Jaffe Jules S.

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Jules S.

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  • Technical Report
    Synthetic aperture image holography
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1985-02) Sato, Tomamasa ; Jaffe, Jules S.
    This paper describes the underwater imaging method of "Synthetic Aperture Image Holography" which has real-time imaging capability. This method utilizes image holography and computer synthetic aperture techniques. The imaging system consists of the acoustic lens, ultrasound receiving and transmitting arrays, and the computer. The diameter of the acoustic lens is smaller than the aperture of the transmitting array. By transmitting the ultrasound from the elements of the transmitting array one by one, the phase and amplitude of the lower resolution images (image holograms), focused by the acoustic lens, are detected by the receiving array. After obtaining all of the image holograms, the final image is calculated by synthesizing all of these image holograms in the computer. The results of one-dimensional underwater experiments are shown. The conceptual design of a real-time imaging system that is based on this method is also presented.
  • Technical Report
    Underwater imaging system performance characterization
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1988-08) Jaffe, Jules S.
    The correct design of underwater camera systems for viewing underwater objects is vitally important if the performance of these underwater imaging systems is to be maximized. Towards this goal, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has developed a system of computer programs which allows the underwater lighting system designer to explore the imaging system performance that results from the manipulation of beam patterns, geometry of cameras and light sources, and changes in the environment. The computer simulation of underwater image system performance has been found to be a valuable tool for several reasons. Most importantly, the performance of underwater lighting systems cannot be easily predicted from terrestial experience because of the intense scattering of the oceanic medium. Secondly, the cost of implementing and running computer programs to simulate underwater camera light viewing is at greatly reduced expense to experimentation in the real world. Finally, the inherent flexibility in using a computer for modeling allows the user to build up a base of experience which can then be used for heuristic system design. In this report, we will consider the results of a systematic study that was performed in order to quantify and refine the performance of an underwater imaging system. The camera and lighting system of the mine neutralization system (MNS) was subject to an intensive computer study of over 500 simulations in order to characterize the existing system performance and to determine the scope of both simple and more complex changes that could be made in order to optimize the performance of the imaging system.
  • Article
    Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25) Lombard, Fabien ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Waite, Anya M. ; Vogt, Meike ; Uitz, Julia ; Stemmann, Lars ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Schulz, Jan ; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste ; Picheral, Marc ; Pearlman, Jay ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Niehoff, Barbara ; Möller, Klas O. ; Miloslavich, Patricia ; Lara-Lpez, Ana ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Lopes, Rubens M. ; Kiko, Rainer ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Jaffe, Jules S. ; Iversen, Morten H. ; Irisson, Jean-Olivier ; Fennel, Katja ; Hauss, Helena ; Guidi, Lionel ; Gorsky, Gabriel ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Gaube, Peter ; Gallager, Scott M. ; Dubelaar, George ; Cowen, Robert K. ; Carlotti, François ; Briseño-Avena, Christian ; Berline, Leo ; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J. ; Bax, Nicholas ; Batten, Sonia ; Ayata, Sakina Dorothée ; Artigas, Luis Felipe ; Appeltans, Ward
    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.