Jansson Janet K.

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Janet K.

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  • Preprint
    Current understanding of the human microbiome
    ( 2018-02-05) Gilbert, Jack A. ; Blaser, Martin J. ; Caporaso, J. Gregory ; Jansson, Janet K. ; Lynch, Susan V. ; Knight, Rob
    Our understanding of the link between the human microbiome and disease, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis and autism, is rapidly expanding. Improvements in the throughput and accuracy of DNA sequencing of the genomes of microbial communities associated with human samples, complemented by analysis of transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes and immunomes, and mechanistic experiments in model systems, have vastly improved our ability to understand the structure and function of the microbiome in both diseased and healthy states. However, many challenges remain. In this Review, we focus on studies in humans to describe these challenges, and propose strategies that leverage existing knowledge to move rapidly from correlation to causation, and ultimately to translation.
  • Article
    Tools for the microbiome : nano and beyond
    (American Chemical Society, 2015-12-22) Biteen, Julie S. ; Blainey, Paul C. ; Cardon, Zoe G. ; Chun, Miyoung ; Church, George M. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Fraser, Scott E. ; Gilbert, Jack A. ; Jansson, Janet K. ; Knight, Rob ; Miller, Jeff F. ; Ozcan, Aydogan ; Prather, Kimberly A. ; Quake, Stephen R. ; Ruby, Edward G. ; Silver, Pamela A. ; Taha, Sharif ; van den Engh, Ger ; Weiss, Paul S. ; Wong, Gerard C. L. ; Wright, Aaron T. ; Young, Thomas D.
    The microbiome presents great opportunities for understanding and improving the world around us and elucidating the interactions that compose it. The microbiome also poses tremendous challenges for mapping and manipulating the entangled networks of interactions among myriad diverse organisms. Here, we describe the opportunities, technical needs, and potential approaches to address these challenges, based on recent and upcoming advances in measurement and control at the nanoscale and beyond. These technical needs will provide the basis for advancing the largely descriptive studies of the microbiome to the theoretical and mechanistic understandings that will underpin the discipline of microbiome engineering. We anticipate that the new tools and methods developed will also be more broadly useful in environmental monitoring, medicine, forensics, and other areas.
  • Preprint
    Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications
    ( 2011-01-04) Yilmaz, Pelin ; Kottmann, Renzo ; Field, Dawn ; Knight, Rob ; Cole, James R. ; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A. ; Gilbert, Jack A. ; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene ; Johnston, Anjanette ; Cochrane, Guy R. ; Vaughan, Robert ; Hunter, Christopher ; Park, Joonhong ; Morrison, Norman ; Rocca-Serra, Philippe ; Sterk, Peter ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Bailey, Mark ; Baumgartner, Laura ; Birren, Bruce W. ; Blaser, Martin J. ; Bonazzi, Vivien ; Booth, Tim ; Bork, Peer ; Bushman, Frederic D. ; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi ; Chain, Patrick S. G. ; Charlson, Emily ; Costello, Elizabeth K. ; Huot-Creasy, Heather ; Dawyndt, Peter ; DeSantis, Todd ; Fierer, Noah ; Fuhrman, Jed A. ; Gallery, Rachel E. ; Gevers, Dirk ; Gibbs, Richard A. ; San Gil, Inigo ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gordon, Jeffrey I. ; Guralnick, Robert P. ; Hankeln, Wolfgang ; Highlander, Sarah ; Hugenholtz, Philip ; Jansson, Janet K. ; Kau, Andrew L. ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Kennedy, Jerry ; Knights, Dan ; Koren, Omry ; Kuczynski, Justin ; Kyrpides, Nikos C. ; Larsen, Robert ; Lauber, Christian L. ; Legg, Teresa ; Ley, Ruth E. ; Lozupone, Catherine A. ; Ludwig, Wolfgang ; Lyons, Donna ; Maguire, Eamonn ; Methe, Barbara A. ; Meyer, Folker ; Muegge, Brian ; Nakielny, Sara ; Nelson, Karen E. ; Nemergut, Diana ; Neufeld, Josh D. ; Newbold, Lindsay K. ; Oliver, Anna E. ; Pace, Norman R. ; Palanisamy, Giriprakash ; Peplies, Jorg ; Petrosino, Joseph ; Proctor, Lita ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Quast, Christian ; Raes, Jeroen ; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan ; Ravel, Jacques ; Relman, David A. ; Assunta-Sansone, Susanna ; Schloss, Patrick D. ; Schriml, Lynn M. ; Sinha, Rohini ; Smith, Michelle I. ; Sodergren, Erica ; Spor, Ayme ; Stombaugh, Jesse ; Tiedje, James M. ; Ward, Doyle V. ; Weinstock, George M. ; Wendel, Doug ; White, Owen ; Whiteley, Andrew ; Wilke, Andreas ; Wortman, Jennifer R. ; Yatsunenko, Tanya ; Glockner, Frank Oliver
    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) to describe marker gene sequences—the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The “environmental packages” apply to any sequence whose origin is known and can therefore be used in combination with MIMARKS or other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we establish the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.
  • Article
    Improved bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4 and V4-5) and fungal internal transcribed spacer marker gene primers for microbial community surveys
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2015-12-22) Walters, William ; Hyde, Embriette R. ; Berg-Lyons, Donna ; Ackermann, Gail ; Humphrey, Greg ; Parada, Alma ; Gilbert, Jack A. ; Jansson, Janet K. ; Caporaso, J. Gregory ; Fuhrman, Jed A. ; Apprill, Amy ; Knight, Rob
    Designing primers for PCR-based taxonomic surveys that amplify a broad range of phylotypes in varied community samples is a difficult challenge, and the comparability of data sets amplified with varied primers requires attention. Here, we examined the performance of modified 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers for archaea/bacteria and fungi, respectively, with nonaquatic samples. We moved primer bar codes to the 5′ end, allowing for a range of different 3′ primer pairings, such as the 515f/926r primer pair, which amplifies variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene. We additionally demonstrated that modifications to the 515f/806r (variable region 4) 16S primer pair, which improves detection of Thaumarchaeota and clade SAR11 in marine samples, do not degrade performance on taxa already amplified effectively by the original primer set. Alterations to the fungal ITS primers did result in differential but overall improved performance compared to the original primers. In both cases, the improved primers should be widely adopted for amplicon studies.