Arz Helge W.

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Helge W.

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  • Article
    Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years
    (Nature Research, 2019-09-02) Waelbroeck, Claire ; Lougheed, Bryan C. ; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia ; Missiaen, Lise ; Pedro, Joel ; Dokken, Trond ; Hajdas, Irka ; Wacker, Lukas ; Abbott, Peter ; Dumoulin, Jean-Pascal ; Thil, Francois ; Eynaud, Frederique ; Rossignol, Linda ; Fersi, Wiem ; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza ; Arz, Helge W. ; Austin, William E. N. ; Came, Rosemarie E. ; Carlson, Anders E. ; Collins, James A. ; Dennielou, Bernard ; Desprat, Stéphanie ; Dickson, Alex ; Elliot, Mary ; Farmer, Christa ; Giraudeau, Jacques ; Gottschalk, Julia ; Henderiks, Jorijntje ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Jung, Simon ; Knutz, Paul ; Lebreiro, Susana ; Lund, David C. ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Malaizé, Bruno ; Marchitto, Thomas M. ; Martínez-Méndez, Gema ; Mollenhauer, Gesine ; Naughton, Filipa ; Nave, Silvia ; Nürnberg, Dirk ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Peck, Vicky L. ; Peeters, Frank J. C. ; Penaud, Aurélie ; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo da Costa ; Repschläger, Janne ; Roberts, Jenny ; Ruhlemann, Carsten ; Salgueiro, Emilia ; Sanchez Goni, Maria Fernanda ; Schönfeld, Joachim ; Scussolini, Paolo ; Skinner, Luke C. ; Skonieczny, Charlotte ; Thornalley, David J. R. ; Toucanne, Samuel ; Van Rooij, David ; Vidal, Laurence ; Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Wary, Mélanie ; Weldeab, Syee ; Ziegler, Martin
    Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
  • Article
    Abrupt changes of temperature and water chemistry in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene Black Sea
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-01-12) Bahr, Andre ; Lamy, Frank ; Arz, Helge W. ; Major, Candace O. ; Kwiecien, Olga ; Wefer, Gerold
    New Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and published stable oxygen isotope and 87Sr/86Sr data obtained on ostracods from gravity cores located on the northwestern Black Sea slope were used to infer changes in the Black Sea hydrology and water chemistry for the period between 30 to 8 ka B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon years). The period prior to 16.5 ka B.P. was characterized by stable conditions in all records until a distinct drop in δ 18O values combined with a sharp increase in 87Sr/86Sr occurred between 16.5 and 14.8 ka B.P. This event is attributed to an increased runoff from the northern drainage area of the Black Sea between Heinrich Event 1 and the onset of the Bølling warm period. While the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca records remained rather unaffected by this inflow; they show an abrupt rise with the onset of the Bølling/Allerød warm period. This rise was caused by calcite precipitation in the surface water, which led to a sudden increase of the Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios of the Black Sea water. The stable oxygen isotopes also start to increase around 15 ka B.P., although in a more gradual manner, due to isotopically enriched meteoric precipitation. While Sr/Ca remains constant during the following interval of the Younger Dryas cold period, a decrease in the Mg/Ca ratio implies that the intermediate water masses of the Black Sea temporarily cooled by 1–2°C during the Younger Dryas. The 87Sr/86Sr values drop after the cessation of the water inflow at 15 ka B.P. to a lower level until the Younger Dryas, where they reach values similar to those observed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This might point to a potential outflow to the Mediterranean Sea via the Sea of Marmara during this period. The inflow of Mediterranean water started around 9.3 ka B.P., which is clearly detectable in the abruptly increasing Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr values. The accompanying increase in the δ 18O record is less pronounced and would fit to an inflow lasting ∼100 a.