Pugliares Katie R.

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Katie R.

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  • Article
    Mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts, USA, 2000 to 2006
    (Inter-Research, 2010-01-25) Bogomolni, Andrea L. ; Pugliares, Katie R. ; Sharp, Sarah M. ; Patchett, Kristen ; Harry, Charles T. ; LaRocque, Jane M. ; Touhey, Kathleen M. ; Moore, Michael J.
    To understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human interaction, (3) mass-stranded with no significant findings, (4) single-stranded with no significant findings, (5) rock and/or sand ingestion, (6) predatory attack, (7) failure to thrive or dependent calf or pup, or (8) other. The cause of death for 91 animals could not be determined. For the 314 animals that could be assigned a cause of death, gross and histological pathology results and ancillary testing indicated that disease was the leading cause of mortality in the region, affecting 116/314 (37%) of cases. Human interaction, including harassment, entanglement, and vessel collision, fatally affected 31/314 (10%) of all animals. Human interaction accounted for 13/29 (45%) of all determined gray seal Halichoerus grypus mortalities. Mass strandings were most likely to occur in northeastern Cape Cod Bay; 97/106 (92%) of mass stranded animals necropsied presented with no significant pathological findings. Mass strandings were the leading cause of death in 3 of the 4 small cetacean species: 46/67 (69%) of Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, 15/21 (71%) of long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, and 33/54 (61%) of short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. These baseline data are critical for understanding marine mammal population health and mortality trends, which in turn have significant conservation and management implications. They not only afford a better retrospective analysis of strandings, but ultimately have application for improving current and future response to live animal stranding.
  • Article
    Victims or vectors : a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic
    (Inter-Research, 2008-08-19) Bogomolni, Andrea L. ; Gast, Rebecca J. ; Ellis, Julie C. ; Dennett, Mark R. ; Pugliares, Katie R. ; Lentell, Betty J. ; Moore, Michael J.
    Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1–4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5–13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health.
  • Article
    An assessment of temporal, spatial and taxonomic trends in harmful algal toxin exposure in stranded marine mammals from the US New England coast
    (Public Library of Science, 2021-01-06) Fire, Spencer E. ; Bogomolni, Andrea L. ; DiGiovanni, Robert A., Jr. ; Early, Greg A. ; Leighfield, Tod A. ; Matassa, Keith A. ; Miller, Glenn A. ; Moore, Kathleen M. T. ; Moore, Michael J. ; Niemeyer, Misty E. ; Pugliares, Katie R. ; Wang, Zhihong ; Wenzel, Frederick W.
    Despite a long-documented history of severe harmful algal blooms (HABs) in New England coastal waters, corresponding HAB-associated marine mammal mortality events in this region are far less frequent or severe relative to other regions where HABs are common. This long-term survey of the HAB toxins saxitoxin (STX) and domoic acid (DA) demonstrates significant and widespread exposure of these toxins in New England marine mammals, across multiple geographic, temporal and taxonomic groups. Overall, 19% of the 458 animals tested positive for one or more toxins, with 15% and 7% testing positive for STX and DA, respectively. 74% of the 23 different species analyzed demonstrated evidence of toxin exposure. STX was most prevalent in Maine coastal waters, most frequently detected in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), and most often detected during July and October. DA was most prevalent in animals sampled in offshore locations and in bycaught animals, and most frequently detected in mysticetes, with humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) testing positive at the highest rates. Feces and urine appeared to be the sample matrices most useful for determining the presence of toxins in an exposed animal, with feces samples having the highest concentrations of STX or DA. No relationship was found between the bloom season of toxin-producing phytoplankton and toxin detection rates, however STX was more likely to be present in July and October. No relationship between marine mammal dietary preference and frequency of toxin detection was observed. These findings are an important part of a framework for assessing future marine mammal morbidity and mortality events, as well as monitoring ecosystem health using marine mammals as sentinel organisms for predicting coastal ocean changes.
  • Technical Report
    Marine mammal necropsy : an introductory guide for stranding responders and field biologists
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-09) Pugliares, Katie R. ; Bogomolni, Andrea L. ; Touhey, Kathleen M. ; Herzig, Sarah M. ; Harry, Charles T. ; Moore, Michael J.
    This necropsy manual is designed to establish a base level of profiency in marine mammal necropsy techniques. It is written for stranding network members who do not have a formal pathobiological training and have limited knowledge of anatomy. Anatomical and pathological jargon has been kept to a minimum. This manual is divided into six sections: preliminary data, sample management, pinniped, small ceetacean, large whale (at sea and on the beach), and multiple appendices (A-H). A well-illustrated, carefully written gross necropsy report is essential to an adequate diagnostic investigation. Gross reports with significant detail and description tend to engender useful histopathological findings. A sample blank gross necropsy report and guidelines in writing a report can be found in Appendices A & B. Overall, this guide aims to lead the enquiring mind through the necessary steps to produce such reports. While this manual focuses on process and interpretation, it is important to understand that the gross necropsy is primarily about making detailed, descriptive observations without bias as to possible etiology. The necropsy should establish a list of differential diagnoses and the sampling be directed by an attempt to discriminate between them.