as a critical capability for improved sea ice and weather forecasting and other environmental prediction needs. Dedicated efforts are also needed to make use of additional observations made as part of the Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP; 2017–2019) to inform optimal observing system design. To provide a polar extension to the Argo network, it is recommended that a network of ice-borne sea ice and upper-ocean observing buoys be deployed and supported operationally in ice-covered areas together with autonomous profiling floats and gliders (potentially with ice detection capability) in seasonally ice covered seas. Finally, additional efforts to better measure and parameterize surface exchanges in polar regions are much needed to improve coupled environmental prediction.
  • Article
    Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-08-02) Tamsitt, Veronica ; Drake, Henri F. ; Morrison, Adele K. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Dufour, Carolina O. ; Gray, Alison R. ; Griffies, Stephen M. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Wang, Jinbo ; Weijer, Wilbert
    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution models. The analysis reveals that the northern-sourced deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via southward flow along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with a spatially nonuniform distribution. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30° S to the mixed layer is ~60–90 years.
  • Article
    Adequacy of the ocean observation system for quantifying regional heat and freshwater storage and change
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-29) Palmer, Matthew D. ; Durack, Paul J. ; Chidichimo, Maria Paz ; Church, John A. ; Cravatte, Sophie ; Hill, Katherine Louise ; Johannessen, Johnny A. ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Lee, Tong ; Legler, David ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Oka, Eitarou ; Purkey, Sarah G. ; Rabe, Benjamin ; Sallee, Jean-Baptiste ; Sloyan, Bernadette M. ; Speich, Sabrina ; von Schuckmann, Karina ; Willis, Josh ; Wijffels, Susan E.
    Considerable advances in the global ocean observing system over the last two decades offers an opportunity to provide more quantitative information on changes in heat and freshwater storage. Variations in these storage terms can arise through internal variability and also the response of the ocean to anthropogenic climate change. Disentangling these competing influences on the regional patterns of change and elucidating their governing processes remains an outstanding scientific challenge. This challenge is compounded by instrumental and sampling uncertainties. The combined use of ocean observations and model simulations is the most viable method to assess the forced signal from noise and ascertain the primary drivers of variability and change. Moreover, this approach offers the potential for improved seasonal-to-decadal predictions and the possibility to develop powerful multi-variate constraints on climate model future projections. Regional heat storage changes dominate the steric contribution to sea level rise over most of the ocean and are vital to understanding both global and regional heat budgets. Variations in regional freshwater storage are particularly relevant to our understanding of changes in the hydrological cycle and can potentially be used to verify local ocean mass addition from terrestrial and cryospheric systems associated with contemporary sea level rise. This White Paper will examine the ability of the current ocean observing system to quantify changes in regional heat and freshwater storage. In particular we will seek to answer the question: What time and space scales are currently resolved in different regions of the global oceans? In light of some of the key scientific questions, we will discuss the requirements for measurement accuracy, sampling, and coverage as well as the synergies that can be leveraged by more comprehensively analyzing the multi-variable arrays provided by the integrated observing system.
  • Thesis
    The Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation as diagnosed from an eddy permitting state estimate
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2008-09) Mazloff, Matthew R.
    A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence to the state estimate solution is carried out by systematically adjusting the control variables (atmospheric state and initial conditions) using the adjoint model. A cost function compares the model state to in situ observations (Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, SEaOS instrument mounted seal profiles, and XBTs), altimetric observations (ENVISAT, GEOSAT, Jason, TOPEX/Poseidon), and other data sets (e.g. infrared and microwave radiometer observed sea surface temperature and NSIDC sea-ice concentration). Costs attributed to control variable perturbations ensure a physically realistic solution. The state estimate is found to be largely consistent with the individual observations, as well as with integrated fluxes inferred from previous static inverse models. The transformed Eulerian mean formulation is an elegant way to theorize about the Southern Ocean. Current researchers utilizing this framework, however, have been making assumptions that render their theories largely irrelevant to the actual ocean. It is shown that theories of the overturning circulation must include the effect of pressure forcing. This is true in the most buoyant waters, where pressure forcing overcomes eddy and wind forcing to balance a poleward geostrophic transport and allows the buoyancy budget to be closed. Pressure forcing is also lowest order at depth. Indeed, the Southern Ocean’s characteristic multiple cell overturning is primarily in geostrophic balance. Several other aspects of the Southern Ocean circulation are also investigated in the thesis, including an analysis of the magnitude and variability of heat, salt, and volume inter-basin transports.
  • Thesis
    Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2006-09) Mazloff, Matthew R.
    A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried out by systematically adjusting the control variables (prescribed atmospheric state, initial conditions, and open northern boundary at 24.7°S) using the adjoint method. A cost function compares the model state to data from CTD synoptic sections, hydrographic climatology, satellite altimetry, and XBTs. Costs attributed to control variable perturbations ensure a physically realistic solution. An optimized solution is determined by the weights placed on the cost function terms. The state estimation procedure, along with the weights used, is described. A significant result is that the adjoint method is shown to work at eddy-permitting resolution in the highly-energetic Southern Ocean. At the time of the writing of this thesis the state estimate was not fully consistent with the observations. An analysis of the remaining misfit, as well as the mass transport in the preliminary state, is presented.
  • Article
    Integrated observations of global surface winds, currents, and waves: Requirements and challenges for the next decade
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-24) Villas Bôas, Ana B. ; Ardhuin, Fabrice ; Ayet, Alex ; Bourassa, Mark A. ; Brandt, Peter ; Chapron, Bertrand ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Fewings, Melanie R. ; Fox-Kemper, Baylor ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Gommenginger, Christine ; Heimbach, Patrick ; Hell, Momme C. ; Li, Qing ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Merrifield, Sophia T. ; Mouche, Alexis ; Rio, Marie H. ; Rodriguez, Ernesto ; Shutler, Jamie D. ; Subramanian, Aneesh C. ; Terrill, Eric ; Tsamados, Michel ; Ubelmann, Clement ; van Sebille, Erik
    Ocean surface winds, currents, and waves play a crucial role in exchanges of momentum, energy, heat, freshwater, gases, and other tracers between the ocean, atmosphere, and ice. Despite surface waves being strongly coupled to the upper ocean circulation and the overlying atmosphere, efforts to improve ocean, atmospheric, and wave observations and models have evolved somewhat independently. From an observational point of view, community efforts to bridge this gap have led to proposals for satellite Doppler oceanography mission concepts, which could provide unprecedented measurements of absolute surface velocity and directional wave spectrum at global scales. This paper reviews the present state of observations of surface winds, currents, and waves, and it outlines observational gaps that limit our current understanding of coupled processes that happen at the air-sea-ice interface. A significant challenge for the coming decade of wind, current, and wave observations will come in combining and interpreting measurements from (a) wave-buoys and high-frequency radars in coastal regions, (b) surface drifters and wave-enabled drifters in the open-ocean, marginal ice zones, and wave-current interaction “hot-spots,” and (c) simultaneous measurements of absolute surface currents, ocean surface wind vector, and directional wave spectrum from Doppler satellite sensors.
  • Working Paper
    Review of US GO-SHIP (Global Oceans Shipboard Hydrographic Investigations Program) An OCB and US CLIVAR Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-10) Bingham, Frederick ; Juranek, Laurie W. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Wijffels, Susan E.
    The following document constitutes a review of the US GO-SHIP program, performed under the auspices of US Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) and Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry (OCB) Programs. It is the product of an external review committee, charged and assembled by US CLIVAR and OCB with members who represent the interests of the programs and who are independent of US GO-SHIP support, which spent several months gathering input and drafting this report. The purpose of the review is to assess program planning, progress, and opportunities in collecting, providing, and synthesizing high quality hydrographic data to advance the scientific research goals of US CLIVAR and OCB.