Aksenov Yevgeny

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  • Article
    Recent advances in Arctic ocean studies employing models from the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-09) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Kinney, Jaclyn Clement ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; Golubeva, Elena ; Holland, David ; Holloway, Greg ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Johnson, Mark ; Popova, Ekaterina E. ; Steele, Michael ; Watanabe, Eiji
    Observational data show that the Arctic Ocean has significantly and rapidly changed over the last few decades, which is unprecedented in the observational record. Air and water temperatures have increased, sea ice volume and extent have decreased, permafrost has thawed, storminess has increased, sea level has risen, coastal erosion has progressed, and biological processes have become more complex and diverse. In addition, there are socio-economic impacts of Arctic environmental change on Arctic residents and the world, associated with tourism, oil and gas exploration, navigation, military operations, trade, and industry. This paper discusses important results of the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project, which is advancing the role of numerical modeling in Arctic Ocean and sea ice research by stimulating national and international synergies for high-latitude research.
  • Article
    Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: physical oceanography
    (University of California Press, 2022-02-07) Rabe, Benjamin ; Heuzé, Céline ; Regnery, Julia ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Allerholt, Jacob ; Athanase, Marylou ; Bai, Youcheng ; Basque, Chris R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Baumann, Till M. ; Chen, Dake ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Craw, Lisa ; Davies, Andrew ; Damm, Ellen ; Dethloff, Klaus ; Divine, Dmitry V. ; Doglioni, Francesca ; Ebert, Falk ; Fang, Ying-Chih ; Fer, Ilker ; Fong, Allison A. ; Gradinger, Rolf ; Granskog, Mats A. ; Graupner, Rainer ; Haas, Christian ; He, Hailun ; Hoppmann, Mario ; Janout, Markus A. ; Kadko, David ; Kanzow, Torsten C. ; Karam, Salar ; Kawaguchi, Yusuke ; Koenig, Zoe ; Kong, Bin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Krumpen, Thomas ; Kuhlmey, David ; Kuznetsov, Ivan ; Lan, Musheng ; Laukert, Georgi ; Lei, Ruibo ; Li, Tao ; Torres-Valdes, Sinhue ; Lin, Lina ; Lin, Long ; Liu, Hailong ; Liu, Na ; Loose, Brice ; Ma, Xiaobing ; McKay, Rosalie ; Mallet, Maria ; Mallett, Robbie ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Mertens, Christian ; Mohrholz, Volker ; Muilwijk, Morven ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; O’Brien, Jeffrey K. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Ren, Jian ; Rex, Markus ; Ribeiro, Natalia ; Rinke, Annette ; Schaffer, Janin ; Schuffenhauer, Ingo ; Schulz, Kirstin ; Shupe, Matthew ; Shaw, William J. ; Sokolov, Vladimir T. ; Sommerfeld, Anja ; Spreen, Gunnar ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Stephens, Mark ; Su, Jie ; Sukhikh, Natalia ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Thomisch, Karolin ; Tippenhauer, Sandra ; Toole, John M. ; Vredenborg, Myriel ; Walter, Maren ; Wang, Hangzhou ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, Yuntao ; Wendisch, Manfred ; Zhao, Jinping ; Zhou, Meng ; Zhu, Jialiang
    Arctic Ocean properties and processes are highly relevant to the regional and global coupled climate system, yet still scarcely observed, especially in winter. Team OCEAN conducted a full year of physical oceanography observations as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), a drift with the Arctic sea ice from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the program to characterize the Arctic Ocean system in unprecedented detail, from the seafloor to the air-sea ice-ocean interface, from sub-mesoscales to pan-Arctic. The oceanographic measurements were coordinated with the other teams to explore the ocean physics and linkages to the climate and ecosystem. This paper introduces the major components of the physical oceanography program and complements the other team overviews of the MOSAiC observational program. Team OCEAN’s sampling strategy was designed around hydrographic ship-, ice- and autonomous platform-based measurements to improve the understanding of regional circulation and mixing processes. Measurements were carried out both routinely, with a regular schedule, and in response to storms or opening leads. Here we present along-drift time series of hydrographic properties, allowing insights into the seasonal and regional evolution of the water column from winter in the Laptev Sea to early summer in Fram Strait: freshening of the surface, deepening of the mixed layer, increase in temperature and salinity of the Atlantic Water. We also highlight the presence of Canada Basin deep water intrusions and a surface meltwater layer in leads. MOSAiC most likely was the most comprehensive program ever conducted over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. While data analysis and interpretation are ongoing, the acquired datasets will support a wide range of physical oceanography and multi-disciplinary research. They will provide a significant foundation for assessing and advancing modeling capabilities in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-03-15) Johnson, Mark ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Nguyen, An T. ; Lindsay, Ron ; Haas, Christian ; Zhang, Jinlun ; Diansky, Nikolay ; Kwok, Ron ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Hakkinen, Sirpa M. A. ; Ashik, Igor M. ; de Cuevas, Beverly
    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004–2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001–2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992–2008) and from submarines (1975–2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982–1986) and coastal stations (1998–2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than ∼2 m and underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about ∼2 m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25–30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.
  • Article
    On the origin of water masses in the Beaufort Gyre
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-06-26) Kelly, Stephen ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Popova, Ekaterina E. ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Yool, Andrew
    The Beaufort Gyre is a key feature of the Arctic Ocean, acting as a reservoir for freshwater in the region. Depending on whether the prevailing atmospheric circulation in the Arctic is anticyclonic or cyclonic, either a net accumulation or release of freshwater occurs. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean are well established and include contributions from the North American and Eurasian Rivers, the Bering Strait Pacific water inflow, sea ice meltwater, and precipitation, but their contribution to the Beaufort Gyre freshwater accumulation varies with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Here we use a Lagrangian backward tracking technique in conjunction with the 1/12‐degree resolution Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean model to investigate how sources of freshwater to the Beaufort Gyre have changed in recent decades, focusing on increase in the Pacific water content in the gyre between the late 1980s and early 2000s. Using empirical orthogonal functions we analyze the change in the Arctic oceanic circulation that occurred between the 1980s and 2000s. We highlight a “waiting room” advective pathway that was present in the 1980s and provide evidence that this pathway was caused by a shift in the center of Ekman transport convergence in the Arctic. We discuss the role of these changes as a contributing factor to changes in the stratification, and hence potentially the biology, of the Beaufort Gyre region.
  • Article
    Arctic pathways of Pacific Water : Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-08) Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Karcher, Michael ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; de Cuevas, Beverly ; Golubeva, Elena ; Kauker, Frank ; Nguyen, An T. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Wadley, Martin ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Coward, Andrew C. ; Nurser, A. J. George
    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.
  • Article
    SEASTAR: A mission to study ocean submesoscale dynamics and small-scale atmosphere-ocean processes in coastal, shelf and polar seas
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-13) Gommenginger, Christine ; Chapron, Bertrand ; Hogg, Andy ; Buckingham, Christian ; Fox-Kemper, Baylor ; Eriksson, Leif ; Soulat, Francois ; Ubelmann, Clement ; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco ; Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno ; Griffin, David ; Lopez-Dekker, Paco ; Knudsen, Per ; Andersen, Ole ; Stenseng, Lars ; Stapleton, Neil ; Perrie, Will ; Violante-Carvalho, Nelson ; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes ; Woolf, David K. ; Isern-Fontanet, Jordi ; Ardhuin, Fabrice ; Klein, Patrice ; Mouche, Alexis ; Pascual, Ananda ; Capet, Xavier ; Hauser, Daniele ; Stoffelen, Ad ; Morrow, Rosemary ; Aouf, Lotfi ; Breivik, Øyvind ; Fu, Lee-Lueng ; Johannessen, Johnny A. ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Bricheno, Lucy ; Hirschi, Joel ; Martin, Adrien C. H. ; Martin, Adrian P. ; Nurser, A. J. George ; Polton, Jeff ; Wolf, Judith ; Johnsen, Harald ; Soloviev, Alexander ; Jacobs, Gregg A. ; Collard, Fabrice ; Groom, Steve ; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir ; Wilkin, John L. ; Navarro, Victor ; Babanin, Alexander ; Martin, Matthew ; Siddorn, John ; Saulter, Andrew ; Rippeth, Tom P. ; Emery, Bill ; Maximenko, Nikolai ; Romeiser, Roland ; Graber, Hans C. ; Alvera Azcarate, Aida ; Hughes, Chris W. ; Vandemark, Douglas ; da Silva, Jose ; Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan ; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. ; Gemmrich, Johannes ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Marquez, Jose ; Munro, Yvonne ; Doody, Sam ; Burbidge, Geoff
    High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large vertical ocean velocities and mixed layer re-stratification. Small-scale processes particularly dominate in coastal, shelf and polar seas where they mediate important exchanges between land, ocean, atmosphere and the cryosphere, e.g., freshwater, pollutants. As numerical models continue to evolve toward finer spatial resolution and increasingly complex coupled atmosphere-wave-ice-ocean systems, modern observing capability lags behind, unable to deliver the high-resolution synoptic measurements of total currents, wind vectors and waves needed to advance understanding, develop better parameterizations and improve model validations, forecasts and projections. SEASTAR is a satellite mission concept that proposes to directly address this critical observational gap with synoptic two-dimensional imaging of total ocean surface current vectors and wind vectors at 1 km resolution and coincident directional wave spectra. Based on major recent advances in squinted along-track Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry, SEASTAR is an innovative, mature concept with unique demonstrated capabilities, seeking to proceed toward spaceborne implementation within Europe and beyond.