Reimer Paula J.

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Last Name
Reimer
First Name
Paula J.
ORCID
0000-0001-9238-2146

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Article
    Marine20-the marine radiocarbon age calibration curve (0-55,000 cal BP)
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-08-12) Heaton, Timothy J. ; Köhler, Peter ; Butzin, Martin ; Bard, Edouard ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Austin, William E. N. ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Grootes, Pieter M. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Kromer, Bernd ; Reimer, Paula J. ; Adkins, Jess F. ; Burke, Andrea ; Cook, Mea S. ; Olsen, Jesper ; Skinner, Luke C.
    The concentration of radiocarbon (14C) differs between ocean and atmosphere. Radiocarbon determinations from samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment therefore need a marine-specific calibration curve and cannot be calibrated directly against the atmospheric-based IntCal20 curve. This paper presents Marine20, an update to the internationally agreed marine radiocarbon age calibration curve that provides a non-polar global-average marine record of radiocarbon from 0–55 cal kBP and serves as a baseline for regional oceanic variation. Marine20 is intended for calibration of marine radiocarbon samples from non-polar regions; it is not suitable for calibration in polar regions where variability in sea ice extent, ocean upwelling and air-sea gas exchange may have caused larger changes to concentrations of marine radiocarbon. The Marine20 curve is based upon 500 simulations with an ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box-model of the global carbon cycle that has been forced by posterior realizations of our Northern Hemispheric atmospheric IntCal20 14C curve and reconstructed changes in CO2 obtained from ice core data. These forcings enable us to incorporate carbon cycle dynamics and temporal changes in the atmospheric 14C level. The box-model simulations of the global-average marine radiocarbon reservoir age are similar to those of a more complex three-dimensional ocean general circulation model. However, simplicity and speed of the box model allow us to use a Monte Carlo approach to rigorously propagate the uncertainty in both the historic concentration of atmospheric 14C and other key parameters of the carbon cycle through to our final Marine20 calibration curve. This robust propagation of uncertainty is fundamental to providing reliable precision for the radiocarbon age calibration of marine based samples. We make a first step towards deconvolving the contributions of different processes to the total uncertainty; discuss the main differences of Marine20 from the previous age calibration curve Marine13; and identify the limitations of our approach together with key areas for further work. The updated values for ΔR, the regional marine radiocarbon reservoir age corrections required to calibrate against Marine20, can be found at the data base http://calib.org/marine/.
  • Article
    Marine04 marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP
    (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2004) Hughen, Konrad A. ; Baillie, Mike G. L. ; Bard, Edouard ; Beck, J. Warren ; Bertrand, Chanda J. H. ; Blackwell, Paul G. ; Buck, Caitlin E. ; Burr, George S. ; Cutler, Kirsten B. ; Damon, Paul E. ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Fairbanks, Richard G. ; Friedrich, Michael ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Kromer, Bernd ; McCormac, Gerry ; Manning, Sturt ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Reimer, Paula J. ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Remmele, Sabine ; Southon, John R. ; Stuiver, Minze ; Talamo, Sahra ; Taylor, F. W. ; van der Plicht, Johannes ; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E.
    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
  • Preprint
    Comment on "Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals" by R.G. Fairbanks et al. (Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005) 1781-1796), and "Extending the radiocarbon calibration beyond 26,000 years before present using fossil corals" by T.-C. Chiu et al. (Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005) 1797-1808).
    ( 2006-02) Reimer, Paula J. ; Baillie, Mike G. L. ; Bard, Edouard ; Beck, J. Warren ; Blackwell, Paul G. ; Buck, Caitlin E. ; Burr, George S. ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Friedrich, Michael ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Hogg, Alan G. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Kromer, Bernd ; McCormac, Gerry ; Manning, Sturt ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Southon, John R. ; Stuiver, Minze ; van der Plicht, Johannes ; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E.
    A recently published radiocarbon calibration curve extending to 50,000 cal BP (Fairbanks et al. 2005) is purportedly superior to that generated by the IntCal working group beyond the end of the tree-ring data at 12,400 cal BP (Reimer et al. 2004). This claim is based, in part, on different diagenetic screening criteria and pretreatment for coral samples (Fairbanks et al. 2005; Chiu et al. 2005) which do not stand up under careful scrutiny. Also at issue is the conversion of the coral-based calibration curve to an atmospheric curve where large inter-annual variability in the sea-surface age reservoir age has been observed in the southwest Pacific where one of two sets of corals used were sampled. In addition we comment on the seemingly ad hoc statistical methods utilized by Fairbanks et al. (2005) to construct their curve. We recognize the value of the Fairbanks et al. (2005) coral radiocarbon data set, but reassert the need for multiple, independently derived data to provide confirmation and validation to all radiocarbon calibration data. This is especially important before 26,000 cal BP when lower sea-levels of the last glacial maximum exposed most coral samples to alteration by fresh water.
  • Article
    A response to community questions on the marine20 radiocarbon age calibration curve: marine reservior ages and the calibration of 14 C samples from the oceans
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-11-02) Heaton, Timothy J. ; Bard, Edouard ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Butzin, Martin ; Hatté, Christine ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Köhler, Peter ; Reimer, Paula J.
    Radiocarbon (14C) concentrations in the oceans are different from those in the atmosphere. Understanding these ocean-atmospheric 14C differences is important both to estimate the calendar ages of samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment, and to investigate the carbon cycle. The Marine20 radiocarbon age calibration curve is created to address these dual aims by providing a global-scale surface ocean record of radiocarbon from 55,000–0 cal yr BP that accounts for the smoothed response of the ocean to variations in atmospheric 14C production rates and factors out the effect of known changes in global-scale palaeoclimatic variables. The curve also serves as a baseline to study regional oceanic 14C variation. Marine20 offers substantial improvements over the previous Marine13 curve. In response to community questions, we provide a short intuitive guide, intended for the lay-reader, on the construction and use of the Marine20 calibration curve. We describe the choices behind the making of Marine20, as well as the similarities and differences compared with the earlier Marine calibration curves. We also describe how to use the Marine20 curve for calibration and how to estimate ΔR—the localized variation in the oceanic 14C levels due to regional factors which are not incorporated in the global-scale Marine20 curve. To aid understanding, illustrative worked examples are provided.
  • Article
    IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP
    (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2009-12) Reimer, Paula J. ; Bard, Edouard ; Bayliss, Alex ; Beck, J. Warren ; Blackwell, Paul G. ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Buck, Caitlin E. ; Cheng, Hai ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Friedrich, Michael ; Grootes, Pieter M. ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Haflidason, Haflidi ; Hajdas, Irka ; Hatte, Christine ; Heaton, Timothy J. ; Hoffmann, Dirk L. ; Hogg, Alan G. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Kaiser, K. Felix ; Kromer, Bernd ; Manning, Sturt W. ; Niu, Mu ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Richards, David A. ; Scott, E. Marian ; Southon, John R. ; Staff, Richard A. ; Turney, Christian S. M. ; van der Plicht, Johannes
    The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org.
  • Article
    The Intcal20 Northern Hemisphere radiocarbon age calibration curve (0-55 cal kBP)
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-08-12) Reimer, Paula J. ; Austin, William E. N. ; Bard, Edouard ; Bayliss, Alex ; Blackwell, Paul G. ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Butzin, Martin ; Cheng, Hai ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Friedrich, Michael ; Grootes, Pieter M. ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Hajdas, Irka ; Heaton, Timothy J. ; Hogg, Alan G. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Kromer, Bernd ; Manning, Sturt W. ; Muscheler, Raimund ; Palmer, Jonathan G. ; Pearson, Charlotte ; van der Plicht, Johannes ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Richards, David A. ; Scott, E. Marian ; Southon, John R. ; Turney, Christian S. M. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Adolphi, Florian ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Capano, Manuela ; Fahrni, Simon M. ; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra ; Friedrich, Ronny ; Köhler, Peter ; Kudsk, Sabrina ; Miyake, Fusa ; Olsen, Jesper ; Reinig, Frederick ; Sakamoto, Minoru ; Sookdeo, Adam ; Talamo, Sahra
    Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
  • Article
    IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP
    (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2004) Reimer, Paula J. ; Baillie, Mike G. L. ; Bard, Edouard ; Bayliss, Alex ; Beck, J. Warren ; Bertrand, Chanda J. H. ; Blackwell, Paul G. ; Buck, Caitlin E. ; Burr, George S. ; Cutler, Kirsten B. ; Damon, Paul E. ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Fairbanks, Richard G. ; Friedrich, Michael ; Guilderson, Thomas P. ; Hogg, Alan G. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Kromer, Bernd ; McCormac, Gerry ; Manning, Sturt ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Reimer, Ron W. ; Remmele, Sabine ; Southon, John R. ; Stuiver, Minze ; Talamo, Sahra ; Taylor, F. W. ; van der Plicht, Johannes ; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E.
    A new calibration curve for the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages has been constructed and internationally ratified to replace IntCal98, which extended from 0–24 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950). The new calibration data set for terrestrial samples extends from 0–26 cal kyr BP, but with much higher resolution beyond 11.4 cal kyr BP than IntCal98. Dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples cover the period from 0–12.4 cal kyr BP. Beyond the end of the tree rings, data from marine records (corals and foraminifera) are converted to the atmospheric equivalent with a site-specific marine reservoir correction to provide terrestrial calibration from 12.4–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a coherent statistical approach based on a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are discussed here. The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed in brief, but details are presented in Hughen et al. (this issue a). We do not make a recommendation for calibration beyond 26 cal kyr BP at this time; however, potential calibration data sets are compared in another paper (van der Plicht et al., this issue).