Li Songhai

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  • Article
    Numerical-modeling-based investigation of sound transmission and reception in the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-07-12) Song, Zhongchang ; Zhang, Jinhu ; Ou, Wenzhan ; Zhang, Chuang ; Dong, Lijun ; Dong, Jianchen ; Li, Songhai ; Zhang, Yu
    The sound-transmission, beam-formation, and sound-reception processes of a short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) were investigated using computed tomography (CT) scanning and numerical simulation. The results showed that sound propagations in the forehead were modulated by the upper jaw, air components, and soft tissues, which attributed to the beam formation in the external acoustic field. These structures owned different acoustic impedance and formed a multiphasic sound transmission system that can modulate sounds into a beam. The reception pathways composed of the solid mandible and acoustic fats in the lower head conducted sounds into the tympano-periotic complex. In the simulations, sounds were emitted in the forehead transmission system and propagated into water to interrogate a steel cylinder. The resulting echoes can be interpreted from multiple perspectives, including amplitude, waveform, and spectrum, to obtain the acoustic cues of the steel cylinder. By taking the short-finned pilot whale as an example, this study provides meaningful information to further deepen our understanding of biosonar system operations, and may expand sound-reception theory in odontocetes.
  • Article
    Acoustic recordings of rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) offshore Eastern Sicily (Mediterranean Sea)
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-25) Caruso, Francesco ; Sciacca, Virginia ; Parisi, Ignazio ; Viola, Salvatore ; de Vincenzi, Giovanni ; Bocconcelli, Alessandro ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Sayigh, Laela S. ; Li, Songhai ; Filiciotto, Francesco ; Moulins, Aurelie ; Tepsich, Paola ; Rosso, Massimiliano
    ough-toothed dolphin's abundance and distribution is largely unknown worldwide and evaluation of its conservation status in the Mediterranean Sea is necessary. A rough-toothed dolphin was sighted offshore Eastern Sicily (Mediterranean Sea) in July 2017 and acoustic data were acquired in the same area of Watkins, Tyack, Moore, and Notarbartolo di Sciara [(1987). Mar. Mamm. Sci. 3, 78–82]. An automatic detection algorithm was developed to identify the echolocation clicks recorded within both datasets and a recurrent inter-click interval value was identified during the new encounter. Distinctive whistle classes were also identified with similar contour shapes within both datasets.
  • Preprint
    Auditory temporal resolution and evoked responses to pulsed sounds for the Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)
    ( 2011-08-09) Mooney, T. Aran ; Li, Songhai ; Ketten, Darlene R. ; Wang, Kexiong ; Wang, Ding
    Temporal cues are important for some forms of auditory processing, such as echolocation. Among odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins, and porpoises), it has been suggested that porpoises may have temporal processing abilities which differ from other odontocetes because of their relatively narrow auditory filters and longer duration echolocation signals. This study examined auditory temporal resolution in two Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to measure: (i) rate following responses and modulation rate transfer function for 100 kHz centered pulse sounds and (ii) hearing thresholds and response amplitudes generated by individual pulses of different durations. The animals followed pulses well at modulation rates up to 1250 Hz, after which response amplitudes declined until extinguished beyond 2500 Hz. The subjects had significantly better hearing thresholds for longer, narrower-band pulses similar to porpoise echolocation signals compared to brief, broadband sounds resembling dolphin clicks. Results indicate that the Yangtze finless porpoise follows individual acoustic signals at rates similar to other odontocetes tested. Relatively good sensitivity for longer duration, narrow-band signals suggests that finless porpoise hearing is well-suited to detect their unique echolocation signals.
  • Article
    Hearing pathways in the Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis
    (Company of Biologists, 2013-10-18) Mooney, T. Aran ; Li, Songhai ; Ketten, Darlene R. ; Wang, Kexiong ; Wang, Ding
    How an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While ‘jaw hearing’ is well supported for odontocetes, work examining how sound is received across the head has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests variation in sound reception. Here, we address how a divergent subspecies, the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) hears low-, mid- and high-frequency tones, as well as broadband clicks, comparing sounds presented at different locations across the head. Hearing was measured using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Click and tone stimuli (8, 54 and 120 kHz) were presented at nine locations on the head and body using a suction-cup transducer. Threshold differences were compared between frequencies and locations, and referenced to the underlying anatomy using computed tomography (CT) imaging of deceased animals of the same subspecies. The best hearing locations with minimum thresholds were found adjacent to a mandibular fat pad and overlaying the auditory bulla. Mean thresholds were not substantially different at locations from the rostrum tip to the ear (11.6 dB). This contrasts with tests with bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales, in which 30–40 dB threshold differences were found across the animals' heads. Response latencies increased with decreasing response amplitudes, which suggests that latency and sensitivity are interrelated when considering sound reception across the odontocete head. The results suggest that there are differences among odontocetes in the anatomy related to receiving sound, and porpoises may have relatively less acoustic ‘shadowing’.
  • Article
    Diel differences in blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) dive behavior increase nighttime risk of ship strikes in northern Chilean Patagonia
    (Wiley, 2020-11-09) Caruso, Francesco ; Hickmott, Leigh S. ; Warren, Joseph D. ; Segre, Paolo ; Chiang, Gustavo ; Bahamonde, Paulina A. ; Español-Jiménez, Sonia ; Li, Songhai ; Bocconcelli, Alessandro
    The northern Chilean Patagonia region is a key feeding ground and a nursing habitat in the southern hemisphere for blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus). From 2014 to 2019, during 6 separate research cruises, the dive behavior of 28 individual blue whales was investigated using bio‐logging tags (DTAGs), generating ≈190 h of data. Whales dove to significantly greater depths during the day compared to nighttime (day: 32.6 ± 18.7 m; night: 6.2 ± 2.7 m; P < 0.01). During the night, most time was spent close to the surface (86% ± 9.4%; P < 0.01) and at depths of less than 12 m. From 2016 to 2019, active acoustics (scientific echosounders) were used to record prey (euphausiids) density and distribution simultaneously with whale diving data. Tagged whales appeared to perform dives relative to the vertical migration of prey during the day. The association between diurnal prey migration and shallow nighttime dive behavior suggests that blue whales are at increased risk of ship collisions during periods of darkness since the estimated maximum ship draft of vessels operating in the region is also ≈12 m. In recent decades, northern Chilean Patagonia has seen a large increase in marine traffic due to a boom in salmon aquaculture and the passenger ship industry. Vessel strike risks for large whales are likely underestimated in this region. Results reported in this study may be valuable for policy and mitigation decisions regarding conservation of the endangered blue whale.
  • Article
    Sounding the call for a global library of underwater biological sounds
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-02-08) Parsons, Miles J. G. ; Lin, Tzu-Hao ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Erbe, Christine ; Juanes, Francis ; Lammers, Marc O. ; Li, Songhai ; Linke, Simon ; Looby, Audrey ; Nedelec, Sophie L. ; Van Opzeeland, Ilse ; Radford, Craig A. ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Sayigh, Laela S. ; Stanley, Jenni A. ; Urban, Edward ; Di Iorio, Lucia
    Aquatic environments encompass the world’s most extensive habitats, rich with sounds produced by a diversity of animals. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is an increasingly accessible remote sensing technology that uses hydrophones to listen to the underwater world and represents an unprecedented, non-invasive method to monitor underwater environments. This information can assist in the delineation of biologically important areas via detection of sound-producing species or characterization of ecosystem type and condition, inferred from the acoustic properties of the local soundscape. At a time when worldwide biodiversity is in significant decline and underwater soundscapes are being altered as a result of anthropogenic impacts, there is a need to document, quantify, and understand biotic sound sources–potentially before they disappear. A significant step toward these goals is the development of a web-based, open-access platform that provides: (1) a reference library of known and unknown biological sound sources (by integrating and expanding existing libraries around the world); (2) a data repository portal for annotated and unannotated audio recordings of single sources and of soundscapes; (3) a training platform for artificial intelligence algorithms for signal detection and classification; and (4) a citizen science-based application for public users. Although individually, these resources are often met on regional and taxa-specific scales, many are not sustained and, collectively, an enduring global database with an integrated platform has not been realized. We discuss the benefits such a program can provide, previous calls for global data-sharing and reference libraries, and the challenges that need to be overcome to bring together bio- and ecoacousticians, bioinformaticians, propagation experts, web engineers, and signal processing specialists (e.g., artificial intelligence) with the necessary support and funding to build a sustainable and scalable platform that could address the needs of all contributors and stakeholders into the future.