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George
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George
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Technical ReportNotes on the 1967 Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1967) Veronis, GeorgeIn former years some of the research and seminars of the WHOI Geophysical Fluid Dynamics program was concerned with determining the interior structure and motions of stars and galaxies. This year we have focused our attention downward rather than upward and have attempted to learn some things about the earth's interior. Freeman Gilbert's lectures on the inverse problem in seismology discuss one aspect of the geophysicist's attempts to infer some things about the earth's interior from the evidence which is available at the surface. Paul Robert presented a survey of the difference attempts to attribute the earth's magnetic field to dynamo action. Willem Malkus, Raymond Hide and Stephen Childress supplemented Roberts' lectures with seminars. As students of our physical environment all of us were entertained and stimulated by this introduction to the netherworld.

Technical ReportNotes on the 1974 summer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1974) Veronis, George ; Thayer, Mary C.This year the central topic was the general circulation of the oceans. Some of the basic ideas used in winddriven and thermohaline studies were presented in the introductory course of lectures and simple models that have guided our thinking in the development of the topic were discussed. As part of the introductory lectures Peter Niiler developed a model of the mixed layer, exploring the reasoning and the parameterization behind the theories of this important boundary region at the surface of the ocean. Dennis Moore gave a careful account of transient flows in equatorial regions and showed how dynamical conditions on the eastern and western boundaries are satisfied by a superposition of planetary, Kelvin and Yanai waves. Peter Rhines concluded the series with a discussion of topographically induced low frequency motions. At the request of the students Joseph B. Keller gave a lecture on "Solution of Partial Differential Equations by Ray Theory".

Technical ReportNotes on the 1971 summer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1971) Veronis, George ; Thayer, Mary C.A topic, such as planetary atmospheric dynamics, is necessarily a speculative one because of the extreme difficulty of obtaining detailed observations. A single datum is often responsible for several "theories". Andy Ingersoll was continually challenged during his attempts to present a coherent picture of a broad spectrum of observations and speculations about the atmospheres of the planets. He emerged somewhat battered but still intact. All of us felt rewarded by his efforts. The formal lectures were followed by a microsymposium on planetary atmospheres which included discussions of the latest observations, speculative theories and simple models of certain gross features.

Technical ReportSummer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics : chaos(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 198511) Veronis, George ; Hudon, Linda M.The explosive growth of dynamieal systems theory in the past two decades stems in large part from the realization that it is applicable to many natural phenomena. Indeed, much o f the theoretical development has been sparked by numerical and laboratory experiments which exhibit ordered sequences of behavior that call for a general framework of interpretation We have been fortunate this summer to have had in residence both pioneers and developers of dynamical systems theory and its applications to fluid mechanics. Several recent texts contain the basic principles that Ed Spiegel used as a springboard for five lectures in which he exposed us to elementary examples of bifurcation and chaos, to symmetry breaking, normal forms and temporal and spatial disorder, as well as to pertinent fluid mechanical and astrophysical phenomena. Yves Pomeau continued the development with an elegant summary of different types of intermittency . Stephan Fauve agree to write up his impressive seminars on phase instability and turbulence as an extension of the lecture series. Many of the remaining seminars introduced new concepts in the theory, some with specific examples, others via mathematical development, and still others through ways of interpreting the data that emerge from calculations and experiments. As an outstanding example of this, Albert Libchaber has demonstrated the fascinating correspondence between the frequencies observed in one of his recent fluid mechanics experiments and results from number theory relating the Fibonacci series to the golden mean.

Technical ReportBarotropic response to cooling(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 198104) Stommel, Henry M. ; Veronis, GeorgeImposed horizontal density differences in a nonrotating fluid generate vertical circulation which has vanishing vertically integrated transports. When the system is rotating, geostrophic velocities can balance the density differences and the vertically integrated transports need not vanish locally. In a twolayer fluid, fin ite amplitude disturbances lead to barotropic flows that have the same direction as the velocity in the layer that thickens as a result of the disturbance. Specific calculations are carried out for the geostrophic adjustment model in situations that approximate those in which 18° water is formed south of the Gulf Stream. The upper layer transport that results from sudden cooling (as simulated by density differences that are initially unbalanced geostrophically) is in the same direction as the Gulf Stream transport and comparable to it in magnitude. A lower level transport of the same magnitude flows in the opposite direction with a maximum value about an internal radius of deformation to the right of that of the upper layer. The barotropic transport is about 1/ 5 as large and flows downstream in the Gulf Stream and upstream to the right of the Gulf Stream.

Technical ReportThe 1963 summer program of theoretical studies in geophysical fluid dynamics(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 196311) Veronis, GeorgeThe program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics for the summer of 1963 was a program of work, study and discussion and was formally outlined through two courses of lectures  one on the dynamics of rotating fluids, the other, a special lecture series on astrophysics. The twentythree participants attempted to formulate and analyze tractable problems in geophysics and astrophysics.

Technical Report1980 summer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics : coherent features in geophysical flows(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 198011) Veronis, George ; Mellor, Florence K.Four principal lecturers shored the task of presenting the subject "Coherent Features in Geophysical Flows" to the participants of the twentysecond geophysical fluid dynamics summer program. Glenn Flierl introduced the topic and the Kortwegde Vries equation via a model of finite amplitude motions on the beta plane. He extended the analysis to more complex flows in the ocean and the atmosphere and in the process treated motions of very large amplitude. Larry Redekopp's three lectures summarized an extensive body of the mathematical literature on coherent features. Andrew Ingersoll focussed on the many fascinating features in Jupiter's atmosphere. Joseph Keller supplemented an interesting summary of laboratory observations with suggestive models for treating the flows.

Technical ReportNotes on the 1972 Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1972) Veronis, George ; Thayer, Mary C.The effect of gravity on fluids of varying density is of fundamental importance in natural flows. This subject formed the topic of concentration for the fourteenth summer program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. We had the good fortune to hear Stewart Turner lecture on stratified flows just after he had completed the manuscript for his book on the subject. Turner chose to emphasize nonlinear and turbulent aspects of stratified flows and, therefore, had to give up the deductive approach in favor of treatments based on dimensional analysis and similarity arguments. This summary of the many experimental studies of these flows increased our awareness of the fascinating variety of phenomena in which stratification plays so vital a role.

Technical ReportNotes on the 1977 summer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 197712) Veronis, George ; Thayer, Mary C.The lectures by Marten Landahl, recorded in the first part of this report, served as the introduction to the study of turbulence which was the principal theme of the nineteenth summer program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

ArticleThe life and work of Nick Fofonoff(Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 200501) McDougall, T. J. ; Schmitt, Raymond W. ; Veronis, George ; Webster, Ferris

Technical ReportThe 1961 Summer Program of Theoretical Studies in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 196111) Veronis, GeorgeThis tenweek workstudydiscussion program was centered about a formal course called Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Sixteen participants were selected from graduate and postgraduate applicants. In the discussions emphasis was placed on the formulation of tractable research problems in geophysics. The participants were encouraged to work on satisfactory problems thus formulated and to continue with their research after returning to their respective institutions.

Technical Report2008 program of studies : perspectives and challenges in GFD(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 200903) Balmforth, Neil J. ; Veronis, GeorgeThe GFD Program in 2008 ran with a special theme, in view of the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the program. The first two weeks of Principal Lectures dealt with "Perspectives and Challenges" of the subject, and we commemorated by having ten different lecturers with a diversity of viewpoints and opinions. Though the lectures thereby took less of a pedagogical flavour, each afternoon we saw the fellows grill the lecturers in informal afternoon tutorials. Also by way of celebration, the Oceanographic Institution threw a 50th anniversary party in honour of the Program and the "Founding Fathers." This was held on one of the lawns in front of Walsh Cottage on Friday, June 27th. We saw a variety of familiar faces, some from the very first years of the Program, others from more recent summers. George Veronis and Jack Whitehead read short pieces about the past fifty years, including the unveiling of the "2008 AGU Award for Excellence in Geophysical Education" awarded to the Program by the American Geophysical Union. The party was skillfully organized by Janet Fields and uniformly enjoyed by all. In 2008 the Sears Public Lecture was delivered by Andy Ingersoll (CalTech) and entitled "Weather and Climates of Other Worlds: Lessons for Earth." Andy, a participant of the program for many years, described the insights that could be drawn regarding our own climate from observing those of the other planets in the solar system, observations made particularly clear and compelling by recent space missions. Over a hundred people gathered at Redfield for the lecture, many of whom paused afterwards to enjoy conversation and refreshments at the reception that followed. Other novelties at the 2008 program included Bill Dewar's delivery of a seminar at Walsh in full Scottish regalia, kilt and all. Last, and of course most importantly, we had an industrious group of fellows who rose to the challenge of the Program and contributed tremendously to the anniversary. As always, the WHOI Academic Programs Office and the Physical Oceanography Department provided the administrative backbone to the summer, and Walsh Cottage was perfectly unchanged in its intimacy and rustic atmosphere. Jeanne Fleming, Penny Foster and Janet Fields contributed importantly to the smooth running of the program.

Technical ReportNotes on the 1963 Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1963) Veronis, GeorgeThis year's lectures by Derek Moore form a detailed report of investigations on the fluid motion caused by the motion of a body in a homogeneous rotating fluid. The emphasis has been on the significance of the TaylorProudman theorem and the departure of the fluid from the behavior described by the TaylorProudman theorem. The plan was to probe deeply into one problem and thereby acquire information in a wider area of study of rotating fluids.

Technical ReportNotes on the 1968 Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1968) Veronis, George ; Thayer, Mary C.The general circulation of the oceans was the topic of concentration for the 1968 WHOI Summer Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Technical Report1982 summer study program in geophysical fluid dynamics : particle motions in fluids(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 198211) Veronis, George ; Mellor, Florence K.The (Lagrangian) motion of a fluid particle was contrasted with the (Eulerian) flow past a fixed point in space during this twentyfourth summer program in geophysical fluid dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.