Balch William M.

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Balch
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William M.
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  • Article
    Chalk-Ex—fate of CaCO3 particles in the mixed layer : evolution of patch optical properties
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-07-18) Balch, William M. ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Bowler, Bruce C. ; Drapeau, David T.
    The fate of particles in the mixed layer is of great relevance to the global carbon cycle as well as to the propagation of light in the sea. We conducted four manipulative field experiments called “Chalk-Ex” in which known quantities of uniform, calcium carbonate particles were injected into the surface mixed layer. Since the production term for these patches was known to high precision, the experimental design allowed us to focus on terms associated with particle loss. The mass of chalk in the patches was evaluated using the well-calibrated light-scattering properties of the chalk plus measurements from a variety of optical measurements and platforms. Patches were surveyed with a temporal resolution of hours over spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Our results demonstrated exponential loss of the chalk particles with time from the patches. There was little evidence for rapid sinking of the chalk. Instead, horizontal eddy diffusion appeared to be the major factor affecting the dispersion of the chalk to concentrations below the limits of detection. There was unequivocal evidence of subduction of the chalk along isopycnals and subsequent formation of thin layers. Shear dispersion is the most likely mechanism to explain these results. Calculations of horizontal eddy diffusivity were consistent with other mixed layer patch experiments. Our results provide insight into the importance of physics in the formation of subsurface particle maxima in the sea, as well as the importance of rapid coccolith production and critical patch size for maintenance of natural coccolithophore blooms in nature.
  • Dataset
    Metabolic potential for heterotrophic utilization of a large array of organics by coccolithophores determined through experiments at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences using BioLog Eco-plates
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-10-05) Godrijan, Jelena ; Drapeau, David T. ; Balch, William M.
    This dataset includes results from an experiment determining the metabolic potential for heterotrophic utilization of a large array of organics by coccolithophores. Experiments used the BioLog Eco-plates (BioLog, Haywood, CA, U.S.A.) and were conducted at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/858513
  • Dataset
    Along track temperature, salinity, backscatter, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence, Es, Lt and Li, absorption and attenuation from R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-04-06) Balch, William M.
    Along track temperature, salinity, backscatter, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence, Es, Lt and Li, absorption and attenuation from R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/843506
  • Dataset
    FlowCAM enumeration of phytoplankton classes from samples taken during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2023-03-08) Balch, William M. ; Archer, Stephen D. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Godrijan, Jelena
    This dataset presents imaging cytometer data from water samples collected during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616. Niskin bottle samples were taken at nine stations and eight depths in the northwest Atlantic in July 2018. A Yokogawa FlowCAM imaging cytometer was used to enumerate the major microalgal classes, and the particle size distribution function was estimated. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/887787
  • Dataset
    Results from 14C-labeled uptake experiments determining uptake of specific dissolved organic compounds which showed high potential for osmotrophy
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-10-05) Godrijan, Jelena ; Drapeau, David T. ; Balch, William M.
    This dataset includes results for 14C-labeled uptake experiments determining uptake of specific dissolved organic compounds which showed high potential for osmotrophy. Experiments used the BioLog Eco-plates (BioLog, Haywood, CA, U.S.A.) and were conducted at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/858771
  • Dataset
    Coccolithophore counts from polarized microscopy birefringence measurements of samples collected in the Northwest Atlantic during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2023-03-03) Balch, William M. ; Archer, Stephen D. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Godrijan, Jelena
    This dataset presents polarized microscopy-derived concentration data for coccolithophores and detached coccoliths in samples collected from stations in the Northwest Atlantic during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018. Counts are based on image analysis of dark-field, cross-polarized views of filtered particulate matter. These counts take advantage of the birefringence property of calcium carbonate (particulate inorganic carbon) that it rotates the plane of linearly polarized incident light by 90 degrees. Incident light directed upwards, towards the microscope slide, is polarized 90 degrees with a linear polarizer. Particles are viewed from above the slide, through a second, linear polarizer filter held between the microscope stage and the camera which only accepts light that is polarized orthogonal to the lower polarizer. Calcium carbonate particles in the beam appear as bright dots of light. Image analysis software then analyzes the pattern of birefringence and enumerates only those particles with size and shape of coccolithophores or detached coccoliths. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/887863
  • Dataset
    Measurements of Chlorophyll, NO2, NO3, PO4, Silicate, NH4, PIC, POC, PON, BSi from CTD casts on R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-04-06) Balch, William M.
    Measurements of Chlorophyll, NO2, NO3, PO4, Silicate, NH4, PIC, POC, PON, BSi from CTD casts on R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/837074
  • Dataset
    Hydrography and environmental conditions measured with CTD at nine stations during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2023-03-08) Balch, William M. ; Archer, Stephen D. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Godrijan, Jelena
    Hydrography and environmental conditions were measured with CTD at nine stations during R/V Endeavor cruise EN616 in July 2018. The stations ranged from the New England Continental Shelf, New England Continental Slope, to the Sargasso Sea ocean regions. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/887800
  • Dataset
    Pleurochrysis carterae diel culture dynamics analyzed at Bigelow Laboratory from 2013 (OA Copes Coccoliths project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2019-06-11) Balch, William M. ; Fields, David
    Pleurochrysis carterae diel culture dynamics analyzed at Bigelow Laboratory from 2013 (OA Copes Coccoliths project) For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/660194
  • Dataset
    Results from 14C-labeled uptake experiments determining uptake of specific dissolved organic compounds which showed high potential for osmotrophy
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-10-05) Balch, William M.
    This dataset includes results for 14C-labeled uptake experiments determining uptake of specific dissolved organic compounds which showed high potential for osmotrophy. Experiments used the BioLog Eco-plates (BioLog, Haywood, CA, U.S.A.) and were conducted at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/858771
  • Dataset
    Light-dark calcification rates of Pleurochrysis carterae analyzed at Bigelow Laboratory in 2013 (OA Copes Coccoliths project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2019-04-18) Balch, William M. ; Fields, David
    Light-dark calcification rates of Pleurochrysis carterae analyzed at Bigelow Laboratory in 2013 (OA Copes Coccoliths project) For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/664013
  • Article
    A framework for a marine biodiversity observing network within changing continental shelf seascapes
    (The Oceanography Society, 2014-06) Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Montes, Enrique ; Balch, William M. ; Breitbart, Mya ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Johns, Elizabeth M. ; Letelier, Ricardo M. ; Lomas, Michael W. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; White, Angelicque E.
    Continental shelves and the waters overlying them support numerous industries as diverse as tourism and recreation, energy extraction, fisheries, transportation, and applications of marine bio-molecules (e.g., agribusiness, food processing, pharmaceuticals). Although these shelf ecosystems exhibit impacts of climate change and increased human use of resources (Halpern et al., 2012; IPCC, 2013, 2014; Melillo et al., 2014), there are currently no standardized metrics for assessing changes in ecological function in the coastal ocean. Here, we argue that it is possible to monitor vital signs of ecosystem function by focusing on the lowest levels of the ocean food web. Establishment of biodiversity, biomass, and primary productivity baselines and continuous evaluation of changes in biological resources in these economically and ecologically valuable regions requires an internationally coordinated monitoring effort that fully integrates natural, social, and economic sciences to jointly identify problems and design solutions. Such an ocean observing network is needed to protect the livelihoods of coastal communities in the context of the goals of the Future Earth program (Mooney et al., 2013) and of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (http://www.ipbes.net). The tools needed to initiate these assessments are available today.
  • Article
    A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version two
    (Copernicus Publications, 2019-07-15) Valente, André ; Sathyendranath, Shubha ; Brotas, Vanda ; Groom, Steven ; Grant, Michael ; Taberner, Malcolm ; Antoine, David ; Arnone, Robert ; Balch, William M. ; Barker, Kathryn ; Barlow, Ray ; Belanger, Simon ; Berthon, Jean-François ; Besiktepe, Sukru ; Borsheim, Yngve ; Bracher, Astrid ; Brando, Vittorio ; Canuti, Elisabetta ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Cianca, Andrés ; Claustre, Hervé ; Clementson, Lesley ; Crout, Richard ; Frouin, Robert ; García-Soto, Carlos ; Gibb, Stuart W. ; Gould, Richard ; Hooker, Stanford B. ; Kahru, Mati ; Kampel, Milton ; Klein, Holger ; Kratzer, Susanne ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Ledesma, Jesus ; Loisel, Hubert ; Matrai, Patricia A. ; McKee, David ; Mitchell, Brian G. ; Moisan, Tiffany ; Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; O'Dowd, Leonie ; Ondrusek, Michael ; Platt, Trevor ; Poulton, Alex J. ; Repecaud, Michel ; Schroeder, Thomas ; Smyth, Timothy ; Smythe-Wright, Denise ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Twardowski, Michael ; Vellucci, Vincenzo ; Voss, Kenneth ; Werdell, Jeremy ; Wernand, Marcel ; Wright, Simon ; Zibordi, Giuseppe
    A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients and total suspended matter. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) was propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version (Valente et al., 2016). The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.898188 (Valente et al., 2019).
  • Article
    Factors regulating the Great Calcite Belt in the Southern Ocean and its biogeochemical significance
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-08-10) Balch, William M. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Rosengard, Sarah Z. ; Bowler, Bruce C. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Garley, Rebecca ; Lubelczyk, Laura C. ; Mitchell, Catherine ; Rauschenberg, Sara
    The Great Calcite Belt (GCB) is a region of elevated surface reflectance in the Southern Ocean (SO) covering ~16% of the global ocean and is thought to result from elevated, seasonal concentrations of coccolithophores. Here we describe field observations and experiments from two cruises that crossed the GCB in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the SO. We confirm the presence of coccolithophores, their coccoliths, and associated optical scattering, located primarily in the region of the subtropical, Agulhas, and Subantarctic frontal regions. Coccolithophore-rich regions were typically associated with high-velocity frontal regions with higher seawater partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) than the atmosphere, sufficient to reverse the direction of gas exchange to a CO2 source. There was no calcium carbonate (CaCO3) enhancement of particulate organic carbon (POC) export, but there were increased POC transfer efficiencies in high-flux particulate inorganic carbon regions. Contemporaneous observations are synthesized with results of trace-metal incubation experiments, 234Th-based flux estimates, and remotely sensed observations to generate a mandala that summarizes our understanding about the factors that regulate the location of the GCB.
  • Article
    A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-06-03) Valente, André ; Sathyendranath, Shubha ; Brotas, Vanda ; Groom, Steven ; Grant, Michael ; Taberner, Malcolm ; Antoine, David ; Arnone, Robert ; Balch, William M. ; Barker, Kathryn ; Barlow, Ray ; Belanger, Simon ; Berthon, Jean-François ; Besiktepe, Sukru ; Brando, Vittorio ; Canuti, Elisabetta ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Claustre, Hervé ; Crout, Richard ; Frouin, Robert ; García-Soto, Carlos ; Gibb, Stuart W. ; Gould, Richard ; Hooker, Stanford B. ; Kahru, Mati ; Klein, Holger ; Kratzer, Susanne ; Loisel, Hubert ; McKee, David ; Mitchell, Brian G. ; Moisan, Tiffany ; Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; O'Dowd, Leonie ; Ondrusek, Michael ; Poulton, Alex J. ; Repecaud, Michel ; Smyth, Timothy ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Twardowski, Michael ; Voss, Kenneth ; Werdell, Jeremy ; Wernand, Marcel ; Zibordi, Giuseppe
    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).
  • Article
    Ocean acidification : a critical emerging problem for the ocean sciences
    (Oceanography Society, 2009-12) Doney, Scott C. ; Balch, William M. ; Fabry, Victoria J. ; Feely, Richard A.
    Over a period of less than a decade, ocean acidification—the change in seawater chemistry due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and subsequent impacts on marine life—has become one of the most critical and pressing issues facing the ocean research community and marine resource managers alike. The objective of this special issue of Oceanography is to provide an overview of the current scientific understanding of ocean acidification as well as to indicate the substantial gaps in our present knowledge. Papers in the special issue discuss the past, current, and future trends in seawater chemistry; highlight potential vulnerabilities to marine species, ecosystems, and marine resources to elevated CO2; and outline a roadmap toward future research directions. In this introductory article, we present a brief introduction on ocean acidification and some historical context for how it emerged so quickly and recently as a key research topic.
  • Article
    Carbon export and transfer to depth across the Southern Ocean Great Calcite Belt
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-07-02) Rosengard, Sarah Z. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Balch, William M. ; Auro, Maureen E. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Bowler, Bruce C.
    Sequestration of carbon by the marine biological pump depends on the processes that alter, remineralize, and preserve particulate organic carbon (POC) during transit to the deep ocean. Here, we present data collected from the Great Calcite Belt, a calcite-rich band across the Southern Ocean surface, to compare the transformation of POC in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the water column. The 234Th-derived export fluxes and size-fractionated concentrations of POC, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and biogenic silica (BSi) were measured from the upper 1000 m of 27 stations across the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Great Calcite Belt. POC export out of the euphotic zone was correlated with BSi export. PIC export was not, but did correlate positively with POC flux transfer efficiency. Moreover, regions of high BSi concentrations, which corresponded to regions with proportionally larger particles, exhibited higher attenuation of > 51 μm POC concentrations in the mesopelagic zone. The interplay among POC size partitioning, mineral composition, and POC attenuation suggests a more fundamental driver of POC transfer through both depth regimes in the Great Calcite Belt. In particular, we argue that diatom-rich communities produce large and labile POC aggregates, which not only generate high export fluxes but also drive more remineralization in the mesopelagic zone. We observe the opposite in communities with smaller calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores. We hypothesize that these differences are influenced by inherent differences in the lability of POC exported by different phytoplankton communities.
  • Dataset
    Coccolithophore survival in darkness from batch growth experiments (Cocco-Mix project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2022-02-22) Godrijan, Jelena ; Balch, William M.
    Results for batch growth experiments that lasted for 30 days on two species, Cruciplacolithus neohelis (McIntyre & Bé) Reinhardt strain CCMP298 and Chrysotila carterae (Braarud & Fagerland) Andersen, Kim, Tittley & Yoon (NCMA lists the strain as Pleurochrysis carterae) strain CCMP3337, grown in darkness with the addition of acetate, mannitol, and glycerol in final concentrations of 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 µmol l−1. We performed these experiments to determine whether coccolithophores (CCMP298 and CCMP3337) can sustain themselves in darkness by using organic compounds as energy and/or carbon sources. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/868696
  • Dataset
    Results for radiolabeled acetate, mannitol, and glycerol kinetic uptake and pulse-chase experiments for the species Cruciplacolithus neohelis and Chrysotila carterae (Cocco-Mix project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2022-04-01) Godrijan, Jelena ; Drapeau, David T. ; Balch, William M.
    Results for radiolabeled acetate, mannitol, and glycerol kinetic uptake and pulse-chase experiments for the species Cruciplacolithus neohelis (McIntyre & Bé) Reinhardt strain CCMP298 and Chrysotila carterae (Braarud & Fagerland) Andersen, Kim, Tittley & Yoon (NCMA lists the strain as Pleurochrysis carterae) strain CCMP3337. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/870815
  • Dataset
    Cruise track position data from cruises MV1101 and RR1202 (Great Calcite Belt project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2019-11-20) Balch, William M.
    Cruise track position data from cruises MV1101 and RR1202. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/473241