Roca-Martí Montserrat

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  • Article
    Sea ice meltwater and Circumpolar Deep Water drive contrasting productivity in three Antarctic polynyas
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-03-28) Moreau, Sebastien ; Lannuzel, Delphine ; Janssens, Julie ; Arroyo, Mar C. ; Corkill, Matthew ; Cougnon, Eva ; Genovese, Cristina ; Legresy, Benoit ; Lenton, Andrew ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Ratnarajah, Lavenia ; Rintoul, Stephen R. ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Rosenberg, Mark ; Shadwick, Elizabeth H. ; Silvano, Alessandro ; Strutton, Peter G. ; Tilbrook, Bronte
    In the Southern Ocean, polynyas exhibit enhanced rates of primary productivity and represent large seasonal sinks for atmospheric CO2. Three contrasting east Antarctic polynyas were visited in late December to early January 2017: the Dalton, Mertz, and Ninnis polynyas. In the Mertz and Ninnis polynyas, phytoplankton biomass (average of 322 and 354 mg chlorophyll a (Chl a)/m2, respectively) and net community production (5.3 and 4.6 mol C/m2, respectively) were approximately 3 times those measured in the Dalton polynya (average of 122 mg Chl a/m2 and 1.8 mol C/m2). Phytoplankton communities also differed between the polynyas. Diatoms were thriving in the Mertz and Ninnis polynyas but not in the Dalton polynya, where Phaeocystis antarctica dominated. These strong regional differences were explored using physiological, biological, and physical parameters. The most likely drivers of the observed higher productivity in the Mertz and Ninnis were the relatively shallow inflow of iron‐rich modified Circumpolar Deep Water onto the shelf as well as a very large sea ice meltwater contribution. The productivity contrast between the three polynyas could not be explained by (1) the input of glacial meltwater, (2) the presence of Ice Shelf Water, or (3) stratification of the mixed layer. Our results show that physical drivers regulate the productivity of polynyas, suggesting that the response of biological productivity and carbon export to future change will vary among polynyas.
  • Article
    High-resolution spatial and temporal measurements of particulate organic carbon flux using thorium-234 in the northeast Pacific Ocean during the EXport processes in the ocean from RemoTe sensing field campaign
    (University of California Press, 2020-12-10) Buesseler, Ken O. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Wyatt, Abigale M. ; Resplandy, Laure ; Clevenger, Samantha J. ; Drysdale, Jessica A. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Umhau, Blaire P.
    The EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) program of National Aeronautics and Space Administration focuses on linking remotely sensed properties from satellites to the mechanisms that control the transfer of carbon from surface waters to depth. Here, the naturally occurring radionuclide thorium-234 was used as a tracer of sinking particle flux. More than 950 234Th measurements were made during August–September 2018 at Ocean Station Papa in the northeast Pacific Ocean. High-resolution vertical sampling enabled observations of the spatial and temporal evolution of particle flux in Lagrangian fashion. Thorium-234 profiles were remarkably consistent, with steady-state (SS) 234Th fluxes reaching 1,450 ± 300 dpm m−2 d−1 at 100 m. Nonetheless, 234Th increased by 6%–10% in the upper 60 m during the cruise, leading to consideration of a non-steady-state (NSS) model and/or horizontal transport, with NSS having the largest impact by decreasing SS 234Th fluxes by 30%. Below 100 m, NSS and SS models overlapped. Particulate organic carbon (POC)/234Th ratios decreased with depth in small (1–5 μm) and mid-sized (5–51 μm) particles, while large particle (>51 μm) ratios remained relatively constant, likely influenced by swimmer contamination. Using an average SS and NSS 234Th flux and the POC/234Th ratio of mid-sized particles, we determined a best estimate of POC flux. Maximum POC flux was 5.5 ± 1.7 mmol C m−2 d−1 at 50 m, decreasing by 70% at the base of the primary production zone (117 m). These results support earlier studies that this site is characterized by a modest biological carbon pump, with an export efficiency of 13% ± 5% (POC flux/net primary production at 120 m) and 39% flux attenuation in the subsequent 100 m (POC flux 220 m/POC flux 120m). This work sets the foundation for understanding controls on the biological carbon pump during this EXPORTS campaign.
  • Preprint
    Distribution of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the arctic water column during the 2007 sea-ice minimum: Particle export in the ice-covered basins.
    (Elsevier, 2018-10-22) Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Friedrich, Jana ; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel ; Rabe, Benjamin ; Korhonen, Meri ; Cámara Mor, Patricia ; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi ; Masqué, Pere
    210Pb and 210Po are naturally occurring radionuclides that are commonly used as a proxy for particle and carbon export. In this study, the distribution of the 210Po/210Pb pair was investigated in the water column of the Barents, Kara and Laptev Seas and the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov Basins in order to understand the particle dynamics in the Arctic Ocean during the 2007 sea-ice minimum (August-September). Minimum activities of total 210Pb and 210Po were found in the upper and lower haloclines (approx. 60-130 m), which are partly attributed to particle scavenging over the shelves, boundary current transport and subsequent advection of the water with low 210Pb and 210Po activities into the central Arctic. Widespread and substantial (>50%) deficits of 210Po with respect to 210Pb were detected from surface waters to 200 m on the shelves, but also in the basins. This was particularly important in the Makarov Basin where, despite very low chlorophyll-a levels, estimates of annual new primary production were three times higher than in the Eurasian Basin. In the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov 32 Basins, estimates of annual new primary production correlated with the deficits of 210Po in the upper 200 m of the water column, suggesting that in situ production and subsequent export of biogenic material were the mechanisms that controlled the removal of 210Po in the central Arctic. Unlike 210Po, 234Th deficits measured during the same expedition were found to be very small and not significant below 25 m in the basins (Cai et al., 2010), which indicates, given the shorter half-life of 234Th, that particle export fluxes in the central Arctic would have been higher before July-August in 2007 than later in the season.
  • Article
    The export flux of particulate organic carbon derived from 210Po∕210Pb disequilibria along the North Atlantic GEOTRACES GA01 transect: GEOVIDE cruise
    (Copernicus Publications, 2019-01-24) Tang, Yi ; Lemaitre, Nolwenn ; Castrillejo, Maxi ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Masqué, Pere ; Stewart, Gillian
    The disequilibrium between 210Po activity and 210Pb activity in seawater samples was determined along the GEOTRACES GA01 transect in the North Atlantic during the GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014). A steady-state model was used to quantify vertical export of particulate 210Po. Vertical advection was incorporated into one version of the model using time-averaged vertical velocity, which had substantial variance. This resulted in large uncertainties for the 210Po export flux in this model, suggesting that those calculations of 210Po export fluxes should be used with great care. Despite the large uncertainties, there is no question that the deficits of 210Po in the Iberian Basin and at the Greenland Shelf have been strongly affected by vertical advection. Using the export flux of 210Po and the particulate organic carbon (POC) to 210Po ratio of total (> 1 µm) particles, we determined the POC export fluxes along the transect. Both the magnitude and efficiency of the estimated POC export flux from the surface ocean varied spatially within our study region. Export fluxes of POC ranged from negligible to 10 mmol C m−2 d−1, with enhanced POC export in the Labrador Sea. The cruise track was characterized by overall low POC export relative to net primary production (export efficiency < 1 %–15 %), but relatively high export efficiencies were seen in the basins where diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community. The particularly low export efficiencies in the Iberian Basin, on the other hand, were explained by the dominance of smaller phytoplankton, such as cyanobacteria or coccolithophores. POC fluxes estimated from the 210Po∕210Pb and 234Th∕238U disequilibria agreed within a factor of 3 along the transect, with higher POC estimates generally derived from 234Th. The differences were attributed to integration timescales and the history of bloom events.
  • Article
    Biogenic sinking particle fluxes and sediment trap collection efficiency at Ocean Station Papa
    (University of California Press, 2021-06-17) Estapa, Margaret L. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Breves, Elly ; Kelly, Roger P. ; Pike, Steven M.
    Comprehensive field observations characterizing the biological carbon pump (BCP) provide the foundation needed to constrain mechanistic models of downward particulate organic carbon (POC) flux in the ocean. Sediment traps were deployed three times during the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing campaign at Ocean Station Papa in August–September 2018. We propose a new method to correct sediment trap sample contamination by zooplankton “swimmers.” We consider the advantages of polyacrylamide gel collectors to constrain swimmer influence and estimate the magnitude of possible trap biases. Measured sediment trap fluxes of thorium-234 are compared to water column measurements to assess trap performance and estimate the possible magnitude of fluxes by vertically migrating zooplankton that bypassed traps. We found generally low fluxes of sinking POC (1.38 ± 0.77 mmol C m–2 d–1 at 100 m, n = 9) that included high and variable contributions by rare, large particles. Sinking particle sizes generally decreased between 100 and 335 m. Measured 234Th fluxes were smaller than water column 234Th fluxes by a factor of approximately 3. Much of this difference was consistent with trap undersampling of both small (<32 μm) and rare, large particles (>1 mm) and with zooplankton active migrant fluxes. The fraction of net primary production exported below the euphotic zone (0.1% light level; Ez-ratio = 0.10 ± 0.06; ratio uncertainties are propagated from measurements with n = 7–9) was consistent with prior, late summer studies at Station P, as was the fraction of material exported to 100 m below the base of the euphotic zone (T100, 0.55 ± 0.35). While both the Ez-ratio and T100 parameters varied weekly, their product, which we interpret as overall BCP efficiency, was remarkably stable (0.055 ± 0.010), suggesting a tight coupling between production and recycling at Station P.
  • Working Paper
    EXPORTS Measurements and Protocols for the NE Pacific Campaign
    (NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-02) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Close, Hilary G. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Graff, Jason R. ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Halsey, Kim ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Liu, Shuting ; Mannino, Antonio ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Passow, Uta ; Perry, Mary J. ; Popp, Brian N. ; Proctor, Chris ; Rafter, Patrick ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rubin, Edwina ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Siegel, David A. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Zhang, Xiaodong
    EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) is a large-scale NASA-led and NSF co-funded field campaign that will provide critical information for quantifying the export and fate of upper ocean net primary production (NPP) using satellite information and state of the art technology.
  • Article
    Quantifying Po-210/Pb-210 disequilibrium in seawater: a comparison of two precipitation methods with differing results
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-06-22) Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Castrillejo, Maxi ; Casacuberta, Nuria ; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi ; Cochran, J. Kirk ; Masqué, Pere
    The disequilibrium between lead-210 (210Pb) and polonium-210 (210Po) is increasingly used in oceanography to quantify particulate organic carbon (POC) export from the upper ocean. This proxy is based on the deficits of 210Po typically observed in the upper water column due to the preferential removal of 210Po relative to 210Pb by sinking particles. Yet, a number of studies have reported unexpected large 210Po deficits in the deep ocean indicating scavenging of 210Po despite its radioactive mean life of ∼ 200 days. Two precipitation methods, Fe(OH)3 and Co-APDC, are typically used to concentrate Pb and Po from seawater samples, and deep 210Po deficits raise the question whether this feature is biogeochemically consistent or there is a methodological issue. Here, we present a compilation of 210Pb and 210Po studies that suggests that 210Po deficits at depths >300 m are more often observed in studies where Fe(OH)3 is used to precipitate Pb and Po from seawater, than in those using Co-APDC (in 68 versus 33% of the profiles analyzed for each method, respectively). In order to test whether 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium can be partly related to a methodological artifact, we directly compared the total activities of 210Pb and 210Po in four duplicate ocean depth-profiles determined by using Fe(OH)3 and Co-APDC on unfiltered seawater samples. While both methods produced the same 210Pb activities, results from the Co-APDC method showed equilibrium between 210Pb and 210Po below 100 m, whereas the Fe(OH)3 method resulted in activities of 210Po significantly lower than 210Pb throughout the entire water column. These results show that 210Po deficits in deep waters, but also in the upper ocean, may be greater when calculated using a commonly used Fe(OH)3 protocol. This finding has potential implications for the use of the 210Po/210Pb pair as a tracer of particle export in the oceans because 210Po (and thus POC) fluxes calculated using Fe(OH)3 on unfiltered seawater samples may be overestimated. Recommendations for future research are provided based on the possible reasons for the discrepancy in 210Po activities between both analytical methods.
  • Article
    Concentrations, ratios, and sinking fluxes of major bioelements at Ocean Station Papa
    (University of California Press, 2021-06-28) Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Umhau, Blaire P. ; Wyatt, Abigale M. ; Clevenger, Samantha J. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Resplandy, Laure ; Buesseler, Ken O.
    Fluxes of major bioelements associated with sinking particles were quantified in late summer 2018 as part of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) field campaign near Ocean Station Papa in the subarctic northeast Pacific. The thorium-234 method was used in conjunction with size-fractionated (1–5, 5–51, and >51 μm) concentrations of particulate nitrogen (PN), total particulate phosphorus (TPP), biogenic silica (bSi), and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) collected using large volume filtration via in situ pumps. We build upon recent work quantifying POC fluxes during EXPORTS. Similar remineralization length scales were observed for both POC and PN across all particle size classes from depths of 50–500 m. Unlike bSi and PIC, the soft tissue–associated POC, PN, and TPP fluxes strongly attenuated from 50 m to the base of the euphotic zone (approximately 120 m). Cruise-average thorium-234-derived fluxes (mmol m–2 d–1) at 120 m were 1.7 ± 0.6 for POC, 0.22 ± 0.07 for PN, 0.019 ± 0.007 for TPP, 0.69 ± 0.26 for bSi, and 0.055 ± 0.022 for PIC. These bioelement fluxes were similar to previous observations at this site, with the exception of PIC, which was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower. Transfer efficiencies within the upper twilight zone (flux 220 m/flux 120 m) were highest for PIC (84%) and bSi (79%), followed by POC (61%), PN (58%), and TPP (49%). These differences indicate preferential remineralization of TPP relative to POC or PN and larger losses of soft tissue relative to biominerals in sinking particles below the euphotic zone. Comprehensive characterization of the particulate bioelement fluxes obtained here will support future efforts linking phytoplankton community composition and food-web dynamics to the composition, magnitude, and attenuation of material that sinks to deeper waters.
  • Article
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017
    (Elsevier, 2018-06-01) Schlitzer, Reiner ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Dodas, Elena Masferrer ; Lohan, Maeve C. ; Geibert, Walter ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Bowie, Andrew R. ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Maldonado, Maria T. ; Landing, William M. ; Cockwell, Donna ; Abadie, Cyril ; Abouchami, Wafa ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Agather, Alison ; Aguliar-Islas, Ana ; van Aken, Hendrik M. ; Andersen, Morten ; Archer, Corey ; Auro, Maureen E. ; Baar, Hein J. W. de ; Baars, Oliver ; Baker, Alex R. ; Bakker, Karel ; Basak, Chandranath ; Baskaran, Mark ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; van Beek, Pieter ; Behrens, Melanie K. ; Black, Erin E. ; Bluhm, Katrin ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bouman, Heather ; Bowman, Katlin ; Bown, Johann ; Boyd, Philip ; Boye, Marie ; Boyle, Edward A. ; Branellec, Pierre ; Bridgestock, Luke ; Brissebrat, Guillaume ; Browning, Thomas ; Bruland, Kenneth W. ; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Clifton S. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Bull, Abby ; Butler, Edward ; Cai, Pinghe ; Cámara Mor, Patricia ; Cardinal, Damien ; Carlson, Craig ; Carrasco, Gonzalo ; Casacuberta, Nuria ; Casciotti, Karen L. ; Castrillejo, Maxi ; Chamizo, Elena ; Chance, Rosie ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Chaves, Joaquin E. ; Cheng, Hai ; Chever, Fanny ; Christl, Marcus ; Church, Thomas M. ; Closset, Ivia ; Colman, Albert S. ; Conway, Tim M. ; Cossa, Daniel ; Croot, Peter L. ; Cullen, Jay T. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Daniels, Chris ; Dehairs, Frank ; Deng, Feifei ; Dieu, Huong Thi ; Duggan, Brian ; Dulaquais, Gabriel ; Dumousseaud, Cynthia ; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Ellwood, Michael J. ; Fahrbach, Eberhard ; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. ; Flegal, A. Russell ; Fleisher, Martin Q. ; van de Flierdt, Tina ; Frank, Martin ; Friedrich, Jana ; Fripiat, Francois ; Fröllje, Henning ; Galer, Stephen J. G. ; Gamo, Toshitaka ; Ganeshram, Raja S. ; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi ; Garcia Solsona, Ester ; Gault-Ringold, Melanie ; George, Ejin ; Gerringa, Loes J. A. ; Gilbert, Melissa ; Godoy, Jose Marcus ; Goldstein, Steven L. ; Gonzalez, Santiago ; Grissom, Karen ; Hammerschmidt, Chad R. ; Hartman, Alison ; Hassler, Christel ; Hathorne, Ed C. ; Hatta, Mariko ; Hawco, Nicholas J. ; Hayes, Christopher T. ; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric ; Helgoe, Josh ; Heller, Maija Iris ; Henderson, Gideon M. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; van Heuven, Steven ; Ho, Peng ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Hsieh, Yu-Te ; Huang, Kuo-Fang ; Humphreys, Matthew P. ; Isshiki, Kenji ; Jacquot, Jeremy E. ; Janssen, David J. ; Jenkins, William J. ; John, Seth ; Jones, Elizabeth M. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Kadko, David ; Kayser, Rick ; Kenna, Timothy C. ; Khondoker, Roulin ; Kim, Taejin ; Kipp, Lauren ; Klar, Jessica K. ; Klunder, Maarten ; Kretschmer, Sven ; Kumamoto, Yuichiro ; Laan, Patrick ; Labatut, Marie ; Lacan, Francois ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lambelet, Myriam ; Lamborg, Carl H. ; le Moigne, Frederique ; Le Roy, Emilie ; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Lherminier, Pascale ; Little, Susan ; López-Lora, Mercedes ; Lu, Yanbin ; Masque, Pere ; Mawji, Edward ; McClain, Charles R. ; Measures, Christopher I. ; Mehic, Sanjin ; Menzel Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas ; Merwe, Pier van der ; Middag, Rob ; Mieruch, Sebastian ; Milne, Angela ; Minami, Tomoharu ; Moffett, James W. ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Moore, Willard S. ; Morris, Paul J. ; Morton, Peter L. ; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru ; Nakayama, Noriko ; Niedermiller, John ; Nishioka, Jun ; Nishiuchi, Akira ; Noble, Abigail E. ; Obata, Hajime ; Ober, Sven ; Ohnemus, Daniel C. ; van Ooijen, Jan ; O'Sullivan, Jeanette ; Owens, Stephanie A. ; Pahnke, Katharina ; Paul, Maxence ; Pavia, Frank ; Pena, Leopoldo D. ; Peters, Brian ; Planchon, Frederic ; Planquette, Helene ; Pradoux, Catherine ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Quay, Paul D. ; Queroue, Fabien ; Radic, Amandine ; Rauschenberg, Sara ; Rehkämper, Mark ; Rember, Robert ; Remenyi, Tomas A. ; Resing, Joseph A. ; Rickli, Joerg ; Rigaud, Sylvain ; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A. ; Rintoul, Stephen R. ; Robinson, Laura F. ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Rodellas, Valenti ; Roeske, Tobias ; Rolison, John M. ; Rosenberg, Mark ; Roshan, Saeed ; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M. ; Ryabenko, Evgenia ; Saito, Mak A. ; Salt, Lesley ; Sanial, Virginie ; Sarthou, Geraldine ; Schallenberg, Christina ; Schauer, Ursula ; Scher, Howie ; Schlosser, Christian ; Schnetger, Bernhard ; Scott, Peter M. ; Sedwick, Peter N. ; Semiletov, Igor P. ; Shelley, Rachel U. ; Sherrell, Robert M. ; Shiller, Alan M. ; Sigman, Daniel M. ; Singh, Sunil Kumar ; Slagter, Hans ; Slater, Emma ; Smethie, William M. ; Snaith, Helen ; Sohrin, Yoshiki ; Sohst, Bettina M. ; Sonke, Jeroen E. ; Speich, Sabrina ; Steinfeldt, Reiner ; Stewart, Gillian ; Stichel, Torben ; Stirling, Claudine H. ; Stutsman, Johnny ; Swarr, Gretchen J. ; Swift, James H. ; Thomas, Alexander ; Thorne, Kay ; Till, Claire P. ; Till, Ralph ; Townsend, Ashley T. ; Townsend, Emily ; Tuerena, Robyn ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Vance, Derek ; Velazquez, Sue ; Venchiarutti, Celia ; Villa-Alfageme, Maria ; Vivancos, Sebastian M. ; Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Wake, Bronwyn ; Warner, Mark J. ; Watson, Ros ; van Weerlee, Evaline ; Weigand, M. Alexandra ; Weinstein, Yishai ; Weiss, Dominik ; Wisotzki, Andreas ; Woodward, E. Malcolm S. ; Wu, Jingfeng ; Wu, Yingzhe ; Wuttig, Kathrin ; Wyatt, Neil ; Xiang, Yang ; Xie, Ruifang C. ; Xue, Zichen ; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki ; Zhang, Jing ; Zhang, Pu ; Zhao, Ye ; Zheng, Linjie ; Zheng, Xin-Yuan ; Zieringer, Moritz ; Zimmer, Louise A. ; Ziveri, Patrizia ; Zunino, Patricia ; Zurbrick, Cheryl
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
  • Article
    An operational overview of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) Northeast Pacific field deployment
    (University of California Press, 2021-07-07) Siegel, David A. ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Graff, Jason R. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Hamme, Roberta C. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Nicholson, David P. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Robert, Marie ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Amaral, Vinicius ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Bisson, Kelsey ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Boyd, Philip ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Burns, Shannon ; Caprara, Salvatore ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Close, Hilary G. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fields, Erik ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Halsey, Kim ; Huot, Yannick ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Passow, Uta ; Popp, Brian N. ; Potvin, Geneviève ; Resplandy, Laure ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Seraphin, Kanesa ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Tang, Weiyi ; Van Mooy, Benjamin ; Xiong, Yuanheng ; Zhang, Xiaodong
    The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) field campaign is to develop a predictive understanding of the export, fate, and carbon cycle impacts of global ocean net primary production. To accomplish this goal, observations of export flux pathways, plankton community composition, food web processes, and optical, physical, and biogeochemical (BGC) properties are needed over a range of ecosystem states. Here we introduce the first EXPORTS field deployment to Ocean Station Papa in the Northeast Pacific Ocean during summer of 2018, providing context for other papers in this special collection. The experiment was conducted with two ships: a Process Ship, focused on ecological rates, BGC fluxes, temporal changes in food web, and BGC and optical properties, that followed an instrumented Lagrangian float; and a Survey Ship that sampled BGC and optical properties in spatial patterns around the Process Ship. An array of autonomous underwater assets provided measurements over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and partnering programs and remote sensing observations provided additional observational context. The oceanographic setting was typical of late-summer conditions at Ocean Station Papa: a shallow mixed layer, strong vertical and weak horizontal gradients in hydrographic properties, sluggish sub-inertial currents, elevated macronutrient concentrations and low phytoplankton abundances. Although nutrient concentrations were consistent with previous observations, mixed layer chlorophyll was lower than typically observed, resulting in a deeper euphotic zone. Analyses of surface layer temperature and salinity found three distinct surface water types, allowing for diagnosis of whether observed changes were spatial or temporal. The 2018 EXPORTS field deployment is among the most comprehensive biological pump studies ever conducted. A second deployment to the North Atlantic Ocean occurred in spring 2021, which will be followed by focused work on data synthesis and modeling using the entire EXPORTS data set.
  • Article
    Distribution and export of particulate organic carbon in East Antarctic coastal polynyas
    ( 2022-11-03) Ratnarajah, Lavenia ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Moreau, Sébastien ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Janssens, Julie ; Corkill, Matthew ; Duprat, Luis ; Genovese, Cristina ; Lieser, Jan ; Masqué, Pere ; Lannuzel, Delphine
    Polynyas represent regions of enhanced primary production because of the low, or absent, sea-ice cover coupled with the proximity of nutrient sources. However, studies throughout the Southern Ocean suggest elevated primary production does not necessarily result in increased carbon export. Three coastal polynyas in East Antarctica and an off-shelf region were visited during the austral summer from December 2016 to January 2017 to examine the vertical distribution and concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC). Carbon export was also examined using thorium-234 (234Th) as a proxy at two of the polynyas. Our results show that concentrations and integrated POC stocks were higher within the polynyas compared to the off-shelf sites. Within the polynyas, vertical POC concentrations were higher in the Mertz and Ninnis polynyas compared to the Dalton polynya. Similarly, higher carbon export was measured in the diatom-dominated Mertz polynya, where large particles (>53 μm) represented a significant fraction of the particulate 234Th and POC (average 50% and 39%, respectively), compared to the small flagellate-dominated Dalton polynya, where almost all the particulate 234Th and POC were found in the smaller size fraction (1–53 μm). The POC to Chlorophyll-a ratios suggest that organic matter below the mixed layer in the polynyas consisted largely of fresh phytoplankton at this time of the year. In combination with a parallel study on phytoplankton production at these sites, we find that increased primary production at these polynyas does lead to greater concentrations and export of POC and a higher POC export efficiency.Elevated primary production leads to enhanced vertical concentration and export of particulate organic carbon (POC) in coastal polynyas in austral summer.POC inventories, export fluxes and export efficiencies vary significantly between polynyas. POC:Chl-a ratios within polynyas suggest that organic matter below the mixed layer consists largely of fresh phytoplankton at this time of the year.
  • Article
    Particle cycling rates at Station P as estimated from the inversion of POC concentration data
    (University of California Press, 2022-08-16) Amaral, Vinicius ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Fox, James ; Nelson, Norman B.
    Particle cycling rates in marine systems are difficult to measure directly, but of great interest in understanding how carbon and other elements are distributed throughout the ocean. Here, rates of particle production, aggregation, disaggregation, sinking, remineralization, and transport mediated by zooplankton diel vertical migration were estimated from size-fractionated measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration collected during the NASA EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) cruise at Station P in summer 2018. POC data were combined with a particle cycling model using an inverse method. Our estimates of the total POC settling flux throughout the water column are consistent with those derived from thorium-234 disequilibrium and sediment traps. A budget for POC in two size fractions, small (1–51 µm) and large (> 51 µm), was produced for both the euphotic zone (0–100 m) and the upper mesopelagic zone (100–500 m). We estimated that POC export at the base of the euphotic zone was 2.2 ± 0.8 mmol m−2 d−1, and that both small and large particles contributed considerably to the total export flux along the water column. The model results indicated that throughout the upper 500 m, remineralization leads to a larger loss of small POC than does aggregation, whereas disaggregation results in a larger loss of large POC than does remineralization. Of the processes explicitly represented in the model, zooplankton diel vertical migration is a larger source of large POC to the upper mesopelagic zone than the convergence of large POC due to particle sinking. Positive model residuals reveal an even larger unidentified source of large POC in the upper mesopelagic zone. Overall, our posterior estimates of particle cycling rate constants do not deviate much from values reported in the literature, i.e., size-fractionated POC concentration data collected at Station P are largely consistent with prior estimates given their uncertainties. Our budget estimates should provide a useful framework for the interpretation of process-specific observations obtained by various research groups in EXPORTS. Applying our inverse method to other systems could provide insight into how different biogeochemical processes affect the cycling of POC in the upper water column.