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ArticleAutomated simultaneous analysis phylogenetics (ASAP) : an enabling tool for phlyogenomics(BioMed Central, 2008-02-19) Sarkar, Indra Neil ; Egan, Mary G. ; Coruzzi, Gloria ; Lee, Ernest K. ; DeSalle, RobThe availability of sequences from whole genomes to reconstruct the tree of life has the potential to enable the development of phylogenomic hypotheses in ways that have not been before possible. A significant bottleneck in the analysis of genomic-scale views of the tree of life is the time required for manual curation of genomic data into multi-gene phylogenetic matrices. To keep pace with the exponentially growing volume of molecular data in the genomic era, we have developed an automated technique, ASAP (Automated Simultaneous Analysis Phylogenetics), to assemble these multigene/multi species matrices and to evaluate the significance of individual genes within the context of a given phylogenetic hypothesis. Applications of ASAP may enable scientists to re-evaluate species relationships and to develop new phylogenomic hypotheses based on genome-scale data.
ArticleCharacter-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species and populations in Odonata(Royal Society, 2007-11-08) Rach, J. ; DeSalle, Rob ; Sarkar, Indra Neil ; Schierwater, B. ; Hadrys, H.DNA barcoding has become a promising means for identifying organisms of all life stages. Currently, phenetic approaches and tree-building methods have been used to define species boundaries and discover 'cryptic species'. However, a universal threshold of genetic distance values to distinguish taxonomic groups cannot be determined. As an alternative, DNA barcoding approaches can be 'character based', whereby species are identified through the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide substitutions (character states) within a DNA sequence. We demonstrate the potential of character-based DNA barcodes by analysing 833 odonate specimens from 103 localities belonging to 64 species. A total of 54 species and 22 genera could be discriminated reliably through unique combinations of character states within only one mitochondrial gene region (NADH dehydrogenase 1). Character-based DNA barcodes were further successfully established at a population level discriminating seven population-specific entities out of a total of 19 populations belonging to three species. Thus, for the first time, DNA barcodes have been found to identify entities below the species level that may constitute separate conservation units or even species units. Our findings suggest that character-based DNA barcoding can be a rapid and reliable means for (i) the assignment of unknown specimens to a taxonomic group, (ii) the exploration of diagnosability of conservation units, and (iii) complementing taxonomic identification systems.
PreprintCAOS software for use in character-based DNA barcoding( 2008-04) Sarkar, Indra Neil ; Planet, Paul J. ; DeSalle, RobThe success of character based DNA barcoding depends on the efficient identification of diagnostic character states from molecular sequences that have been organized hierarchically (e.g., according to phylogenetic methods). Similarly, the reliability of these identified diagnostic character states must be assessed according to their ability to diagnose new sequences. Here, a set of software tools is presented that implement the previously described Characteristic Attribute Organization System for both diagnostic identification and diagnostic-based classification. The software is publicly available from http://sarkarlab.mbl.edu/CAOS.