Linney Elwood A.
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PreprintAntioxidant responses and NRF2 in synergistic developmental toxicity of PAHs in zebrafish( 2008-12) Timme-Laragy, Alicia R. ; Van Tiem, Lindsey A. ; Linney, Elwood A. ; Di Giulio, Richard T.Early piscine life-stages are sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, which can cause pericardial effusion and craniofacial malformations. We previously reported that certain combinations of PAHs cause synergistic developmental toxicity, as observed with co-exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and cytochrome P4501A inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (ANF). Herein, we hypothesized that oxidative stress is a component of this toxicity. We examined induction of antioxidant genes in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) exposed to BNF or ANF individually, a BNF+ANF combination, and a pro-oxidant positive control, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH). We measured total glutathione, and attempted to modulate deformities using the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) and increase glutathione pools with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In addition, we used a morpholino to knockdown expression of the antioxidant response element transcription factor NRF2 to determine if this would alter gene expression or increase deformity severity. BNF+ANF co-exposure significantly increased expressions of superoxide dismutase1 and2, glutathione peroxidase 1, pi class glutathione-s-transferase, and glutamate cysteine-ligase to a greater extent than tBOOH, BNF, or ANF alone. BSO pretreatment decreased some glutathione levels, but did not worsen deformities, nor did NAC diminish toxicity. Knockdown of NRF2 increased mortality following tBOOH challenge, prevented significant upregulation of antioxidant genes following both tBOOH and BNF+ANF exposures, and exacerbated BNF+ANF‐related deformities. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that antioxidant responses are a component of PAH synergistic developmental toxicity, and that NRF2 is protective against prooxidant and PAH challenges during development.
ArticleThe transcriptional response to oxidative stress during vertebrate development : effects of tert-butylhydroquinone and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(Public Library of Science, 2014-11-17) Hahn, Mark E. ; McArthur, Andrew G. ; Karchner, Sibel I. ; Franks, Diana G. ; Jenny, Matthew J. ; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R. ; Stegeman, John J. ; Woodin, Bruce R. ; Cipriano, Michael J. ; Linney, Elwood A.Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of chemical toxicity, contributing to teratogenesis and to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Developing animals may be especially sensitive to chemicals causing oxidative stress. The developmental expression and inducibility of anti-oxidant defenses through activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) affect susceptibility to oxidants, but the embryonic response to oxidants is not well understood. To assess the response to chemically mediated oxidative stress and how it may vary during development, zebrafish embryos, eleutheroembryos, or larvae at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days post fertilization (dpf) were exposed to DMSO (0.1%), tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ; 10 µM) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 2 nM) for 6 hr. Transcript abundance was assessed by real-time qRT-PCR and microarray. qRT-PCR showed strong (4- to 5-fold) induction of gstp1 by tBHQ as early as 1 dpf. tBHQ also induced gclc (2 dpf), but not sod1, nqo1, or cyp1a. TCDD induced cyp1a but none of the other genes. Microarray analysis showed that 1477 probes were significantly different among the DMSO-, tBHQ-, and TCDD-treated eleutheroembryos at 4 dpf. There was substantial overlap between genes induced in developing zebrafish and a set of marker genes induced by oxidative stress in mammals. Genes induced by tBHQ in 4-dpf zebrafish included those involved in glutathione synthesis and utilization, signal transduction, and DNA damage/stress response. The strong induction of hsp70 determined by microarray was confirmed by qRT-PCR and by use of transgenic zebrafish expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the hsp70 promoter. Genes strongly down-regulated by tBHQ included mitfa, providing a molecular explanation for the loss of pigmentation in tBHQ-exposed embryos. These data show that zebrafish embryos are responsive to oxidative stress as early as 1 dpf, that responsiveness varies with development in a gene-specific manner, and that the oxidative stress response is substantially conserved in vertebrate animals.