Torres Daniel J.

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Daniel J.

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  • Article
    Circulation in the vicinity of Mackenzie Canyon from a year-long mooring array
    (Elsevier, 2020-07-04) Lin, Peigen ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Fissel, David ; Ross, Ed ; Kasper, Jeremy L. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; O’Brien, Jeff ; Borg, Keath ; Melling, Humfrey ; Wiese, Francis K.
    Data from a five-mooring array extending from the inner shelf to the continental slope in the vicinity of Mackenzie Canyon, Beaufort Sea are analyzed to elucidate the components of the boundary current system and their variability. The array, part of the Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES), was deployed from October 2016 to September 2017. Four distinct currents were identified: an eastward-directed flow adjacent to the coast; a westward-flowing, surface-intensified current centered on the outer-shelf; a bottom-intensified shelfbreak jet flowing to the east; and a recirculation at the base of the continental slope within the canyon. The shelf current transports −0.120.03 Sv in the mean and is primarily wind-driven. The response is modulated by the presence of ice, with little-to-no signal during periods of nearly-immobile ice cover and maximum response when there is partial ice cover. The shelfbreak jet transports 0.030.02 Sv in the mean, compared to 0.080.02 Sv measured upstream in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea over the same time period. The loss of transport is consistent with a previous energetics analysis and the lack of Pacific-origin summer water downstream. The recirculation in the canyon appears to be the result of local dynamics whereby a portion of the westward-flowing southern limb of the Beaufort Gyre is diverted up the canyon across isobaths. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the low-frequency variability of the recirculation is correlated with the wind-stress curl in the Canada Basin, which drives the Beaufort gyre.
  • Article
    Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin.
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-05-07) DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Lai, Chun-Ze ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Torres, Daniel J.
    Solute exclusion during sea ice formation is a potentially important contributor to the Arctic Ocean inorganic carbon cycle that could increase as ice cover diminishes. When ice forms, solutes are excluded from the ice matrix, creating a brine that includes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT). The brine sinks, potentially exporting DIC and AT to deeper water. This phenomenon has rarely been observed, however. In this manuscript, we examine a ~1 year pCO2 mooring time series where a ~35‐μatm increase in pCO2 was observed in the mixed layer during the ice formation period, corresponding to a simultaneous increase in salinity from 27.2 to 28.5. Using salinity and ice based mass balances, we show that most of the observed increases can be attributed to solute exclusion during ice formation. The resulting pCO2 is sensitive to the ratio of AT and DIC retained in the ice and the mixed layer depth, which controls dilution of the ice‐derived AT and DIC. In the Canada Basin, of the ~92 μmol/kg increase in DIC, 17 μmol/kg was taken up by biological production and the remainder was trapped between the halocline and the summer stratified surface layer. Although not observed before the mooring was recovered, this inorganic carbon was likely later entrained with surface water, increasing the pCO2 at the surface. It is probable that inorganic carbon exclusion during ice formation will have an increasingly important influence on DIC and pCO2 in the surface of the Arctic Ocean as seasonal ice production and wind‐driven mixing increase with diminishing ice cover.
  • Article
    Internal wave breaking near the foot of a steep East-Pacific continental slope
    (Elsevier, 2022-05-21) van Haren, Hans ; Voet, Gunnar ; Alford, Matthew H. ; Torres, Daniel J.
    The sloping sides of ocean basins are of particular interest for their potential importance for considerable turbulence generation via internal wave breaking and associated water circulation. The difference with the ocean interior may be manifest in a 10–100 m relatively thin layer above the seafloor. We set up an observational study with high-resolution stand-alone instrumentation attached to a custom-made release-anchor frame sampling to within 0.5 m from the seafloor up to 150 m above it. For two months, the taut wire moored instrumentation was tested in 1100 m water depth of the East-Pacific, off the coast of San Diego (CA, USA). The mooring was oceanward of an underwater bank and near the foot of its steep but gentle two-dimensional slope. Temperature sensor data demonstrate that internal waves peak at semidiurnal frequencies. While short (<1 h) periods show complicated structure, tidally averaged turbulence dissipation rate monotonically increases towards the seafloor over two orders of magnitude. The largest turbulence dissipation rates are observed during the relatively warm phase of an internal wave. Although the local topographic slope is supercritical for semidiurnal internal waves, turbulent bores propagating up the slope and hydraulic jumps are not observed. Most of the turbulence appears to be dominated by shear production, but not related to steady frictional flow near the seafloor.
  • Article
    Zonal circulation across 52°W in the North Atlantic
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-11-18) Hall, Melinda M. ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Smethie, William M. ; Torres, Daniel J.
    In July–August 1997, a hydrographic/Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)/tracer section was occupied along 52°W in the North Atlantic as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Underway and lowered ADCP (LADCP) data have been used to reference geostrophic velocities calculated from the hydrographic data; additional (small) velocity adjustments provided by an inverse model, constraining mass and silicate transports in 17 neutral density layers, yield the absolute zonal velocity field for 52°W. We find a vigorous circulation throughout the entire section, with an unusually strong Gulf Stream (169 Sv) and southern Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC; 64 Sv) at the time of the cruise. At the northern boundary, on the west side of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, we find the westward flowing Labrador Current (8.6 Sv), whose continuity from the Labrador Sea, east of our section, has been disputed. Directly to the south we identify the slopewater current (12.5 Sv eastward) and northern DWBC (12.5 Sv westward). Strong departures from strictly zonal flow in the interior, which are found in the LADCP data, make it difficult to diagnose the circulation there. Isolated deep property extrema in the southern portion, associated with alternating bands of eastward and westward flow, are consistent with the idea that the rough topography of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, directly east of our section, causes enhanced mixing of Antarctic Bottom Water properties into overlying waters with distinctly different properties. We calculate heat and freshwater fluxes crossing 52°W that exceed estimates based on air-sea exchanges by a factor of 1.7.
  • Article
    Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-01) de Steur, Laura ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn
    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, δ18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pacific freshwater was present near Denmark Strait with a maximum in August 2013. While in 2011 and 2012 the net sea ice melt was dominated by brine, in 2013 it became close to zero. The amount of Pacific freshwater observed near Denmark Strait in 2013 is as large as the previous maximum in 1998. This, together with the decrease in meteoric water and brine, suggests a larger contribution from the Canadian Basin. We hypothesize that the increase of Pacific freshwater is the result of enhanced flux through Bering Strait and a shorter pathway of Pacific water through the interior Arctic to Fram Strait.
  • Article
    Mean conditions and seasonality of the West Greenland boundary current system near Cape Farewell
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-09-18) Pacini, Astrid ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Holte, James W. ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Oltmanns, Marilena ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Le Bras, Isabela Astiz ; Moore, G. W. K. ; de Jong, Marieke Femke
    The structure, transport, and seasonal variability of the West Greenland boundary current system near Cape Farewell are investigated using a high-resolution mooring array deployed from 2014 to 2018. The boundary current system is comprised of three components: the West Greenland Coastal Current, which advects cold and fresh Upper Polar Water (UPW); the West Greenland Current, which transports warm and salty Irminger Water (IW) along the upper slope and UPW at the surface; and the Deep Western Boundary Current, which advects dense overflow waters. Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is prevalent at the seaward side of the array within an offshore recirculation gyre and at the base of the West Greenland Current. The 4-yr mean transport of the full boundary current system is 31.1 ± 7.4 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1), with no clear seasonal signal. However, the individual water mass components exhibit seasonal cycles in hydrographic properties and transport. LSW penetrates the boundary current locally, through entrainment/mixing from the adjacent recirculation gyre, and also enters the current upstream in the Irminger Sea. IW is modified through air–sea interaction during winter along the length of its trajectory around the Irminger Sea, which converts some of the water to LSW. This, together with the seasonal increase in LSW entering the current, results in an anticorrelation in transport between these two water masses. The seasonality in UPW transport can be explained by remote wind forcing and subsequent adjustment via coastal trapped waves. Our results provide the first quantitatively robust observational description of the boundary current in the eastern Labrador Sea.
  • Article
    Small-molecule mimicry hunting strategy in the imperial cone snail, Conus imperialis
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2021-03-12) Torres, Joshua P. ; Lin, Zhenjian ; Watkins, Maren ; Salcedo, Paula Flórez ; Baskin, Robert P. ; Elhabian, Shireen ; Safavi-Hemami, Helena ; Taylor, Dylan ; Tun, Jortan ; Concepcion, Gisela P. ; Saguil, Noel ; Yanagihara, Angel A. ; Fang, Yixin ; McArthur, Jeffrey R. ; Tae, Han-Shen ; Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K. ; Ozpolat, B. Duygu ; Olivera, Baldomero M. ; Schmidt, Eric W.
    Venomous animals hunt using bioactive peptides, but relatively little is known about venom small molecules and the resulting complex hunting behaviors. Here, we explored the specialized metabolites from the venom of the worm-hunting cone snail, Conus imperialis. Using the model polychaete worm Platynereis dumerilii, we demonstrate that C. imperialis venom contains small molecules that mimic natural polychaete mating pheromones, evoking the mating phenotype in worms. The specialized metabolites from different cone snails are species-specific and structurally diverse, suggesting that the cones may adopt many different prey-hunting strategies enabled by small molecules. Predators sometimes attract prey using the prey’s own pheromones, in a strategy known as aggressive mimicry. Instead, C. imperialis uses metabolically stable mimics of those pheromones, indicating that, in biological mimicry, even the molecules themselves may be disguised, providing a twist on fake news in chemical ecology.
  • Article
    The North Icelandic Jet and its relationship to the North Icelandic Irminger Current
    (Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2017-09-01) Pickart, Robert S. ; Spall, Michael A. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Våge, Kjetil ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Nobre, Carolina ; Moore, G. W. K. ; Jonsson, Steingrimur ; Mastropole, Dana M.
    Shipboard hydrographic and velocity sections are used to quantify aspects of the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ), which transports dense overflow water to Denmark Strait, and the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC), which imports Atlantic water to the Iceland Sea. The mean transports of the two currents are comparable, in line with previous notions that there is a local overturning cell in the Iceland Sea that transforms the Atlantic water to dense overflow water. As the NIJ and NIIC flow along the north side of Iceland, they appear to share a common front when the bottom topography steers them close together, but even when they are separate there is a poleward flow inshore of the NIJ. The interannual variability in salinity of the inflowing NIIC is in phase with that of the outflowing NIJ. It is suggested, however, that the NIIC signal does not dictate that of the NIJ. Instead, the combination of liquid and solid freshwater flux from the east Greenland boundary can account for the observed net freshening of the NIIC to the NIJ for the densest half of the overturning circulation in the northwest Iceland Sea. This implies that the remaining overturning must occur in a different geographic area, consistent with earlier model results. The year-to-year variability in salinity of the NIJ can be explained by applying annual anomalies of evaporation minus precipitation over the Iceland Sea to a one-dimensional mixing model. These anomalies vary in phase with the wind stress curl over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre, which previous studies have shown drives the interannual variation in salinity of the inflowing NIIC.
  • Article
    The Atlantic Water boundary current in the Nansen Basin : transport and mechanisms of lateral exchange
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-09-22) Våge, Kjetil ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Pavlov, Vladimir ; Lin, Peigen ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    Data from a shipboard hydrographic survey near 30°E in the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are used to investigate the structure and transport of the Atlantic Water boundary current. Two high-resolution synoptic crossings of the current indicate that it is roughly 30 km wide and weakly middepth-intensified. Using a previously determined definition of Atlantic Water, the transport of this water mass is calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.3 Sv, which is similar to the transport of Atlantic Water in the inner branch of the West Spitsbergen Current. At the time of the survey a small anticyclonic eddy of Atlantic Water was situated just offshore of the boundary current. The data suggest that the feature was recently detached from the boundary current, and, due to compensating effects of temperature and salinity on the thermal wind shear, the maximum swirl speed was situated below the hydrographic property core. Two other similar features were detected within our study domain, suggesting that these eddies are common and represent an effective means of fluxing warm and salty water from the boundary current into the interior. An atmospheric low-pressure system transiting south of our study area resulted in southeasterly winds prior to and during the field measurements. A comparison to hydrographic data from the Pacific Water boundary current in the Canada Basin under similar atmospheric forcing suggests that upwelling was taking place during the survey. This provides a second mechanism related to cross-stream exchange of heat and salt in this region of the Nansen Basin.
  • Article
    The emergence of the North Icelandic Jet and its evolution from northeast Iceland to Denmark Strait
    (American Meteorological Society, 2019-09-19) Semper, Stefanie ; Våge, Kjetil ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Jónsson, Steingrímur
    The North Icelandic Jet (NIJ) is an important source of dense water to the overflow plume passing through Denmark Strait. The properties, structure, and transport of the NIJ are investigated for the first time along its entire pathway following the continental slope north of Iceland, using 13 hydrographic/velocity surveys of high spatial resolution conducted between 2004 and 2018. The comprehensive dataset reveals that the current originates northeast of Iceland and increases in volume transport by roughly 0.4 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) per 100 km until 300 km upstream of Denmark Strait, at which point the highest transport is reached. The bulk of the NIJ transport is confined to a small area in Θ–S space centered near −0.29° ± 0.16°C in Conservative Temperature and 35.075 ± 0.006 g kg−1 in Absolute Salinity. While the hydrographic properties of this transport mode are not significantly modified along the NIJ’s pathway, the transport estimates vary considerably between and within the surveys. Neither a clear seasonal signal nor a consistent link to atmospheric forcing was found, but barotropic and/or baroclinic instability is likely active in the current. The NIJ displays a double-core structure in roughly 50% of the occupations, with the two cores centered at the 600- and 800-m isobaths, respectively. The transport of overflow water 300 km upstream of Denmark Strait exceeds 1.8 ± 0.3 Sv, which is substantially larger than estimates from a year-long mooring array and hydrographic/velocity surveys closer to the strait, where the NIJ merges with the separated East Greenland Current. This implies a more substantial contribution of the NIJ to the Denmark Strait overflow plume than previously envisaged.
  • Preprint
    Revised circulation scheme North of the Denmark Strait
    ( 2013-04-26) Våge, Kjetil ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Spall, Michael A. ; Moore, G. W. K. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y. ; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.
    The circulation and water mass transports north of the Denmark Strait are investigated using recently collected and historical in-situ data along with an idealized numerical model and atmospheric reanalysis fields. Emphasis is placed on the pathways of dense water feeding theDenmark StraitOverflowWater plume as well as the upper-layer circulation of freshwater. It is found that the East Greenland Current (EGC) bifurcates at the northern end of the Blosseville Basin, some 450 km upstream of the Denmark Strait, advecting overflow water and surface freshwater away from the boundary. This “separated EGC” flows southward adjacent to the previously identified North Icelandic Jet, indicating that approximately 70% of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water approaches the sill along the Iceland continental slope. Roughly a quarter of the freshwater transport of the EGC is diverted offshore via the bifurcation. Two hypotheses are examined to explain the existence of the separated EGC. The atmospheric fields demonstrate that flow distortion due to the orography of Greenland imparts significant vorticity into the ocean in this region. The negative wind stress curl, together with the closed bathymetric contours of the Blosseville Basin, is conducive for spinning up an anti-cyclonic gyre whose offshore branch could represent the separated EGC. An idealized numerical simulation suggests instead that the current is primarily eddy-forced. In particular, baroclinic instability of the model EGC spawns large anticyclones that migrate offshore and coalesce upon reaching the Iceland continental slope, resulting in the separated EGC. Regardless of the formation mechanism, the recently obtained shipboard data and historical hydrography both indicate that the separated EGC is a permanent feature of the circulation north of the Denmark Strait.
  • Preprint
    Upstream sources of the Denmark Strait Overflow : observations from a high-resolution mooring array
    ( 2016-02-19) Harden, Benjamin E. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Våge, Kjetil ; de Steur, Laura ; Richards, Clark G. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Børve, Eli ; Jonsson, Steingrimur ; Macrander, Andreas ; Østerhus, Svein ; Håvik, Lisbeth ; Hattermann, Tore
    We present the first results from a densely instrumented mooring array upstream of the Denmark Strait sill, extending from the Iceland shelfbreak to the Greenland shelf. The array was deployed from September 2011 to July 2012, and captured the vast majority of overflow water denser than 27.8 kgm-3 approaching the sill. The mean transport of overflow water over the length of the deployment was 3.54 ± 0.16 Sv. Of this, 0.58 Sv originated from below sill depth, revealing that aspiration takes place in Denmark Strait. We confirm the presence of two main sources of overflow water: one approaching the sill in the East Greenland Current and the other via the North Icelandic Jet. Using an objective technique based on the hydrographic properties of the water, the transports of these two sources are found to be 2.54 ± 0.17 Sv and 1.00 ± 0.17 Sv, respectively. We further partition the East Greenland Current source into that carried by the shelfbreak jet (1.50 ± 0.16 Sv) versus that transported by a separated branch of the current on the Iceland slope (1.04 ± 0.15 Sv). Over the course of the year the total overflow transport is more consistent than the transport in either branch; compensation takes place among the pathways that maintains a stable total overflow transport. This is especially true for the two East Greenland Current branches whose transports vary out of phase with each other on weekly and longer time scales. We argue that wind forcing plays a role in this partitioning.
  • Article
    The East Greenland Spill Jet
    (American Meteorological Society, 2005-06) Pickart, Robert S. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Fratantoni, Paula S.
    High-resolution hydrographic and velocity measurements across the East Greenland shelf break south of Denmark Strait have revealed an intense, narrow current banked against the upper continental slope. This is believed to be the result of dense water cascading over the shelf edge and entraining ambient water. The current has been named the East Greenland Spill Jet. It resides beneath the East Greenland/Irminger Current and transports roughly 2 Sverdrups of water equatorward. Strong vertical mixing occurs during the spilling, although the entrainment farther downstream is minimal. A vorticity analysis reveals that the increase in cyclonic relative vorticity within the jet is partly balanced by tilting vorticity, resulting in a sharp front in potential vorticity reminiscent of the Gulf Stream. The other components of the Irminger Sea boundary current system are described, including a presentation of absolute transports.
  • Preprint
    The western Arctic boundary current at 152°W : structure, variability, and transport
    ( 2008-01-16) Nikolopoulos, Anna ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Fratantoni, Paula S. ; Shimada, Koji ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Jones, E. Peter
    From August 2002 to September 2004 a high-resolution mooring array was maintained across the western Arctic boundary current in the Beaufort Sea north of Alaska. The array consisted of profiling instrumentation, providing a timeseries of vertical sections of the current. Here we present the first-year velocity measurements, with emphasis on the Pacific water component of the current. The mean flow is characterized as a bottom-intensified jet of O(15 cm s-1) directed to the east, trapped to the shelfbreak near 100 m depth. Its width scale is only 10-15 km. Seasonally the flow has distinct configurations. During summer it becomes surface-intensified as it advects buoyant Alaskan Coastal Water. In fall and winter the current often reverses (flows westward) under upwelling-favorable winds. Between the storms, as the eastward flow re-establishes, the current develops a deep extension to depths exceeding 700 m. In spring the bottom-trapped flow advects winter-transformed Pacific water emanating from the Chukchi Sea. The year-long mean volume transport of Pacific Water is 0.13±0.08 Sv to the east, which is less than 20% of the long-term mean Bering Strait inflow. This implies that most of the Pacific water entering the Arctic goes elsewhere, contrary to expected dynamics and previous modeling results. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The mean Atlantic water transport (to 800 m depth) is 0.047±0.026 Sv, also smaller than anticipated.
  • Article
    Evolution of the freshwater coastal current at the southern tip of Greenland
    (American Meteorological Society, 2018-09-11) Lin, Peigen ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Pacini, Astrid
    Shipboard hydrographic and velocity measurements collected in summer 2014 are used to study the evolution of the freshwater coastal current in southern Greenland as it encounters Cape Farewell. The velocity structure reveals that the coastal current maintains its identity as it flows around the cape and bifurcates such that most of the flow is diverted to the outer west Greenland shelf, while a small portion remains on the inner shelf. Taking into account this inner branch, the volume transport of the coastal current is conserved, but the freshwater transport decreases on the west side of Cape Farewell. A significant amount of freshwater appears to be transported off the shelf where the outer branch flows adjacent to the shelfbreak circulation. It is argued that the offshore transposition of the coastal current is caused by the flow following the isobaths as they bend offshore because of the widening of the shelf on the west side of Cape Farewell. An analysis of the potential vorticity shows that the subsequent seaward flux of freshwater can be enhanced by instabilities of the current. This set of circumstances provides a pathway for the freshest water originating from the Arctic, as well as runoff from the Greenland ice sheet, to be fluxed into the interior Labrador Sea where it could influence convection in the basin.
  • Article
    WHOI SDSL data-link project—ethernet telemetry through sea cables
    (American Meteorological Society, 2017-01-23) Swartz, Marshall ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Liberatore, Stephen P. ; Millard, Robert C.
    A data telemetry technique for communicating over standard oceanographic sea cables that achieves a nearly 100-fold increase in bandwidth as compared to traditional systems has been recently developed and successfully used at sea on board two Research Vessel (R/V) Atlantis cruises with an 8.5-km, 0.322-in.-diameter three-conductor sea cable. The system uses commercially available modules to provide Ethernet connectivity through existing sea cables, linking serial and video underwater instrumentation to the shipboard user. The new method applies Synchronous Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) communications technology to undersea applications, greatly increasing the opportunities to use scientific instrumentation from existing ships and sea cables at minimal cost and without modification.
  • Article
    The Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard in late summer
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-03-21) Perez-Hernandez, M. Dolores ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Pavlov, Vladimir ; Våge, Kjetil ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Renner, Angelika H. H. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.
    Data from a shipboard hydrographic/velocity survey carried out in September 2013 of the region north of Svalbard in the Nansen Basin are analyzed to characterize the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current as it flows eastward along the continental slope. Eight meridional transects across the current, spanning an alongstream distance of 180 km, allow for a detailed description of the current and the regional water masses. During the survey the winds were light and there was no pack-ice. The mean section reveals that the boundary current was O(40 km) wide, surface-intensified, with a maximum velocity of 20 cm/s. Its mean transport during the survey was 3.11 ± 0.33 Sv, of which 2.31 ± 0.29 Sv was AW. This suggests that the two branches of AW entering the Arctic Ocean via Fram Strait—the Yermak Plateau branch and the Svalbard branch—have largely combined into a single current by 30°E. At this location the boundary current meanders with a systematic change in its kinematic structure during offshore excursions. A potential vorticity analysis indicates that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with previous observations of AW anticyclones offshore of the current as well as the presence of a near-field cyclone in this data set. Our survey indicates that only a small portion of the boundary current is diverted into the Kvitøya Trough (0.17 ± 0.08 Sv) and that the AW temperature/salinity signal is quickly eroded within the trough.
  • Article
    Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea
    (Springer, 2012-06-13) Klevjer, Thor A. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Kaartvedt, Stein
    The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth.
  • Article
    Structure, transport, and seasonality of the Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard: Results from a yearlong mooring array
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-02-15) Pérez-Hernández, M. Dolores ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Ingvaldsen, Randi B. ; Renner, Angelika H. H. ; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka ; von Appen, Wilken‐Jon ; Pavlov, Vladimir
    The characteristics and seasonality of the Svalbard branch of the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current in the Eurasian Basin are investigated using data from a six‐mooring array deployed near 30°E between September 2012 and September 2013. The instrument coverage extended to 1,200‐m depth and approximately 50 km offshore of the shelf break, which laterally bracketed the flow. Averaged over the year, the transport of the current over this depth range was 3.96 ± 0.32 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s). The transport within the AW layer was 2.08 ± 0.24 Sv. The current was typically subsurface intensified, and its dominant variability was associated with pulsing rather than meandering. From late summer to early winter the AW was warmest and saltiest, and its eastward transport was strongest (2.44 ± 0.12 Sv), while from midspring to midsummer the AW was coldest and freshest and its transport was weakest (1.10 ± 0.06 Sv). Deep mixed layers developed through the winter, extending to 400‐ to 500‐m depth in early spring until the pack ice encroached the area from the north shutting off the air‐sea buoyancy forcing. This vertical mixing modified a significant portion of the AW layer, suggesting that, as the ice cover continues to decrease in the southern Eurasian Basin, the AW will be more extensively transformed via local ventilation.
  • Article
    Upwelling on the continental slope of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea : storms, ice, and oceanographic response
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-17) Pickart, Robert S. ; Moore, G. W. K. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Fratantoni, Paula S. ; Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Yang, Jiayan
    The characteristics of Pacific-born storms that cause upwelling along the Beaufort Sea continental slope, the oceanographic response, and the modulation of the response due to sea ice are investigated. In fall 2002 a mooring array located near 152°W measured 11 significant upwelling events that brought warm and salty Atlantic water to shallow depths. When comparing the storms that caused these events to other Aleutian lows that did not induce upwelling, interesting trends emerged. Upwelling occurred most frequently when storms were located in a region near the eastern end of the Aleutian Island Arc and Alaskan Peninsula. Not only were these storms deep but they generally had northward-tending trajectories. While the steering flow aloft aided this northward progression, the occurrence of lee cyclogenesis due to the orography of Alaska seems to play a role as well in expanding the meridional influence of the storms. In late fall and early winter both the intensity and frequency of the upwelling diminished significantly at the array site. It is argued that the reduction in amplitude was due to the onset of heavy pack ice, while the decreased frequency was due to two different upper-level atmospheric blocking patterns inhibiting the far field influence of the storms.