Staudinger Michelle D.

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Michelle D.

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Article
    Defensive responses of cuttlefish to different teleost predators
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 2013-12-01) Staudinger, Michelle D. ; Buresch, Kendra C. ; Mathger, Lydia M. ; Fry, Charlie ; McAnulty, Sarah ; Ulmer, Kimberly M. ; Hanlon, Roger T.
    We evaluated cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) responses to three teleost predators: bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), and black seabass (Centropristis striata). We hypothesized that the distinct body shapes, swimming behaviors, and predation tactics exhibited by the three fishes would elicit markedly different antipredator responses by cuttlefish. Over the course of 25 predator-prey behavioral trials, 3 primary and 15 secondary defense behaviors of cuttlefish were shown to predators. In contrast, secondary defenses were not shown during control trials in which predators were absent. With seabass—a benthic, sit-and-pursue predator—cuttlefish used flight and spent more time swimming in the water column than with other predators. With bluefish—an active, pelagic searching predator—cuttlefish remained closely associated with the substrate and relied more on cryptic behaviors. Startle (deimatic) displays were the most frequent secondary defense shown to seabass and bluefish, particularly the Dark eye ring and Deimatic spot displays. We were unable to evaluate secondary defenses by cuttlefish to flounder—a lie-and-wait predator—because flounder did not pursue cuttlefish or make attacks. Nonetheless, cuttlefish used primary defense during flounder trials, alternating between cryptic still and moving behaviors. Overall, our results suggest that cuttlefish may vary their behavior in the presence of different teleost predators: cryptic behaviors may be more important in the presence of active searching predators (e.g., bluefish), while conspicuous movements such as swimming in the water column and startle displays may be more prevalent with relatively sedentary, bottom-associated predators (e.g., seabass).
  • Preprint
    Primary and secondary defences of squid to cruising and ambush fish predators : variable tactics and their survival value
    ( 2010-11-19) Staudinger, Michelle D. ; Hanlon, Roger T. ; Juanes, Francis
    Longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) were exposed to two predators, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), representing cruising and ambush foraging tactics, respectively. During 35 trials, 86 predator–prey interactions were evaluated between bluefish and squid, and in 29 trials, 92 interactions were assessed between flounder and squid. With bluefish, squid predominantly used stay tactics (68.6%, 59/86) as initial responses. The most common stay response was to drop to the bottom, while showing a disruptive body pattern, and remain motionless. In 37.0% (34/92) of interactions with flounder, squid did not detect predators camouflaging on the bottom and showed no reaction prior to being attacked. Squid that did react, used flee tactics more often as initial responses (43.5%, 40/92), including flight with or without inking. When all defence behaviours were considered concurrently, flight was identified as the strongest predictor of squid survival during interactions with each predator. Squid that used flight at any time during an attack sequence had high probabilities of survival with bluefish (65%, 20/31) and flounder (51%, 18/35). The most important deimatic/protean behaviour used by squid was inking. Inking caused bluefish to startle (deimatic) and abandon attacks (probability of survival = 61%, 11/18) and caused flounder to misdirect (protean) attacks towards ink plumes rather than towards squid (probability of survival = 56%, 14/25). These are the first published laboratory experiments to evaluate the survival value of antipredator behaviours in a cephalopod. Results demonstrate that squid vary their defence tactics in response to different predators and that the effectiveness of antipredator behaviours is contingent upon the behavioural characteristics of the predator encountered.
  • Article
    It's about time: a synthesis of changing phenology in the Gulf of Maine ecosystem
    (Wiley, 2019-04-22) Staudinger, Michelle D. ; Mills, Katherine E. ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Record, Nicholas R. ; Hudak, Christine A. ; Allyn, Andrew ; Diamond, Antony ; Friedland, Kevin D. ; Golet, Walt ; Henderson, Meghan Elisabeth ; Hernandez, Christina M. ; Huntington, Thomas G. ; Ji, Rubao ; Johnson, Catherine L. ; Johnson, David Samuel ; Jordaan, Adrian ; Kocik, John ; Li, Yun ; Liebman, Matthew ; Nichols, Owen C. ; Pendleton, Daniel ; Richards, R. Anne ; Robben, Thomas ; Thomas, Andrew C. ; Walsh, Harvey J. ; Yakola, Keenan
    The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological‐human systems; and (d) potential phenology‐focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing, observed in spring onset, spring and winter hydrology, zooplankton abundance, occurrence of several larval fishes, and diadromous fish migrations. Later timing was documented for fall onset, reproduction and fledging in Atlantic puffins, spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, and occurrence of additional larval fishes. Changes in event duration generally increased and were detected in zooplankton peak abundance, early life history periods of macro‐invertebrates, and lobster fishery landings. Reduced duration was observed in winter–spring ice‐affected stream flows. Two studies projected phenological changes, both finding diapause duration would decrease in zooplankton under future climate scenarios. Phenological responses were species‐specific and varied depending on the environmental driver, spatial, and temporal scales evaluated. Overall, a wide range of baseline phenology and relevant modeling studies exist, yet surprisingly few document long‐term shifts. Results reveal a need for increased emphasis on phenological shifts in the Gulf of Maine and identify opportunities for future research and consideration of phenological changes in adaptation efforts.
  • Article
    The role of sand lances (Ammodytes sp.) in the Northwest Atlantic ecosystem: a synthesis of current knowledge with implications for conservation and management
    (Wiley, 2020-03-20) Staudinger, Michelle D. ; Goyert, Holly ; Suca, Justin J. ; Coleman, Kaycee ; Welch, Linda ; Llopiz, Joel K. ; Wiley, David N. ; Altman, Irit ; Applegate, Andew ; Auster, Peter J. ; Baumann, Hannes ; Beaty, Julia ; Boelke, Deirdre ; Kaufman, Les ; Loring, Pam ; Moxley, Jerry ; Paton, Suzanne ; Powers, Kevin D. ; Richardson, David E. ; Robbins, Jooke ; Runge, Jeffrey A. ; Smith, Brian ; Spiegel, Caleb ; Steinmetz, Halley
    The American sand lance (Ammodytes americanus, Ammodytidae) and the Northern sand lance (A. dubius, Ammodytidae) are small forage fishes that play an important functional role in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA). The NWA is a highly dynamic ecosystem currently facing increased risks from climate change, fishing and energy development. We need a better understanding of the biology, population dynamics and ecosystem role of Ammodytes to inform relevant management, climate adaptation and conservation efforts. To meet this need, we synthesized available data on the (a) life history, behaviour and distribution; (b) trophic ecology; (c) threats and vulnerabilities; and (d) ecosystem services role of Ammodytes in the NWA. Overall, 72 regional predators including 45 species of fishes, two squids, 16 seabirds and nine marine mammals were found to consume Ammodytes. Priority research needs identified during this effort include basic information on the patterns and drivers in abundance and distribution of Ammodytes, improved assessments of reproductive biology schedules and investigations of regional sensitivity and resilience to climate change, fishing and habitat disturbance. Food web studies are also needed to evaluate trophic linkages and to assess the consequences of inconsistent zooplankton prey and predator fields on energy flow within the NWA ecosystem. Synthesis results represent the first comprehensive assessment of Ammodytes in the NWA and are intended to inform new research and support regional ecosystem‐based management approaches.