Tominaga Masako

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  • Article
    “Equator Crossing” of Shatsky Rise?: New insights on Shatsky Rise tectonic motion from the downhole magnetic architecture of the uppermost lava sequences at Tamu Massif
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-11-03) Tominaga, Masako ; Evans, Helen F. ; Iturrino, Gerardo
    Shatsky Rise is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) currently located in the northwestern Pacific. New downhole magnetic logging data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1347A at Tamu Massif of Shatsky Rise captured the magnetic architecture in the uppermost lava sequence, providing a rare opportunity to investigate a time series of the intra-plate volcanism in conjunction with the Pacific plate construction history centered at the triple junction. Logging data results indicate that Tamu Massif was formed during normal polarity periods south of the paleoequator and crossed the equator at some point in the M19–M17 period. Combining these new observations with previous interpretations of the massif's tectonic history, a time series of the latitudinal tectonic motion of a LIP and the underlying Pacific plate during the plateau formation is postulated.
  • Article
    Origin of the smooth zone in early Cretaceous North Atlantic magnetic anomalies
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-01-06) Tominaga, Masako ; Sager, William W.
    Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous marine magnetic anomalies observed in the North Atlantic exhibit an abrupt change in character in M5-M15 crust. The anomalies are smoother with low amplitudes, and are difficult to correlate among nearby profiles. The accepted explanation for the origin of this smooth zone is diminished resolution and anomaly interference due to slow spreading rates, which narrows the widths of polarity reversals in the crust and causes interference among sea-surface anomalies. Magnetic modeling of these anomalies indicates that neither slow spreading rates alone nor slow spreading rates in combination with a decrease in geomagnetic field intensity can explain the basic character of the smooth zone. Combined with other geophysical evidence, our study suggests that one consequence of slow spreading rates that is responsible for the magnetic “smooth zone” is a thinned crustal basalt layer or a non-basaltic magnetic source layer resulting from low melt supply during a period of ultra-slow spreading.
  • Article
    What Lies Beneath: the formation and evolution of oceanic lithosphere
    (Oceanography Society, 2019-03-18) Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi ; Tominaga, Masako ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; Teagle, Damon A.H.
    Sampling the upper mantle via scientific ocean drilling remains elusive. Although the technologies required for drilling to the Moho still don’t exist, we have made significant progress over the last five decades in piecing together the complex geology of the oceanic crust. Here, we highlight key findings that reveal the architecture of oceanic crust and the thermal, physical, and chemical processes that are responsible for the growth and structure of the oceanic lithosphere. These advances result from enduring efforts to drill and collect downhole geophysical logs of oceanic crust near both slow and fast spreading ridges.
  • Article
    Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust (Hess Deep) using near-source vector magnetic data
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-16) Tominaga, Masako ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Morris, Antony ; Lissenberg, C. Johan ; Shillington, Donna J. ; Ferrini, Vicki L.
    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins. We conducted a high-resolution, near-bottom, vector magnetic survey of crust exposed in the Hess Deep “tectonic window” using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Isis during RRS James Cook cruise JC21 in 2008. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagating rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (2°15′N, 101°30′W). ROV Isis collected high-resolution bathymetry and near-bottom magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithostratigraphy and internal structure of a section of EPR lower crust and mantle exposed on the steep (~20°dipping) south facing slope just north of the Hess Deep nadir. Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile (VMP) approach of Tivey (1996) by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as “vector vertical magnetic profiling” approach. We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope. The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a “bench” and lobe-shaped steps, imaged by microbathymetry. The lower part of the slope is strongly magnetized, with a gradual reduction in amplitude from east to west across the slope. Surface morphology and recent drilling results indicate that the slope has been affected by mass wasting, but the observation of internally coherent magnetization distributions within the upper and lower slopes suggest that the disturbance is surficial. We attribute the spatial differences in magnetization distribution to the combination of changes in in situ lithology and depth to the source. These survey lines document the first magnetic profiles that capture the gabbro-ultramafic and possibly dike-gabbro boundaries in fast-spreading lower crust.
  • Article
    Revised Pacific M-anomaly geomagnetic polarity timescale
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2010-05-12) Tominaga, Masako ; Sager, William W.
    The current M-anomaly geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) is mainly based on the Hawaiian magnetic lineations in the Pacific Ocean. M-anomaly GPTS studies to date have relied on a small number of magnetic profiles, a situation that is not ideal because any one profile contains an uncertain amount of geologic 'noise' that perturbs the magnetic field signal. Compiling a polarity sequence from a larger array of magnetic profiles is desirable to provide greater consistency and repeatability. We present a new compilation of the M-anomaly GPTS constructed from polarity models derived from magnetic profiles crossing the three lineation sets (Hawaiian, Japanese and Phoenix) in the western Pacific. Polarity reversal boundary locations were estimated with a combination of inverse and forward modelling of the magnetic profiles. Separate GPTS were established for each of the three Pacific lineation sets, to allow examination of variability among the different lineation sets, and these were also combined to give a composite timescale. Owing to a paucity of reliable direct dates of the M-anomalies on ocean crust, the composite model was time calibrated with only two ages; one at each end of the sequence. These two dates are 125.0 Ma for the base of M0r and 155.7 Ma for the base of M26r. Relative polarity block widths from the three lineation sets are similar, indicating a consistent Pacific-wide spreading regime. The new GPTS model shows slightly different spacings of polarity blocks, as compared with previous GPTS, with less variation in block width. It appears that the greater polarity chron irregularity in older models is mostly an artifact of modelling a small number of magnetic profiles. The greater averaging of polarity chron boundaries in our model gives a GPTS that is statistically more robust than prior GPTS models and a superior foundation for Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous geomagnetic and chronologic studies.
  • Article
    The hidden history of the South‐Central Cascadia Subduction Zone Recorded on the Juan de Fuca Plate Offshore Southwest Oregon
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-08-18) Tréhu, Anne M. ; Tominaga, Masako ; Lyle, Mitch ; Davenport, Kathy ; Phrampus, Benjamin J. ; Favorito, Jules ; Zhang, Edward ; Lenz, Brandi L. ; Shreedharan, Srisharan ; Yelisetti, Subbarao
    New seismic reflection data collected and processed as part of early career scientist training at sea and in classroom projects fill gaps in seismic coverage of the Cascadia subduction zone and provide new insights into anomalous subduction behavior and mass wasting along the south‐central Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) between 42°20’N and 44°15’N. The data reveal at least six distinct buried horizons of folded and faulted sediments similar to strata recently interpreted to result from in situ deformation induced by the load imposed by a large blocky mass transport deposit known as the 44°N slide. Although our results support prior studies indicating that the south‐central CSZ has experienced large slope instabilities, they indicate that the slides were more frequent but volumetrically smaller than previously thought. Similar strata have not been observed elsewhere beneath the abyssal plain adjacent to the Cascadia subduction zone. The structure of the deformation front along this segment is also indistinct, in contrast to the clear frontal faults outboard of folded trench strata observed immediately to the north and south (and generally throughout the rest of Cascadia). We attribute the anomalous nature of this segment of the margin to past subduction of shallow and rough seafloor, which resulted in greater uplift of the forearc than elsewhere along the margin. A consequence of this postulated history would be the shedding of older, more consolidated blocks onto the Juan de Fuca plate, resulting in the observed distinctive stratigraphy offshore southern Oregon.Key PointsThe number of large blocky slides on the south‐central Cascadia margin has been underestimated, while their volume has been overestimatedBlocky slides of similar scale have not occurred along other segments of the Cascadia subduction zoneThe history of large landslides on the south‐central Cascadia margin is more complex than previously suggested and may be a response to past subduction of high topography
  • Article
    A new middle to late Jurassic Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) from a multiscale marine magnetic anomaly survey of the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-01-21) Tominaga, Masako ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Sager, William W.
    The Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) provides a basis for the geological timescale, quantifies geomagnetic field behavior, and gives a time framework for geologic studies. We build a revised Middle to Late Jurassic GPTS by using a new multiscale magnetic profile, combining sea surface, midwater, and autonomous underwater vehicle near-bottom magnetic anomaly data from the Hawaiian lineation set in the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). We correlate the new profile with a previously published contemporaneous magnetic sequence from the Japanese lineation set. We then establish geomagnetic polarity block models as a basis for our interpretation of the origin and nature of JQZ magnetic anomalies and a GPTS. A significant level of coherency between short-wavelength anomalies for both the Japanese and Hawaiian lineation magnetic anomaly sequences suggests the existence of a regionally coherent field during this period of rapid geomagnetic reversals. Our study implies the rapid onset of the Mesozoic Dipole Low from M42 through M39 and then a subsequent gradual recovery in field strength into the Cenozoic. The new GPTS, together with the Japanese sequence, extends the magnetic reversal history from M29 back in time to M44. We identify a zone of varying, difficult-to-correlate anomalies termed the Hawaiian Disturbed Zone, which is similar to the zone of low amplitude, difficult-to-correlate anomalies in the Japanese sequence termed the Low Amplitude Zone (LAZ). We suggest that the LAZ, bounded by M39–M41 isochrons, may in fact represent the core of what is more commonly known as the JQZ crust.
  • Article
    Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-07-19) Blackman, Donna K. ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; John, Barbara E. ; Ohara, Y. ; Miller, D. J. ; Abe, Natsue ; Abratis, M. ; Andal, E. S. ; Andreani, Muriel ; Awaji, S. ; Beard, J. S. ; Brunelli, Daniele ; Charney, A. B. ; Christie, D. M. ; Collins, John A. ; Delacour, A. G. ; Delius, H. ; Drouin, M. ; Einaudi, F. ; Escartin, Javier E. ; Frost, B. R. ; Fruh-Green, Gretchen L. ; Fryer, P. B. ; Gee, Jeffrey S. ; Grimes, C. B. ; Halfpenny, A. ; Hansen, H.-E. ; Harris, Amber C. ; Tamura, A. ; Hayman, Nicholas W. ; Hellebrand, Eric ; Hirose, T. ; Hirth, Greg ; Ishimaru, S. ; Johnson, Kevin T. M. ; Karner, G. D. ; Linek, M. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Maeda, J. ; Mason, O..U. ; McCaig, A. M. ; Michibayashi, K. ; Morris, Antony ; Nakagawa, T. ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Rosner, Martin ; Searle, Roger C. ; Suhr, G. ; Tominaga, Masako ; von der Handt, A. ; Yamasaki, T. ; Zhao, Xixi
    Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. Postdrilling research results summarized here constrain the structure and lithology of the Central Dome of this oceanic core complex. The dominantly gabbroic sequence recovered contrasts with predrilling predictions; application of the ground truth in subsequent geophysical processing has produced self-consistent models for the Central Dome. The presence of many thin interfingered petrologic units indicates that the intrusions forming the domal core were emplaced over a minimum of 100–220 kyr, and not as a single magma pulse. Isotopic and mineralogical alteration is intense in the upper 100 m but decreases in intensity with depth. Below 800 m, alteration is restricted to narrow zones surrounding faults, veins, igneous contacts, and to an interval of locally intense serpentinization in olivine-rich troctolite. Hydration of the lithosphere occurred over the complete range of temperature conditions from granulite to zeolite facies, but was predominantly in the amphibolite and greenschist range. Deformation of the sequence was remarkably localized, despite paleomagnetic indications that the dome has undergone at least 45° rotation, presumably during unroofing via detachment faulting. Both the deformation pattern and the lithology contrast with what is known from seafloor studies on the adjacent Southern Ridge of the massif. There, the detachment capping the domal core deformed a 100 m thick zone and serpentinized peridotite comprises ∼70% of recovered samples. We develop a working model of the evolution of Atlantis Massif over the past 2 Myr, outlining several stages that could explain the observed similarities and differences between the Central Dome and the Southern Ridge.
  • Article
    M-sequence geomagnetic polarity time scale (MHTC12) that steadies global spreading rates and incorporates astrochronology constraints
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-06-30) Malinverno, Alberto ; Hildebrandt, Jordan ; Tominaga, Masako ; Channell, James E. T.
    Geomagnetic polarity time scales (GPTSs) have been constructed by interpolating between dated marine magnetic anomalies assuming uniformly varying spreading rates. A strategy to obtain an optimal GPTS is to minimize spreading rate fluctuations in many ridge systems; however, this has been possible only for a few spreading centers. We describe here a Monte Carlo sampling method that overcomes this limitation and improves GPTS accuracy by incorporating information on polarity chron durations estimated from astrochronology. The sampling generates a large ensemble of GPTSs that simultaneously agree with radiometric age constraints, minimize the global variation in spreading rates, and fit polarity chron durations estimated by astrochronology. A key feature is the inclusion and propagation of data uncertainties, which weigh how each piece of information affects the resulting time scale. The average of the sampled ensemble gives a reference GPTS, and the variance of the ensemble measures the time scale uncertainty. We apply the method to construct MHTC12, an improved version of the M-sequence GPTS (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, ~160–120 Ma). This GPTS minimizes the variation in spreading rates in a global data set of magnetic lineations from the Western Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Ocean NW of Australia, and it also accounts for the duration of five polarity chrons established from astrochronology (CM0r through CM3r). This GPTS can be updated by repeating the Monte Carlo sampling with additional data that may become available in the future.
  • Article
    Deep-tow magnetic anomaly study of the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone and implications for the geomagnetic polarity reversal timescale and geomagnetic field behavior
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-07-26) Tominaga, Masako ; Sager, William W. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Lee, Sang-Mook
    The Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ) is a region of low-amplitude magnetic anomalies whose distinctive character may be related to geomagnetic field behavior. We collected deep-tow magnetic profiles in Pigafetta Basin (western Pacific) where previous deep-tow data partially covered the JQZ sequence. Our goals were to extend the survey through the JQZ, examine anomaly correlations, and refine a preliminary geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) model. We collected a series of closely spaced profiles over anomaly M34 and Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C to examine anomaly correlation in detail, one profile in between previous profiles, and two long profiles extending the survey deeper into the JQZ. Anomaly features can be readily correlated except in a region of low-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies in the middle of the survey area (“low-amplitude zone” or LAZ). The small multiprofile surveys demonstrate anomaly linearity, implying that surrounding anomalies are also linear and likely result from crustal recording of geomagnetic field changes. We constructed a GPTS model assuming that most anomalies result from polarity reversals. The polarity timescale is similar to the polarity sequences from previous studies, but its global significance is uncertain because of problems correlating anomalies in the LAZ and the ambiguous nature of the small JQZ anomalies. Overall anomaly amplitude decreases with age into the LAZ and then increases again, implying low geomagnetic field strength, perhaps related to a rapidly reversing field. Other factors that may contribute to the LAZ are interference of anomalies over narrow, crustal polarity zones and poorly understood local tectonic complexities.
  • Article
    Multi-scale magnetic mapping of serpentinite carbonation
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-11-30) Tominaga, Masako ; Beinlich, Andreas ; Lima, Eduardo A. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Hampton, Brian A. ; Weiss, Benjamin ; Harigane, Yumiko
    Peridotite carbonation represents a critical step within the long-term carbon cycle by sequestering volatile CO2 in solid carbonate. This has been proposed as one potential pathway to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas release. Most of our current understanding of reaction mechanisms is based on hand specimen and laboratory-scale analyses. Linking laboratory-scale observations to field scale processes remains challenging. Here we present the first geophysical characterization of serpentinite carbonation across scales ranging from km to sub-mm by combining aeromagnetic observations, outcrop- and thin section-scale magnetic mapping. At all scales, magnetic anomalies coherently change across reaction fronts separating assemblages indicative of incipient, intermittent, and final reaction progress. The abundance of magnetic minerals correlates with reaction progress, causing amplitude and wavelength variations in associated magnetic anomalies. This correlation represents a foundation for characterizing the extent and degree of in situ ultramafic rock carbonation in space and time.
  • Article
    Lava deposition history in ODP Hole 1256D : insights from log-based volcanostratigraphy
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-05-11) Tominaga, Masako ; Umino, Susumu
    A log-based volcanic stratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D provides a vertical cross-section view of in situ upper crust formed at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) with unprecedented resolution. This stratigraphy model comprises ten electrofacies, principally identified from formation microscanner images. In this study, we build a lava flow stratigraphy model for the extrusive section in Hole 1256D by correlating these electrofacies with observations of flow types from the modern EPR, such as sheet flows and breccias, and pillow lavas and their distribution. The resulting flow stratigraphy model for the Hole 1256D extrusive section represents the first realization of detailed in situ EPR upper oceanic crust construction processes that have been detected only indirectly from remote geophysical data. We correlated the flow stratigraphy model with surface geology observed from the southern EPR (14°S) by Shinkai 6500 dives in order to obtain the relationship between lava flow types and ridge axis-ridge slope morphology. This dive information was also used to give a spatial-time reference frame for modeling lava deposition history in Hole 1256D. In reconstructing the lava deposition history, we interpreted that the origins of the ∼100 m thick intervals with abundant pillow lavas in Hole 1256D are within the axial slope where pillow lavas were observed during the Shinkai 6500 dives and previous EPR surveys. This correlation could constrain the lava deposition history in Hole 1256D crust. Using the lateral scale of ridge axis–ridge slope topography from the Shinkai 6500 observations and assuming the paleospreading rate was constant, 50% of the extrusive rocks in Hole 1256D crust were formed within ∼2000 m of the ridge axis, whereas nearly all of the remaining extrusive section was formed within ∼3000 m of the ridge axis. These results are consistent with the upper crustal construction model previously suggested by seismic studies.
  • Article
    Velocity structure of upper ocean crust at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1256
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-10-16) Swift, Stephen A. ; Reichow, Marc ; Tikku, Anahita ; Tominaga, Masako ; Gilbert, Lisa A.
    We examine shipboard physical property measurements, wireline logs, and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) from Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D in 15 Ma ocean crust formed at superfast spreading rates to investigate lateral and vertical variations in compressional velocity. In general, velocities from all methods agree. Porosity is inversely related to velocity in both the logging and laboratory data. We infer that microfracturing during drilling is minor in the upper 1 km of basement, probably due to connected pores and, thus, low effective stress. The closure of porosity to very low values coincides with the depth below which laboratory velocities diverge from logging velocities. We infer that porosity controls velocity in layer 2, lithostatic pressure controls the thickness of seismic layer 2, and the distribution of flow types determines seismic velocity in the upper 200 m of basement. In the sheeted dikes, changes in physical properties, mineralogy, and chemistry define clusters of dikes.
  • Article
    Refining the formation and early evolution of the Eastern North American Margin : new insights from multiscale magnetic anomaly analyses
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-11-16) Greene, John A. ; Tominaga, Masako ; Miller, Nathaniel C. ; Hutchinson, Deborah R. ; Karl, Matthew R.
    To investigate the oceanic lithosphere formation and early seafloor spreading history of the North Atlantic Ocean, we examine multiscale magnetic anomaly data from the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) between 31 and 40°N. We integrate newly acquired sea surface magnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data with publicly available aeromagnetic and composite magnetic anomaly grids, satellite-derived gravity anomaly, and satellite-derived and shipboard bathymetry data. We evaluate these data sets to (1) refine magnetic anomaly correlations throughout the ENAM and assign updated ages and chron numbers to M0–M25 and eight pre-M25 anomalies; (2) identify five correlatable magnetic anomalies between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA), which may document the earliest Atlantic seafloor spreading or synrift magmatism; (3) suggest preexisting margin structure and rifting segmentation may have influenced the seafloor spreading regimes in the Atlantic Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ); (4) suggest that, if the BSMA source is oceanic crust, the BSMA may be M series magnetic anomaly M42 (~168.5 Ma); (5) examine the along and across margin variation in seafloor spreading rates and spreading center orientations from the BSMA to M25, suggesting asymmetric crustal accretion accommodated the straightening of the ridge from the bend in the ECMA to the more linear M25; and (6) observe anomalously high-amplitude magnetic anomalies near the Hudson Fan, which may be related to a short-lived propagating rift segment that could have helped accommodate the crustal alignment during the early Atlantic opening.
  • Article
    Seismic interpretation of pelagic sedimentation regimes in the 18–53 Ma eastern equatorial Pacific : basin-scale sedimentation and infilling of abyssal valleys
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-03-10) Tominaga, Masako ; Lyle, Mitchell ; Mitchell, Neil C.
    Understanding how pelagic sediment has been eroded, transported, and deposited is critical to evaluating pelagic sediment records for paleoceanography. We use digital seismic reflection data from an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program site survey (AMAT03) to investigate pelagic sedimentation across the eastern-central equatorial Pacific, which represents the first comprehensive record published covering the 18–53 Ma eastern equatorial Pacific. Our goals are to quantify (1) basin-hill-scale primary deposition regimes and (2) the extent to which seafloor topography has been subdued by abyssal valley-filling sediments. The eastern Pacific seafloor consists of a series of abyssal hills and basins, with minor late stage faulting in the basement. Ocean crust rarely outcrops at the seafloor away from the rise crest; both hills and basins are sediment covered. The carbonate compensation depth is identified at 4440 m by the appearance of acoustically transparent clay intervals in the seismic data. Overall, we recognized three different sedimentation regimes: depositional (high sedimentation rate), transitional, and minimal sedimentation (low sedimentation rate) regimes. In all areas, the sedimented seafloor mimics the underlying basement topography, although the degree to which topography becomes subdued varies. Depositional regimes result in symmetric sedimentation within basins and subdued topography, whereas minimal sedimentation regimes have more asymmetric distribution of sediments within topographic lows and higher seafloor relief. Regardless of sedimentation regime, enhanced sediment deposition occurs within basins. However, we observe that basin infill is rarely more than twice as thick as sediment cover over abyssal hills. If this variation is due to sediment focusing, the focusing factor in the basins, as measured by 230Th, is no more than a factor of ∼1.3 of the total vertical particulate rain.
  • Article
    Nature of the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-10-24) Tominaga, Masako ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Sager, William W.
    The nature of the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ), a region of low-amplitude oceanic magnetic anomalies, has been a long-standing debate with implications for the history and behavior of the Earth's geomagnetic field and plate tectonics. To understand the origin of the JQZ, we studied high-resolution sea surface magnetic anomalies from the Hawaiian magnetic lineations and correlated them with the Japanese magnetic lineations. The comparison shows the following: (i) excellent correlation of anomaly shapes from M29 to M42; (ii) remarkable similarity of anomaly amplitude envelope, which decreases back in time from M19 to M38, with a minimum at M41, then increases back in time from M42; and (iii) refined locations of pre-M25 lineations in the Hawaiian lineation set. Based on these correlations, our study presents evidence of regionally and possibly globally coherent pre-M29 magnetic anomalies in the JQZ and a robust extension of Hawaiian isochrons back to M42 in the Pacific crust.
  • Article
    Along-margin variations in breakup volcanism at the Eastern North American Margin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-11-16) Greene, John A. ; Tominaga, Masako ; Miller, Nathaniel C.
    We model the magnetic signature of rift‐related volcanism to understand the distribution and volume of magmatic activity that occurred during the breakup of Pangaea and early Atlantic opening at the Eastern North American Margin (ENAM). Along‐strike variations in the amplitude and character of the prominent East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) suggest that the emplacement of the volcanic layers producing this anomaly similarly varied along the margin. We use three‐dimensional magnetic forward modeling constrained by seismic interpretations to identify along‐margin variations in volcanic thickness and width that can explain the observed amplitude and character of the ECMA. Our model results suggest that the ECMA is produced by a combination of both first‐order (~600–1,000 km) and second‐order (~50–100 km) magmatic segmentation. The first‐order magmatic segmentation could have resulted from preexisting variations in crustal thickness and rheology developed during the tectonic amalgamation of Pangaea. The second‐order magmatic segmentation developed during continental breakup and likely influenced the segmentation and transform fault spacing of the initial, and modern, Mid‐Atlantic Ridge. These variations in magmatism show how extension and thermal weakening was distributed at the ENAM during continental breakup and how this breakup magmatism was related to both previous and subsequent Wilson cycle stages.
  • Article
    High‐resolution magnetic‐geochemical mapping of the serpentinized and carbonated Atlin ophiolite, British Columbia: toward establishing magnetometry as a monitoring tool for in situ mineral carbonation
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-10) Tominaga, Masako ; Beinlich, Andreas ; Lima, Eduardo A. ; Pruett, Paiden ; Vento, Noah R. ; Weiss, Benjamin P.
    We address in situ serpentinization and mineral carbonation processes in oceanic lithosphere using integrated field magnetic measurements, rock magnetic analyses, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy, microtextural observations, and energy dispersive spectroscopy phase mapping. A representative suite of ultramafic rock samples were collected, within the Atlin ophiolite, along a 100‐m long transect across a continuous outcrop of mantle harzburgite with several alteration fronts: serpentinite, soapstone (magnesite + talc), and listvenite (magnesite + quartz). Strong correlations between changes in magnetic signal strengths and amount of alteration are shown with distinctive contrasts between serpentinite, transitional soapstone, and listvenite that are linked to the formation and breakdown of magnetite. While previous observations of the Linnajavri ultramafic complex indicated that the breakdown of magnetite occurred during listvenite formation from the precursor soapstone (Tominaga et al., 2017,, results from our study suggest that magnetite destabilization already occurred during the replacement of serpentinite by soapstone (i.e., at lower fluid CO2 concentrations). This difference is attributed to fracture‐controlled flow of sulfur‐bearing alteration fluid at Atlin, causing reductive magnetite dissolution in thin soapstone zones separating serpentinite from sulfide‐mineralized listvenite. We argue that magnetite growth or breakdown in soapstone provides insight into the mode of fluid flow and the composition, which control the scale and extent of carbonation. This conclusion enables us to use magnetometry as a viable tool for monitoring the reaction progress from serpentinite to carbonate‐bearing assemblages in space and time with a caution that the three‐dimensionality of magnetic sources impacts the scalability of measurements.
  • Article
    Fluid sources and overpressures within the central Cascadia Subduction Zone revealed by a warm, high-flux seafloor seep
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2023-01-25) Philip, Brendan T. ; Solomon, Evan A. ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Tréhu, Anne M. ; Whorley, Theresa L. ; Roland, Emily ; Tominaga, Masako ; Collier, Robert W.
    Pythia's Oasis is a newly discovered seafloor seep on the Central Oregon segment of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, where focused venting emits highly altered fluids ~9°C above the background temperature. The seep fluid chemistry is unique for Cascadia and includes extreme enrichment of boron and lithium and depletion of chloride, potassium, and magnesium. We conclude that the fluids are sourced from pore water compaction and mineral dehydration reactions with minimum source temperatures of 150° to 250°C, placing the source at or near the plate boundary offshore Central Oregon. Estimated fluid flow rates of 10 to 30 cm s are orders of magnitude higher than those estimated elsewhere along the margin and are likely driven by extreme overpressures along the plate boundary. Probable draining of the overpressured reservoir along the vertical Alvin Canyon Fault indicates the important role that such faults may play in the regulation of pore fluid pressure throughout the forearc in Central Cascadia.