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Technical ReportA comparison of buoy meteorological systems(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-12) Payne, Richard E. ; Huang, Kelan ; Weller, Robert A. ; Freitag, H. P. ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Meinig, Christian ; Kuroda, Yoshifumi ; Ushijima, Norifumi ; Reynolds, R. MichaelDuring May and June 2000, an intercomparison was made of buoy meteorological systems from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), and the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC). Two WHOI systems mounted on a 3 m discus buoy, two PMEL systems mounted on separate buoy tower tops and one JAMSTEC system mounted on a wooden platform were lined parallel to, and 25 m from Nantucket Sound in Massachusetts. All systems used R. M. Young propeller anemometers, Rotronic relative humidity and air temperature sensors and Eppley short-wave radiation sensors. The PMEL and WHOI systems used R. M.Young self-siphoning rain gauges, while the JAMSTEC system used a Scientific Technology ORG-115 optical rain gauge. The PMEL and WHOI systems included an Eppley PIR long-wave sensor, while the JAMSTEC had no longwave sensor. The WHOI system used an AIR DB-1A barometric pressure sensor. PMEL and JAMSTEC systems used Paroscientific Digiquartz sensors. The Geophysical Instruments and Measurements Group (GIM) from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) installed two Portable Radiation Package (PRP) systems that include Eppley short-wave and long-wave sensors on a platform near the site. It was apparent from the data that for most of the sensors, the correlation between data sets was better than the absolute agreement between them. The conclusions made were that the sensors and associated electronics from the three different laboratories performed comparably.
Technical ReportLong–term evolution and coupling of the boundary layers in the Stratus Deck Regions of the eastern Pacific (STRATUS) data report(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-08) Vallee, Charlotte ; Huang, Kelan ; Weller, Robert A.The surface mooring component of the CLIVAR Long Term Evolution and Coupling of the Boundary Layers in the Stratus Deck Regions study (STRATUS) took place from October 2000 in the eastern tropical Pacific. As part of the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC), STRATUS is a CLIVAR study with the goal of investigating links between sea surface temperature variability in the eastern tropical Pacific and climate over the American continents. This study started a three-year occupation off Chili in order to collect accurate time series of surface forcing and upper ocean variability. The Upper Ocean Processes (UOP) Group at WHOI deployed one fully instrumented surface mooring near 20°S 85°W in October 2000, at the western edge of the stratocumulus cloud deck found west of Peru and Chile, to achieve a good understanding of the role of clouds in the eastern Pacific in modulating atmosphere-ocean coupling. Data from the moorings will improve our understanding of the air-sea fluxes and be used to examine the processes that control sea surface temperature in the cold tongue/intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and in the stratus deck region. The first surface mooring (STRATUS 1) was deployed in October 2000 by the UOP group and replaced by a second mooring one year later with almost identical instrumentation (STRATUS 2). STRATUS 1 was equipped with meteorological instrumentation, including two Improved METeorological (IMET) systems. The mooring also carried Vector Measuring Current Meters (VMCMs), single point temperature, salinity and conductivity recorders, and an acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to monitor the upper 500m of the ocean. In addition to the traditional instruments, several other experimental instruments were deployed with limited success on the mooring line including an acoustic current meter, bio-optical instrumentation packages, and an acoustic rain gauge. This report describes the instrumentation deployed on the first STRATUS surface mooring (STRATUS 1 mooring) from October 2000 to October 2001, along with information on the processing and quality control of the returned data. It presents a detailed overview of the meteorological and physical oceanographic data including time series plots, statistics and spectra of key parameters. It also presents the estimated air-sea heat, moisture and momentum fluxes.
Technical ReportPan American Climate Studies (PACS) data report(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000-03) Anderson, Steven P. ; Huang, Kelan ; Brink, Nancy J. ; Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Weller, Robert A.The surface mooring component of the NOAA Pan American Climate Study (PACS) took place from April 1997 to September 1998 in the eastern tropical Pacific. PACS was a NOAA funded study with the goal of investigating links between sea surface temperature variability in the tropical oceans near the Americas and climate over the American continents. Two air-sea interaction surface moorings were deployed along 125°W, spanning a strong meridional sea-surface temperature gradient. One mooring site was located in the cold tongue south of the equator, and the other site was in the region of warm ocean found north of the equator, near the northernmost summer location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The moorings were deployed to improve our understanding of air-sea fluxes and the procsses that control the evolution of the sea surface temperature field in the region. Four air-sea interaction buoys were deployed to occupy two sites for a period of 17 months. The sites were along 125°W near 3°S and 10°N. The Upper Ocean Processes Group at WHOI deployed the first two moorings in April 1997. These moorings were replaced with a second pair of moorings in December 1997. The final recovery occurred in September 1998. Each of these buoys on these moorings were equipped with meteorological instrumentation, including a Vector Averaging Wind Recorder (VAWR) and an Improved METeorological (IMET) system. The moorings also carried Vector Measuring Current Meters (VMCMS), single point temperature recorders and a few conductivity sensors on the mooring line to monitor the upper 200m of the ocean. In addition to the traditional instruments, several other experimental instruments were deployed with limited success on the mooring line including acoustic current meters, acoustic rain gauges and bio-optical instrument packages. This report describes the instrumentation deployed on the PACS surface moorings, along with information on the processing and quality control of the returned data. It presents a detailed overview of the meteorological and physical oceanographic data including time series plots, statistics and spectra of key parameters. It also presents analysis of the estimated air-sea heat, moisture and momentum fluxes.