von Herzen Richard P.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
von Herzen
First Name
Richard P.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • Technical Report
    ARPA rock drill report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1975-06) Davis, Ray E. ; Williams, David L. ; von Herzen, Richard P.
    This report outlines the development and capabilities of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Rock Core Drill. The Rock Drill is shown to provide a relatively inexpensive means of recovering oriented bottom rock samples from the oceanic crust for magnetic and petrochemical studies. It is completely self-contained and capable of recovering 1 m long, 3/4-inch diameter, rock cores from depths to 4000 m. Most efficient deployment is from a surface vessel, but with sufficient modification it is capable of being safely transported by a DSRV.
  • Technical Report
    Technical progress report : advanced marine technology 1 February 1973 - 31 July 1973
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1973-12-01) Ballard, Robert D. ; Maxwell, Arthur Eugene ; Davis, Ray E. ; Eliason, Andrew H. ; Hess, Frederick R. ; McCamis, Marvin J. ; McElroy, Paul T. ; Marquet, William M. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Williams, David L. ; Winget, Clifford L.
    This report covers a period which finds several of the projects nearing completion. It is expected that the next semi-annual report should contain final technical reports on Submerged navigation, Hydraulic Impact Hammer, Deep Sea Rock Drill and the Shelf Contained Ancillary Modular Package (SCAMP). It is possible that extensive testing and use of SCAMP will not take place until next year. The responsibility for these worthwhile equipments then shifts to the users, who in most cases has been intimately involved in the development. The Submerged Navigation system continues to attract much attention both within and without the Institution. Delays in the fitting and testing of ALVIN in the Titanium hull configuration has slowed the field work with ARPA developed equipment bu the next six months should contain considerable work.
  • Article
    Models of hydrothermal circulation within 106 Ma seafloor : constraints on the vigor of fluid circulation and crustal properties, below the Madeira Abyssal Plain
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-11-04) Fisher, Andrew T. ; von Herzen, Richard P.
    Heat flow measurements colocated with seismic data across 106 Ma seafloor of the Madeira Abyssal Plain (MAP) reveal variations in seafloor heat flow of ±10–20% that are positively correlated with basement relief buried below thick sediments. Conductive finite element models of sediments and upper basement using reasonable thermal properties are capable of generating the observed positive correlation between basement relief and seafloor heat flow, but with variability of just ±4–8%. Conductive simulations using a high Nusselt number (Nu) proxy for vigorous local convection suggest that Nu = 2–10 within the upper 600–100 m of basement, respectively, is sufficient to achieve a reasonable match to observations. These Nu values are much lower than those inferred on younger ridge flanks where greater thermal homogeneity is achieved in upper basement. Fully coupled simulations suggest that permeability below the MAP is on the order of 10−12–10−10 m2 within the upper 300–600 m of basement. This permeability range is broadly consistent with values determined by single-hole experiments and from modeling studies at other (mostly younger) sites. We infer that the reduction in basement permeability with age that is thought to occur within younger seafloor may slow considerably within older seafloor, helping hydrothermal convection to continue as plates age.
  • Technical Report
    Geothermal heat flux at the COST B-2 and B-3 Wells, U. S. Atlantic continental margin
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1987-07) Della Vedova, Bruno ; von Herzen, Richard P.
    Heat flow estimates at two sites on the U.S. Atlantic continental margin are presented. An estimate of the heat flowing from the basement also has been obtained. About 4.8 km of sediments penetrated at the COST B-2 and 4.0 km at the COST B-3 were deposited since the Upper Jurassic. Well logs were used to evaluate thermal gradients and sedimentation rates, whereas thermal conductivities and radiogenic heat productions were measured on drill cuttings samples. A procedure to estimate in-situ thermal conductivity from drill cuttings and well logs is described. A substantial set of samples, in the form of drill cuttings, were sorted in four major lithologies: sandstones, siltstones, shales and limestones. Laboratory measurements of density, porosity, thermal conductivity, quartz (%), potassium (%), uranium (ppm) and thorium (ppm) were performed on 128 reorganized and pulverized samples. A significant correlation of the matrix thermal conductivity to quartz and potassium content was found. In situ porosity and volume fraction of each lithology, determined mainly from well logs, were used to calculate in situ mean thermal conductivity. Finally the mean in situ vertical component of the thermal conductivity, as required for heat flow values, has been estimated from a correction factor for the anisotropy of each lithology. The in-situ temperature and anisotropy effects substantially decrease estimates of thermal conductivity at depth. Below the uppermost 1 km in both wells the best estimate of the thermal gradient is 26.3°C km- 1 at COST B-2 and 26.1°C km- 1 at COST B-3, whereas in situ mean thermal conductivities range between about 1.8 and 1.9 W m- 1 K- 1 (4.3-4.5 T.C.U.). The average heat flow is estimated as about 45 mwm- 2 (1.07 H.F.U.) at COST B-2 and 44 mWm- 2 (1.06 H.F.U.) at COST B-3, with an uncertainty of about 20-25%. The mean radiogenic production in sediments at the two sites has been estimated as 1.83 (COST B-2) and 1.44 (COST B-3) 10- 6Wm- 3 • With a 12-14 km thick sedimentary sequence a radioactive contribution of 20-25 mWm- 2 can be expected. The effects of sediment deposition, compaction, pore water advection and radiogenic heat production have been combined in a numerical model (Hutchison, 1985) to estimate the undisturbed basement heat flux. Although the sedimentation depresses the basement heat flux by 15-20%, this effect is more than compensated by radioactive heat production in the sediments, so that the surface flux is estimated to be higher than that from the basement. The latter is calculated at about 33-39 mwm- 2 (0.8-0.9 H.F.U.), a relatively low value. The overall uncertainity is about ± 20-25%, and other estimates on continental margins with thick sediments (e.g. Reiter and Jessop, 1985) probably have at least a similar uncertainty.
  • Technical Report
    Thermal conductivity measurement of fused silica glass
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1980-08) Goldberg, Edward D. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Sclater, John G.
    The reproducibility of thermal conductivity measurements on fused silica glass by various investigators using different techniques suggests its suitability as a standard for such measurements. Our laboratory measurements with the needle probe technique on chip samples of silica glass saturated with water gave a value of 3.287 ± 0.154 (S.D.) mcal/cm s °C (n = 21) at 25 °C, which is within about 1% of the previously determined values and the value given by the manufacturer for this material. The good agreement indicates that the flat-plate steady-state and needle probe transient methods give the same value for this material, and that the water-saturated chip technique is an accurate method to measure thermal conductivity of isotropic samples.
  • Technical Report
    Lake Kivu expedition : geophysics, hydrography, sedimentology (preliminary report)
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1971-07) Degens, Egon T. ; Deuser, Werner G. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Wong, How-Kin ; Wooding, Frank B. ; Jannasch, Holger W. ; Kanwisher, John W.
    In March 1971, seven members of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution were engaged in a multidisciplinary study of Lake Kivu. This expedition represents part of a long-range program concerned with the structural and hydrographical settings of the East African Rift Lakes and their relationships to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Rifts. The program started in May 1963 with a geophysical study on Lake Malawi (von Herzen and Vacquier, 1967). Several expeditions of our Institution into the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden area in 1964, 1965 and 1966 (Degens and Ross, 1969) provided detailed geological information on the "northern" extension of the East African Rift. And finally our study of last year on Lake Tanganyika c1osed a major gap in the program; it allowed us to out1ine a model on the evolution of a rift which starts with (i) bulging of the earth's crust, (ii) block-faulting, (iii) volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and which has its final stage in (iv) sea floor spreading (Degens et al. 1971). In the case of Lake Tanganyika, only the second stage of this evolution series has been reached, i.e. block-faulting. In contrast, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden had already evolved to active sea floor spreading, almost 25 million years ago. Somewhere along the line between Lake Tanganyika and the Gulf of Aden must lie the "missing link" of this evolution series. Lake Kivu, almost 100 miles to the north of Lake Tanganyika is situated at the highest point of the Rift Valley and is surrounded by active volcanoes and geothermal springs. As recently as 1944, lava flows reached the lake shore. This lake was therefore, a natural choice to test our hypothesis on the origin and development of rifts. Furthermore, the occurrence of large quantities of dissolved gases, e.g., CO2 and methane, represented an interesting geochemical phenomenon worthwhile to investigate.
  • Technical Report
    Technical progress report : advanced marine technology 1 August 1972 - 31 January 1973
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1973-06-01) Aldrich, Thomas C. ; Maxwell, Arthur Eugene ; Bowin, Carl O. ; Luyendyk, Bruce P. ; Phillips, Joseph D. ; Hess, Frederick R. ; Vine, Allyn C. ; Ballard, Robert D. ; Marquet, William M. ; Porter, David L. ; McCamis, Marvin J. ; Winget, Clifford L. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Williams, David L.
    The work sponsored by ARPA at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is having an impact on efforts by those not directly involved in the projects both within and without the Institution. The navigation system being developed for submersible/mother ship has been recognized as a very useful system by members of the Geology/Geophysics Department and the Department of Physical Oceanography. Each department is now developing their own system based on the work already completed by the Ocean Engineering Department under the ARPA contact. Through the ARPA contract ComPhibLant (specifically ComPhibRonTen) was shown some of the advantages of doing something new about small boat and heavy object handling at sea and this program is expected to have some direct effect upon methods they will use in the future. Although the project concerned with developing biological equipment for deep sea work has not continued as part of the ARPA program, the seed was succssfully sown and several items are being developed at the Institution under separate funding. All the projects continued at a fair pace but not without some problems. The Deep Sea Rock Drill had some minor setbacks during operations with ALVIN, and the Air-Sea System (Long Range Ech-Ranging) project was hampered by a faulty engine aboard the air craft. Summaries of progress are given immediately below and more detail is available in the individual reports further on.
  • Article
    Heat flow variations on a slowly accreting ridge : constraints on the hydrothermal and conductive cooling for the Lucky Strike segment (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 37°N)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-07-27) Lucazeau, Francis ; Bonneville, Alain ; Escartin, Javier E. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Gouze, Philippe ; Carton, Helene ; Cannat, Mathilde ; Vidal, Valerie ; Adam, Claudia
    We report 157 closely spaced heat flow measurements along the Lucky Strike segment in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) for ages of the ocean floor between 0 and 11 Ma. On the eastern flank of a volcanic plateau delimiting off-axis and axial domains, the magnitude of heat flow either conforms to the predictions of conductive lithospheric cooling models or is affected by localized anomalies. On the western flank it is uniformly lower than conductive model predictions. We interpret the observed patterns of heat flow by lateral fluid circulation in a highly permeable oceanic basement. The circulation geometries are probably 3-D rather than 2-D and are determined by the configuration of the basement/sediment interface and the distribution of effectively unsedimented seamounts where water recharge can occur. Two major hydrothermal circulation systems can possibly explain the observations off-axis: the first would involve lateral pore water flow from west to east, and the second would have a reverse flow direction. The wavelengths and magnitudes of heat flow anomalies require Darcy velocities of the order of 1–4 m/year, which are similar to those proposed for fast-accreted crust elsewhere. However, a large proportion of this MAR domain remains unaffected by hydrothermal cooling, which is a relatively unusual observation but confirms the validity of conductive thermal models for seafloor ages between 5 and 10 Ma. Closer to the ridge axis (<5 Myr old crust), water circulation affects the overall axial domain, as larger proportions of basement are exposed. As much as 80–90% of the heat flux from the axial domain may be transferred to the Lucky Strike vent field, in agreement with the estimated discharge.
  • Technical Report
    Technical progress report : advanced marine technology 1 February 1972 - 31 July 1972
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1973-02-28) Aldrich, Thomas C. ; Maxwell, Arthur Eugene ; Ballard, Robert D. ; Bowin, Carl O. ; Luyendyk, Bruce P. ; McCamis, Marvin J. ; Phillips, Joseph D. ; Porter, David L. ; Vine, Allyn C. ; Teal, John M. ; Marquet, William M. ; Winget, Clifford L. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Williams, David L.
    The two extremes of the program in this six month period were the Submerged Navigation System which was demonstrated to be a successful field system, and the near Bottom Continuous Gravity System, which was priced out of the market by the acceleration characteristics of ALVIN. In all the other subjects discussed in summary immediately below and in more detail further on, satisfactory progress was made. Again aircraft scheduling has held up further work on the Air Sea Systems project, but there is definite hope for some aircraft tiem in the fall. The Development of Equipment for Deep Sea Biological Research has been terminiated as of the beginning of this report.
  • Technical Report
    Deep-sea corehead camera photography and piston coring
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1969-03) McCoy, Floyd W. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Owen, David M. ; Boutin, Paul R.
    Cameras were mounted in a newly designed corehead of a piston corer and used to photograph coring operations during 36 stations on CHAIN cruise 75 and 28 stations on ATLANTIS II cruise 42. Through the analysis of these photographs, the deep-water operation of a piston corer during its descent, tripping, impact with the bottom, and ascent has been studied, providing information on the corer's stability, effectiveness in obtaining a bottom sample, and influence on the nearby sea-floor. Accurate determinations of the amount of penetration were possible, allowing comparisons to be made with the more indirect methods of determining penetration and with the length of core recovered. Sediment clouds produced by bottom currents were noticed in many of the bottom photographs. A number of suggestions are made for future piston coring operations. The corer descends with little rotation and swinging. Free-fall and penetration generally take place in less than 5 seconds, with a rotation of 20-60° and an increase of about 6° in vertical deviation. During penetration, the corer disturbs the surrounding sea floor, producing both mounds and depressions around the core barrels. While resting in the bottom, the corer is very stable although some wobbling does occur. Considerable rotation takes place during both pull-out and ascent; frequent sediment discharges from the piston corer occur. No consistent relationship was found between the amount of penetration and the length of core recovered, and thus with the degree of core shortening. Comparisons between piston and pilot cores indicate that the piston cores have been shortened and disturbed relative to the pilot cores, and that as much as a meter of the upper portion of the piston core has been lost. The position of the mud-mark appears to be a reliable indicator of the amount of penetration; estimates by extrapolation of the thermal gradient to the surface are less reliable. The vertical deviation of the corer in the bottom does not influence the amount of penetration. Stratigraphic dips in the recovered cores correspond poorly to this vertical deviation in the bottom.
  • Technical Report
    In-situ measurement of thermal conductivity using the continuous-heating line source method and WHOI outrigged probe
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1985-08) Jemsek, John P. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Andrew, P. J.
    The outrigged thermal probes of a "pogo" marine geothermal probe have been adapted to measure thermal conductivity in-situ by the continuous-heating line source technique. The instrumental uncertainty in applying the analytical theory to a single-probe and double-probe configuration is found to be 3 and 6 percent, respectively. The in-situ outrigged single probe <.32 cm dia.) is essentially a scaled-up version of the needle probe (.08 cm dia.). The main advantage of the outrigged probe over a larger radius probe
  • Article
    Estimate of heat flux and its temporal variation at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 26°N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2003-09-17) Goto, Shusaku ; Kinoshita, Masataka ; Schultz, Adam ; von Herzen, Richard P.
    From August 1994 to March 1995, three 50-m-high vertical thermistor arrays designated “Giant Kelps” (GKs) were deployed around the central black smoker complex (CBC) at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08primeN, 44°49primeW). These were designed to monitor the temporal variability of the vertical temperature distribution in the hydrothermal plume. One small high-temperature probe “Hobo” was also deployed in one of the black smoker vents of CBC. Over the observation period, two typical characteristics are recognized in plume temperatures measured with GKs: (1) the amplitudes of temperature anomalies decrease with increasing height above the top of CBC; (2) maximum temperature anomalies on the upper thermistors occurred periodically and nearly simultaneously across the array about every 6 hours. Conversely, maximum temperature anomalies on the lower thermistors occurred periodically every 12 hours, indicating that the location of the plume discharged from CBC was forcibly moved by the change in direction of tidally modulated current flow. The heat flux from CBC was estimated from temperatures measured by GKs based on a model of buoyant hydrothermal fluid rising in a stable, stratified density environment. The estimated heat flux from CBC gradually decreases from about 86 to 55 MW over the ~7 months of measurement, with a mean rate of decrease of 0.17 MW d-1. Since the black smoker effluent temperature measured with Hobo was almost stable over the measurement period, a plausible cause of the decrease is a reduction in the volume of hydrothermal fluid provided to the CBC (in which case the estimated mean rate of decrease in volume flux of CBC is 8.9 m3 d-1). Estimated heat flux, temperature anomalies observed by Hobo, and diffuse flow and subbottom temperature anomalies recorded by other long-term monitoring instruments before, during, and after ODP Leg 158 indicate that the drilling probably affected the fluid flow pattern within the mound but had little effect on the total heat flux from CBC.
  • Technical Report
    A miniature deep sea temperature data recorder : design, construction, and use
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1986-01) Koehler, Richard L. ; von Herzen, Richard P.
    A miniature temperature recorder has been developed to be used with the hydraulic piston sediment corer