Rosenthal Joshua J. C.

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Joshua J. C.

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  • Article
    Cephalopod genomics : a plan of strategies and organization
    (Genomic Standards Consortium, 2012-09-26) Albertin, Caroline B. ; Bonnaud, Laure ; Brown, C. Titus ; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J. ; da Fonseca, Rute R. ; Di Cristo, Carlo ; Dilkes, Brian P. ; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric ; Freeman, Robert J. ; Hanlon, Roger T. ; Koenig, Kristen M. ; Lindgren, Annie R. ; Martindale, Mark Q. ; Minx, Patrick ; Moroz, Leonid L. ; Nodl, Marie-Therese ; Nyholm, Spencer V. ; Ogura, Atsushi ; Pungor, Judit R. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Schwarz, Erich M. ; Shigeno, Shuichi ; Strugnell, Jan M. ; Wollesen, Tim ; Zhang, Guojie ; Ragsdale, Clifton W.
    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, “Paths to Cephalopod Genomics- Strategies, Choices, Organization,” held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod molluscs. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described in this White Paper.
  • Article
    Genome and transcriptome mechanisms driving cephalopod evolution
    (Nature Research, 2022-05-04) Albertin, Carolin B. ; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia ; Mitros, Therese ; Schmidbaur, Hannah ; Sanchez, Gustavo ; Wang, Z. Yan ; Grimwood, Jane ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Ragsdale, Clifton W. ; Simakov, Oleg ; Rokhsar, Daniel S.
    Cephalopods are known for their large nervous systems, complex behaviors and morphological innovations. To investigate the genomic underpinnings of these features, we assembled the chromosomes of the Boston market squid, Doryteuthis (Loligo) pealeii, and the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, and compared them with those of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The genomes of the soft-bodied (coleoid) cephalopods are highly rearranged relative to other extant molluscs, indicating an intense, early burst of genome restructuring. The coleoid genomes feature multi-megabase, tandem arrays of genes associated with brain development and cephalopod-specific innovations. We find that a known coleoid hallmark, extensive A-to-I mRNA editing, displays two fundamentally distinct patterns: one exclusive to the nervous system and concentrated in genic sequences, the other widespread and directed toward repetitive elements. We conclude that coleoid novelty is mediated in part by substantial genome reorganization, gene family expansion, and tissue-dependent mRNA editing.
  • Article
    Specialization for rapid excitation in fast squid tentacle muscle involves action potentials absent in slow arm muscle
    (Company of Biologists, 2020-01-03) Gilly, William ; Renken, Corbin ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Kier, William M.
    An important aspect of the performance of many fast muscle fiber types is rapid excitation. Previous research on the cross-striated muscle fibers responsible for the rapid tentacle strike in squid has revealed the specializations responsible for high shortening velocity, but little is known about excitation of these fibers. Conventional whole-cell patch recordings were made from tentacle fibers and the slower obliquely striated muscle fibers of the arms. The fast-contracting tentacle fibers show an approximately 10-fold greater sodium conductance than that of the arm fibers and, unlike the arm fibers, the tentacle muscle fibers produce action potentials. In situ hybridization using an antisense probe to the voltage-dependent sodium channel present in this squid genus shows prominent expression of sodium channel mRNA in tentacle fibers but undetectable expression in arm fibers. Production of action potentials by tentacle muscle fibers and their absence in arm fibers is likely responsible for the previously reported greater twitch–tetanus ratio in the tentacle versus the arm fibers. During the rapid tentacle strike, a few closely spaced action potentials would result in maximal activation of transverse tentacle muscle. Activation of the slower transverse muscle fibers in the arms would require summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials over a longer time, allowing the precise modulation of force required for supporting slower movements of the arms.
  • Article
    Transcriptome of the Caribbean stony coral Porites astreoides from three developmental stages
    (BioMed Central, 2016-08-02) Mansour, Tamer A. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Brown, C. Titus ; Roberson, Loretta M.
    Porites astreoides is a ubiquitous species of coral on modern Caribbean reefs that is resistant to increasing temperatures, overfishing, and other anthropogenic impacts that have threatened most other coral species. We assembled and annotated a transcriptome from this coral using Illumina sequences from three different developmental stages collected over several years: free-swimming larvae, newly settled larvae, and adults (>10 cm in diameter). This resource will aid understanding of coral calcification, larval settlement, and host–symbiont interactions. A de novo transcriptome for the P. astreoides holobiont (coral plus algal symbiont) was assembled using 594 Mbp of raw Illumina sequencing data generated from five age-specific cDNA libraries. The new transcriptome consists of 867 255 transcript elements with an average length of 685 bases. The isolated P. astreoides assembly consists of 129 718 transcript elements with an average length of 811 bases, and the isolated Symbiodinium sp. assembly had 186 177 transcript elements with an average length of 1105 bases. This contribution to coral transcriptome data provides a valuable resource for researchers studying the ontogeny of gene expression patterns within both the coral and its dinoflagellate symbiont.
  • Article
    Construction and composition of the squid pen from Doryteuthis pealeii
    (University of Chicago Press, 2019-07-08) Messerli, Mark A. ; Raihan, M. Jahir ; Kobylkevich, Brian M. ; Benson, Austin C. ; Bruening, Kristi S. ; Shribak, Michael ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Sohn, Joel J.
    The pen, or gladius, of the squid is an internalized shell. It serves as a site of attachment for important muscle groups and as a protective barrier for the visceral organs. The pen’s durability and flexibility are derived from its unique composition of chitin and protein. We report the characterization of the structure, development, and composition of pens from Doryteuthis pealeii. The nanofibrils of the polysaccharide β-chitin are arranged in an aligned configuration in only specific regions of the pen. Chitin is secreted early in development, enabling us to characterize the changes in pen morphology prior to hatching. The chitin and proteins are assembled in the shell sac surrounded by fluid that has a significantly different ionic composition from squid plasma. Two groups of proteins are associated with the pen: those on its surface and those embedded within the pen. Only 20 proteins are identified as embedded within the pen. Embedded proteins are classified into six groups, including chitin associated, protease, protease inhibitors, intracellular, extracellular matrix, and those that are unknown. The pen proteins share many conserved domains with proteins from other chitinous structures. We conclude that the pen is one of the least complex, load-bearing, chitin-rich structures currently known and is amenable to further studies to elucidate natural construction mechanisms using chitin and protein.
  • Article
    An efficient system for selectively altering genetic information within mRNAs
    (Oxford University Press, 2016-08-23) Montiel-González, Maria Fernanda ; Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.
    Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a strategy to precisely alter genetic information within mRNAs. By linking the catalytic domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR to an antisense guide RNA, specific adenosines can be converted to inosines, biological mimics for guanosine. Previously, we showed that a genetically encoded iteration of SDRE could target adenosines expressed in human cells, but not efficiently. Here we developed a reporter assay to quantify editing, and used it to improve our strategy. By enhancing the linkage between ADAR's catalytic domain and the guide RNA, and by introducing a mutation in the catalytic domain, the efficiency of converting a UAG premature termination codon (PTC) to tryptophan (UGG) was improved from ∼11% to ∼70%. Other PTCs were edited, but less efficiently. Numerous off-target edits were identified in the targeted mRNA, but not in randomly selected endogenous messages. Off-target edits could be eliminated by reducing the amount of guide RNA with a reduction in on-target editing. The catalytic rate of SDRE was compared with those for human ADARs on various substrates and found to be within an order of magnitude of most. These data underscore the promise of site-directed RNA editing as a therapeutic or experimental tool.
  • Article
    Mutations underlying Episodic Ataxia type-1 antagonize Kv1.1 RNA editing
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-02-20) Ferrick-Kiddie, Elizabeth A. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Ayers, Gregory D. ; Emeson, Ronald B.
    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in transcripts encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 converts an isoleucine to valine codon for amino acid 400, speeding channel recovery from inactivation. Numerous Kv1.1 mutations have been associated with the human disorder Episodic Ataxia Type-1 (EA1), characterized by stress-induced ataxia, myokymia, and increased prevalence of seizures. Three EA1 mutations, V404I, I407M, and V408A, are located within the RNA duplex structure required for RNA editing. Each mutation decreased RNA editing both in vitro and using an in vivo mouse model bearing the V408A allele. Editing of transcripts encoding mutant channels affects numerous biophysical properties including channel opening, closing, and inactivation. Thus EA1 symptoms could be influenced not only by the direct effects of the mutations on channel properties, but also by their influence on RNA editing. These studies provide the first evidence that mutations associated with human genetic disorders can affect cis-regulatory elements to alter RNA editing.
  • Article
    Spatially regulated editing of genetic information within a neuron
    (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-23) Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C. ; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa ; Diaz Quiroz, Juan F. ; Montiel-González, Maria Fernanda ; Nemes, Sonya E. ; Rangan, Kavita J. ; Levinson, Simon R. ; Eisenberg, Eli ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.
    In eukaryotic cells, with the exception of the specialized genomes of mitochondria and plastids, all genetic information is sequestered within the nucleus. This arrangement imposes constraints on how the information can be tailored for different cellular regions, particularly in cells with complex morphologies like neurons. Although messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and the proteins that they encode, can be differentially sorted between cellular regions, the information itself does not change. RNA editing by adenosine deamination can alter the genome’s blueprint by recoding mRNAs; however, this process too is thought to be restricted to the nucleus. In this work, we show that ADAR2 (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA), an RNA editing enzyme, is expressed outside of the nucleus in squid neurons. Furthermore, purified axoplasm exhibits adenosine-to-inosine activity and can specifically edit adenosines in a known substrate. Finally, a transcriptome-wide analysis of RNA editing reveals that tens of thousands of editing sites (>70% of all sites) are edited more extensively in the squid giant axon than in its cell bodies. These results indicate that within a neuron RNA editing can recode genetic information in a region-specific manner.
  • Preprint
    Trade-off between transcriptome plasticity and genome evolution in cephalopods
    ( 2017-03) Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa ; Alon, Shahar ; Porath, Hagit T. ; Elstein, Boaz ; Unger, Ron ; Ziv, Tamar ; Admon, Arie ; Levanon, Erez ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Eisenberg, Eli
    RNA editing, a post-transcriptional process, allows the diversification of proteomes beyond the genomic blueprint; however it is infrequently used among animals. Recent reports suggesting increased levels of RNA editing in squids thus raise the question of their nature and effects in these organisms. We here show that RNA editing is particularly common in behaviorally sophisticated coleoid cephalopods, with tens of thousands of evolutionarily conserved sites. Editing is enriched in the nervous system affecting molecules pertinent for excitability and neuronal morphology. The genomic sequence flanking editing sites is highly conserved, suggesting that the process confers a selective advantage. Due to the large number of sites, the surrounding conservation greatly reduces the number of mutations and genomic polymorphisms in protein coding regions. This trade-off between genome evolution and transcriptome plasticity highlights the importance of RNA recoding as a strategy for diversifying proteins, particularly those associated with neural function.
  • Article
    Adaptive proteome diversification by nonsynonymous A-to-I RNA editing in coleoid cephalopods
    (Oxford University Press, 2021-05-22) Shoshan, Yoav ; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Eisenberg, Eli
    RNA editing by the ADAR enzymes converts selected adenosines into inosines, biological mimics for guanosines. By doing so, it alters protein-coding sequences, resulting in novel protein products that diversify the proteome beyond its genomic blueprint. Recoding is exceptionally abundant in the neural tissues of coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes), with an over-representation of nonsynonymous edits suggesting positive selection. However, the extent to which proteome diversification by recoding provides an adaptive advantage is not known. It was recently suggested that the role of evolutionarily conserved edits is to compensate for harmful genomic substitutions, and that there is no added value in having an editable codon as compared with a restoration of the preferred genomic allele. Here, we show that this hypothesis fails to explain the evolutionary dynamics of recoding sites in coleoids. Instead, our results indicate that a large fraction of the shared, strongly recoded, sites in coleoids have been selected for proteome diversification, meaning that the fitness of an editable A is higher than an uneditable A or a genomically encoded G.
  • Article
    A-to-I RNA editing in the earliest-diverging Eumetazoan phyla
    (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-08) Porath, Hagit T. ; Schaffer, Amos A. ; Kaniewska, Paulina ; Alon, Shahar ; Eisenberg, Eli ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; Levanon, Erez ; Levy, Oren
    The highly conserved ADAR enzymes, found in all multicellular metazoans, catalyze the editing of mRNA transcripts by the deamination of adenosines to inosines. This type of editing has two general outcomes: site specific editing, which frequently leads to recoding, and clustered editing, which is usually found in transcribed genomic repeats. Here, for the first time, we looked for both editing of isolated sites and clustered, non-specific sites in a basal metazoan, the coral Acropora millepora during spawning event, in order to reveal its editing pattern. We found that the coral editome resembles the mammalian one: it contains more than 500,000 sites, virtually all of which are clustered in non-coding regions that are enriched for predicted dsRNA structures. RNA editing levels were increased during spawning and increased further still in newly released gametes. This may suggest that editing plays a role in introducing variability in coral gametes.
  • Article
    Dynamic pigmentary and structural coloration within cephalopod chromatophore organs
    (Nature Research, 2019-03-01) Williams, Thomas L. ; Senft, Stephen L. ; Yeo, Jingjie ; Martín-Martínez, Francisco J. ; Kuzirian, Alan M. ; Martin, Camille A. ; DiBona, Christopher W. ; Chen, Chun-Teh ; Dinneen, Sean R. ; Nguyen, Hieu T. ; Gomes, Conor M. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. ; MacManes, Matthew D. ; Chu, Feixia ; Buehler, Markus J. ; Hanlon, Roger T. ; Deravi, Leila F.
    Chromatophore organs in cephalopod skin are known to produce ultra-fast changes in appearance for camouflage and communication. Light-scattering pigment granules within chromatocytes have been presumed to be the sole source of coloration in these complex organs. We report the discovery of structural coloration emanating in precise register with expanded pigmented chromatocytes. Concurrently, using an annotated squid chromatophore proteome together with microscopy, we identify a likely biochemical component of this reflective coloration as reflectin proteins distributed in sheath cells that envelop each chromatocyte. Additionally, within the chromatocytes, where the pigment resides in nanostructured granules, we find the lens protein Ω- crystallin interfacing tightly with pigment molecules. These findings offer fresh perspectives on the intricate biophotonic interplay between pigmentary and structural coloration elements tightly co-located within the same dynamic flexible organ - a feature that may help inspire the development of new classes of engineered materials that change color and pattern.
  • Article
    Development of a selection assay for small guide RNAs that drive efficient site-directed RNA editing
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-02-25) Diaz Quiroz, Juan Felipe ; Ojha, Namrata ; Shayhidin, Elnur E. ; De Silva, Dasuni ; Dabney, Jesse ; Lancaster, Amy ; Coull, James ; Milstein, Stuart ; Fraley, Andrew W. ; Brown, Christopher R. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.
    A major challenge confronting the clinical application of site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is the design of small guide RNAs (gRNAs) that can drive efficient editing. Although many gRNA designs have effectively recruited endogenous Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA (ADARs), most of them exceed the size of currently FDA-approved antisense oligos. We developed an unbiased in vitro selection assay to identify short gRNAs that promote superior RNA editing of a premature termination codon. The selection assay relies on hairpin substrates in which the target sequence is linked to partially randomized gRNAs in the same molecule, so that gRNA sequences that promote editing can be identified by sequencing. These RNA substrates were incubated in vitro with ADAR2 and the edited products were selected using amplification refractory mutation system PCR and used to regenerate the substrates for a new round of selection. After nine repetitions, hairpins which drove superior editing were identified. When gRNAs of these hairpins were delivered in trans, eight of the top ten short gRNAs drove superior editing both in vitro and in cellula. These results show that efficient small gRNAs can be selected using our approach, an important advancement for the clinical application of SDRE.
  • Article
    Extensive recoding of the neural proteome in cephalopods by RNA editing
    (Annual Reviews, 2023-02) Rosenthal, Joshua J.C. ; Eisenberg, Eli
    The coleoid cephalopods have the largest brains, and display the most complex behaviors, of all invertebrates. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie these remarkable advancements remain largely unexplored. Early molecular cloning studies of squid ion channel transcripts uncovered an unusually large number of A?I RNA editing sites that recoded codons. Further cloning of other neural transcripts showed a similar pattern. The advent of deep-sequencing technologies and the associated bioinformatics allowed the mapping of RNA editing events across the entire neural transcriptomes of various cephalopods. The results were remarkable: They contained orders of magnitude more recoding editing sites than any other taxon. Although RNA editing sites are abundant in most multicellular metazoans, they rarely recode. In cephalopods, the majority of neural transcripts are recoded. Recent studies have focused on whether these events are adaptive, as well as other noncanonical aspects of cephalopod RNA editing.
  • Article
    Site-directed A→I RNA editing as a therapeutic tool: moving beyond genetic mutations
    (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2023-01-23) Quiroz, Juan F. Diaz ; Siskel, Louise D. ; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.
    Adenosine deamination by the ADAR family of enzymes is a natural process that edits genetic information as it passes through messenger RNA. Adenosine is converted to inosine in mRNAs, and this base is interpreted as guanosine during translation. Realizing the potential of this activity for therapeutics, a number of researchers have developed systems that redirect ADAR activity to new targets, ones that are not normally edited. These site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) systems can be broadly classified into two categories: ones that deliver an antisense RNA oligonucleotide to bind opposite a target adenosine, creating an editable structure that endogenously expressed ADARs recognize, and ones that tether the catalytic domain of recombinant ADAR to an antisense RNA oligonucleotide that serves as a targeting mechanism, much like with CRISPR-Cas or RNAi. To date, SDRE has been used mostly to try and correct genetic mutations. Here we argue that these applications are not ideal SDRE, mostly because RNA edits are transient and genetic mutations are not. Instead, we suggest that SDRE could be used to tune cell physiology to achieve temporary outcomes that are therapeutically advantageous, particularly in the nervous system. These include manipulating excitability in nociceptive neural circuits, abolishing specific phosphorylation events to reduce protein aggregation related to neurodegeneration or reduce the glial scarring that inhibits nerve regeneration, or enhancing G protein-coupled receptor signaling to increase nerve proliferation for the treatment of sensory disorders like blindness and deafness.